Publications by authors named "Maryam Mahmoudi"

73 Publications

The effects of vitamin D3 supplementation on TGF-β and IL-17 serum levels in migraineurs: post hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial.

J Pharm Health Care Sci 2021 Mar 3;7(1). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Headache Department, Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Although the exact mechanism involved in migraine pathogenesis remained uncertain, and different researches have been developed to address the role of neuroinflammation and immune dysfunction. Therefore, considering the immune protective functions of vitamin D3, we aimed to investigate the effects of daily administration of 2000 IU D3 supplements on serum status of immune markers in migraine patients.

Methods And Materials: Eighty episodic migraineurs who randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive either vitamin D3 2000 IU/d or placebo for 12-week were enrolled in this placebo-controlled double-blind trial included. Serum concentrations of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interleukin (IL)-17 were evaluated at baseline and after the trial via the ELISA method.

Results: Applying ANCOVA adjusted for baseline levels and confounding variables, it was found that the serum level of TGF-β was significantly higher in vitamin D group (adjusted mean:1665.50 ng/L) than the placebo group (1361.90 ng/L) after the experiment (P-value = 0.012); on the other hand, vitamin D prevented the increment in IL-17 serum level in the intervention group after the trial (adjusted mean:37.84 ng/L) comparing to the controls (adjusted mean:70.09 ng/L; P-value = 0.039). The Pearson correlation analysis revealed a significant positive correlation between changes in serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) and TGF-β (r = - 0.306, P-value = 0.008). In contrast, no significant correlations were noted between serum 25(OH) D and IL-17 changes throughout the study.

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it was revealed that 12-week vitamin D3 supplementation (2000 IU/day) could enhance the Th17/Treg related cytokines balance in episodic migraineurs. Although these findings are promising, it is needed to be extended.

Trial Registration: The trial is registered in the Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT) at 11 July 2018, with IRCT code: IRCT20151128025267N6 ( https://www.irct.ir/trial/31246 ).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40780-021-00192-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Effect of low-carbohydrate diet on adiponectin level in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Jan 18:1-10. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has reported findings on the effects of low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) on adiponectin concentration.

Objective: The current systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis was carried out to systematically review the available controlled clinical trials about the effect of LCD on adiponectin level in adults.

Methods: Literature searches of PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Web of Sciences were conducted up to August 2019. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) which assessed the effect of LCD on the adiponectin level were selected.

Results: Eleven studies, including 1047 participants (LCD = 534 and control = 513), were included in the meta-analysis. Proportion of carbohydrate from calorie was from 4 to 34%. Time of the follow-up varied between studies and ranged from 6 to 152 weeks. LCD intake mildly but significantly increased adiponectin (0.02 µg/ml, 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.03,  < 0.001). Dose-response analysis indicated a nonlinear association between the percentage of carbohydrate and change in adiponectin level from baseline ( = 0.04). After subgroup analysis based on the proportion of carbohydrate from calorie, there was a significant increase in adiponectin concentration in studies that prescribed <30% of calorie from carbohydrates (0.12 µg/ml, 95% CI: 0.07-0.18). In contrast, diets which consisted ≥30% of carbohydrates had no significant effect on adiponectin (0.50 µg/ml, 95% CI: -0.46 to 1.48). Also, meta-regression analysis revealed that age ( = 0.04,  = 0.15), baseline BMI (= -0.15,  = 0.15), time of follow-up ( = 0.01,  = 0.17), percentage of carbohydrates ( = 0.004,  = 0.90), percentage of protein (= -0.12,  = 0.08), percentage of fat ( = 0.20,  = 0.61) and baseline adiponectin ( = 0.001,  = 0.97) are not sources of heterogeneity.

Conclusion: This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated a mild but significant effect of LCD on adiponectin concentration compared to control groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1871588DOI Listing
January 2021

Comparing effects of low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet and high-fat, high-calorie diet on cytokine levels of patients with cystic fibrosis: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

Eur Cytokine Netw 2020 Mar;31(1):32-38

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Dietetics and Nutrition Experts Team (DiNET), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran.

The importance of the host inflammatory response, as a central pathological feature of cystic fibrosis, is well recognized. Additionally, hyperglycemia can induce an immune response and consecutively may exacerbate symptoms of this disease. Hence, adherence to a low glycemic index diet, through normalizing blood glucose levels, may reduce inflammation in patients with this disease. This study aimed to compare effects of a low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet and routine high-fat, high-calorie diet on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with cystic fibrosis. In this randomized clinical trial, 44 children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis were randomly assigned to receive for three months either a high-fat, high-calorie diet (n = 22) or a low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet (n = 22) with similar calorie and macronutrients composition to the control diet. Patients in first arm were allowed to use all sources of carbohydrates with different glycemic indices, whereas those in another arm consumed carbohydrates from low glycemic index sources. Serum levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17A, and IFNγ, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were measured at baseline and after the end of the trial. There were significant differences between groups for IL-6 (P = 0.02) and IL-17 (P = 0.01), in favor of the low glycemic diet, but no between-group differences were detected in IL-10 and IFN-γ. Although serum levels of IL-17 were reduced in both the groups as compared with the baseline values, this reduction was only significant in the group assigned to the low glycemic diet (P= 0.007), In addition, IL-6 serum levels decreased and those of IL-10 increased significantly as compared with the baseline values in the low glycemic diet (P= 0.01). It seems that adherence to a low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet for three months can improve some inflammatory biomarkers in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis compared with the high-fat, high-calorie diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/ecn.2020.0442DOI Listing
March 2020

Circulating levels of Meteorin-like protein in polycystic ovary syndrome: A case-control study.

PLoS One 2020 24;15(4):e0231943. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Patients diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are at high risk of developing a myriad of endocrinologic and metabolic derailments. Moreover, PCOS is a leading cause of habitual abortion, also known as recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). Meteorin-like protein (Metrnl) is a newly discovered adipokine with the potential to counteract the metaflammation. This study aimed at determining the associations of serum Metrnl levels with homocysteine, hs-CRP, and some components of metabolic syndrome in PCOS-RPL and infertile PCOS patients.This case-control study was conducted in 120 PCOS patients (60 PCOS-RPL and 60 infertile) and 60 control. Serum hs-CRP and homocysteine were assessed using commercial kits, while adiponectin, Metrnl, FSH, LH, free testosterone and insulin levels were analyzed using ELISA technique. Serum Metrnl levels were found to be lower in PCOS patients when compared to controls (67.98 ± 26.66 vs. 96.47 ± 28.72 pg/mL, P <0.001)). Furthermore, serum adiponectin levels were lower, while free testosterone, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, homocysteine, and hs-CRP were significantly higher in PCOS group compared to controls. Moreover, serum Metrnl correlated with BMI, adiponectin, and homocysteine in controls, and inversely correlated with FBG, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR in PCOS group and subgroups. Besides, it inversely correlated with hs-CRP in control, and PCOS group and subgroups. These findings revealed a possible role of Metrnl in the pathogenesis of PCOS and RPL. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for future studies to prove this concept.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0231943PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7182262PMC
July 2020

The effects of vitamin D supplementation on interictal serum levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in episodic migraine patients: post hoc analysis of a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

J Headache Pain 2020 Feb 24;21(1):22. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Headache Department, Iranian Center of Neurological Research, Neuroscience Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Emerging evidence showed promising effects of vitamin D on headaches characteristics. Thus, it seems there is still a need for more researches to clarify the mechanisms by which this vitamin exerts anti-migraine effects.

Methods: The present study was conducted as a 16-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial on 80 episodic migraine patients allocated in 2 parallel groups each consisted of 40 patients who received vitamin D 2000 IU/d or placebo. At baseline and after the intervention completion, headache diaries and migraine disability assessment questionnaire (MIDAS) were used to assess migraine related variables in patients. Also, interictal serum concentration of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (as the dominant mediator of migraine pain pathogenesis) was evaluated using ELISA method.

Results: The mean (SD) of age in the vitamin D and placebo groups was 37 (8) and 38 (12) years, respectively. ANCOVA test adjusted for baseline values, and confounders showed vitamin D supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in MIDAS score after 12 weeks in the intervention group (21.49 (16.22-26.77)) compared to placebo (31.16 (25.51-36.82) P value: 0.016). Moreover, after controlling for baseline levels, and other variables using ANCOVA, CGRP level was appeared to be significantly lower following vitamin D supplementation (153.26 (133.03-173.49) ng/L) than the patients in the placebo arm (188.35 (167.15-209.54) ng/L) (P value = 0.022).

Conclusion: According to the current findings, vitamin D supplementation in episodic migraineurs, particularly in those with migraine with aura, may potentially improve migraine headache characteristics and disability probably through attenuating CGRP levels. Therefore, these results could provide a new insight into anti-nociceptive effects of vitamin D; however, more studies are required to confirm our findings.

Trial Registration: The trial is registered in the Iranian registry of clinical trials (IRCT) at 11 July 2018, with IRCT code: IRCT20151128025267N6.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s10194-020-01090-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7041277PMC
February 2020

Effects of low glycemic index/high-fat, high-calorie diet on glycemic control and lipid profiles of children and adolescence with cystic fibrosis: A randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Mar - Apr;14(2):87-92. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Pediatric Gastroenterology and Hepatology Research Center, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Dietetics and Nutrition Experts Team (DiNET), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: Low glycemic index diets seem to be potentially effective to improve glycemic control and reduce lipid profiles. Hence, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a low glycemic index/high fat, high-calorie diet on glycemic status and lipid profiles of patients with cystic fibrosis.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 44 children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis were randomized to receive for three months either a high fat, high-calorie diet (n = 22) or a low glycemic index/high fat, high-calorie diet (n = 22) with similar calorie and macronutrients composition. Patients in high fat, high-calorie diet arm were allowed to use all sources of carbohydrates with different glycaemic indices; whereas those in another arm consumed carbohydrates from low glycemic index sources. Serum levels of lipid profiles (triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol), insulin, fasting blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin were measured at baseline and after the intervention.

Results: Between-group differences were significant only for fasting blood glucose (P < 0.001). However, fasting blood glucose (P = 0.003) and glycated hemoglobin (P = 0.002) significantly decreased after the intervention in the low glycemic index group, while in another group a significant increase in fasting blood glucose (P = 0.038) and triglyceride (P = 0.004) was found. No significant within-group differences were observed in other variables in both groups.

Conclusions: It seems that adherence to a low glycemic index/high fat, high-calorie diet can improve glycemic indices in children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis compared to the high fat, high-calorie diet.

Trial Registration: IRCT2017102325267N5.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.12.010DOI Listing
December 2020

Vitamin D3 might improve headache characteristics and protect against inflammation in migraine: a randomized clinical trial.

Neurol Sci 2020 May 2;41(5):1183-1192. Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: Due to anti-inflammatory effects of vitamin D3, we aimed to explore the effects of supplementation with this vitamin on headache characteristics and serum levels of pro/anti-inflammatory markers in migraineurs.

Methods And Materials: This placebo-controlled, double-blind study included 80 episodic migraineurs who randomly assigned into two equal groups to receive either daily dose of vitamin D3 2000 IU (50 μg) or placebo for 12 weeks. At baseline and after the trial, headache characteristics were determined using diaries and serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) were assessed via ELISA method.

Results: At the end of trial, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) adjusted for baseline values, and confounders revealed that vitamin D3 supplemented group experienced significantly lower headache days per month (4.71), reduced attacks duration (12.99 h/attack), less severe headaches (5.47, visual analog scale), and lower analgesics use/month (2.85) than placebo group (6.43, 18.32, 6.38 and 4.87, respectively) (P values < 0.05). Using ANCOVA adjusted for baseline levels and confounding variables, it was found that serum levels of IL-10 and Cox-2 did not significantly differ between groups after the experiment; whereas, iNOS serum level was significantly reduced in the intervention group (106.06 U/L) comparing to the controls (156.18 U/L P : 0.001). Also, the patients receiving vitamin D3 yielded a marginally significant lower IL-6 serum concentration (76.43 ng/L) compared to placebo (93.10 ng/L) (P value:0.055).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, we found that 2000 IU (50 μg)/day vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 weeks could improve headache characteristics and might reduce neuro-inflammation in episodic migraine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-04220-8DOI Listing
May 2020

Trace elements in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 39 studies (N = 5151 participants).

Nutr Rev 2020 04;78(4):278-303

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Context: The pathogenesis of schizophrenia appears to be multifaceted.

Objective: The aim of this meta-analysis of studies that investigated blood and hair concentrations of trace elements in people diagnosed with schizophrenia was to determine whether levels of trace elements in patients with schizophrenia differ from those in healthy individuals.

Data Sources: The PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched to January 2018.

Study Selection: Studies that compared concentrations of trace elements in patients with schizophrenia with those in healthy controls, in patients with schizophrenia under different treatment regimens, or in patients with schizophrenia at different stages of disease were included.

Data Extraction: Data on study and sample characteristics and measures of trace elements were extracted.

Results: Thirty-nine studies with a total of 5151 participants were included. Meta-analysis of combined plasma and serum data showed higher levels of copper, lower levels of iron, and lower levels of zinc among patients with schizophrenia vs controls without schizophrenia. Subgroup analyses confirmed the following: higher levels of copper in plasma, in users of typical antipsychotic drugs, and in males; lower levels of zinc in serum, in patients in Asia, in drug-naive/drug-free patients, and in inpatients; lower levels of iron in serum, in patients in Asia, in drug-naive/drug-free patients, in patients on antipsychotic drugs, in inpatients, in patients with acute or newly diagnosed schizophrenia, in patients with chronic or previously diagnosed schizophrenia, and in males; and lower levels of manganese in plasma and in patients with chronic or previously diagnosed schizophrenia.

Conclusions: This meta-analysis provides evidence of an excess of copper, along with deficiencies of zinc, iron, and manganese, in patients with schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nutrit/nuz059DOI Listing
April 2020

The Effects of Resveratrol on Oxidative Stress Markers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2020 ;20(5):718-727

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: Recent trial studies have found that resveratrol supplementation beneficially reduces oxidative stress marker, but, there is no definitive consensus on this context. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of resveratrol supplementation on oxidative stress parameters.

Methods: We searched databases of Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane Library up to December 2018 with no language restriction. Studies were reviewed according to preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane handbook. To compare the effects of resveratrol with placebo, weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were pooled based on the random-effects model.

Results: Among sixteen clinical trials, we found that resveratrol supplementation increased GPx serum levels significantly (WMD: 18.61; 95% CI: 8.70 to 28.52; P<0.001) but had no significant effect on SOD concentrations (WMD: 1.01; 95% CI: -0.72 to 2.74; P= 0.25), MDA serum levels (WMD: -1.43; 95% CI: -3.46 to 0.61; P = 0.17) and TAC (WMD: -0.09; 95% CI: -0.29 to 0.11; P = 0.36) compared to placebo. Finally, we observed that resveratrol supplementation may not have a clinically significant effect on oxidative stress.

Conclusion: However, the number of human trials is limited in this context, and further large prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm the effect of resveratrol supplement on oxidative stress markers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530319666191116112950DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on advanced glycation end products signaling pathway in T2DM patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind clinical trial.

Diabetol Metab Syndr 2019 26;11:86. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

1Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Poorsina Street, Enghelab Avenue, PO Box: 14155-6446, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Several researches have recommended vitamin D possible health benefits on diabetic complications development, but a few number of studies have been accomplished on the molecular and cellular mechanisms. Certain cellular pathways modification and also some transcription factors activation may protect cells from hyperglycemia condition induced damages. This study purpose was to determine the vitamin D supplementation effect on some key factors [advanced glycation end products (AGEs) signaling pathway] that were involved in the diabetic complications occurrence and progression for type-2 diabetes participants.

Methodology: 48 type-2 diabetic patients (T2DM) randomly divided into two groups (n = 24 per group), receiving: 100-µg vitamin D or placebo for 3 months. At this study beginning and the end, the receptor expression for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and glyoxalase I (GLO1) enzyme from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and AGEs and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) serum levels were measured by the use of real-time PCR and ELISA methods, respectively.

Results: This study results demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation could down-regulate RAGE mRNA [fold change = 0.72 in vitamin D vs. 0.95 in placebo) P = 0.001)]. In addition, no significant changes were observed for GLO1 enzyme expression (P = 0.06). This study results also indicated that vitamin D serum level significantly increased in vitamin D group (P < 0.001). Moreover, AGES and TNF-α serum levels significantly reduced in vitamin D group, but they were remained unchanged in the placebo group.

Conclusion: In conclusion, vascular complications are more frequent in diabetic patients, and vitamin D treatment may prevent or delay the complications onset in these patients by AGEs serum level and RAGE gene expression reducing. NCT03008057. Registered December 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13098-019-0479-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6814978PMC
October 2019

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on circulatory YKL-40 and MCP-1 biomarkers associated with vascular diabetic complications: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Sep - Oct;13(5):2873-2877. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aim: Diabetic patients predispose to vascular diseases such as nephropathy, and retinopathy. Poor adherence to medical treatment and dietary recommendations in uncontrolled diabetes leads to vascular damages. Vitamin D has been extensively studied and found to be protective against diabetes mellitus. YKL-40 and Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) are considered to exert crucial role in diabetes and its complications. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate effects of vitamin D supplementation on serum levels of YKL-40 and MCP-1 involved in the development of diabetic complications.

Methods: For 12 weeks, 48 type 2 diabetic patients enrolled in the trial and randomly were divided into two groups (n = 24 per group), receiving one of the following: 100 μg (4000 IU) vitamin D or placebo. Before and after intervention, serumYKL-40, MCP-1, insulin, IL-6, TNF-α, 25- (OH) vitamin D and HbA1c were measured.

Results: Our results revealed that serum levels of 25 (OH) vitamin D significantly increased in vitamin D group (p < 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation also significantly reduced serum YKL-40 levels (-22.7 vs. -2.4 ng/ml; (p-value = 0.003)). There was a significant decline in MCP-1 concentration in intervention group at the end of the study (-45.7 vs. -0.9 pg/ml; (p = 0.001)). Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in IL-6, fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in intervention group after 3 months supplementation.

Conclusions: Daily vitamin D supplementation effectively reduced circulatory YKL-40 and MCP-1 levels in patients with type-2 diabetes and vitamin D deficiency. Vitamin D might contribute in reducing diabetic complications via modulating YKL-40 and MCP-1 signaling pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.07.047DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of vitamin D supplementation on depressive symptoms in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients: Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jul - Aug;13(4):2375-2380. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aim: Diabetes increases the odds of depression and depression is often associated with poor glycemic control and complications of diabetes. Vitamin D is also believed to improve glycemic control and ameliorate depressive symptoms. Therefore, we examined effects of vitamin D monotherapy (without antidepressant drugs) on depressive symptoms in Type 2 diabetic patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms.

Methods: We conducted 12 weeks, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial on 68 subjects with T2DM and mild to moderate depressive symptoms. Subjects received 100 μg (4000 IU) vitamin D (n = 32) or placebo (n = 34) daily. Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II-PERSIAN) was applied for assessment of the severity of depression. Depression scores and metabolic profiles were measured at the beginning and end of trail.

Results: after 3 months of vitamin D supplementation, mean values of 25(OH) D increased from 15.5 ± 8.8 to 32.2 ± 8.9 ng/ml (p-value <0.001) in the vitamin D group. Moreover, BDI-II scores decreased from 15.2 ± 9.6 to 9.8 ± 7.2 (p-value <0.001) in the vitamin D group and 15.5 ± 11.2 to 13.7 ± 11.5 (p-value = 0.03) in placebo group. This decrease in BDI-II scores were significant (27.6% vs 10.8%) compared with placebo (p-value = 0.02). In term of metabolic profiles, mean change in level of Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), insulin and triglycerides (TG) were significantly higher in response to the treatment with vitamin D compared to placebo (p-value <0.02).

Conclusions: In conclusion, supplementation of vitamin D in T2DM patients may protect these patients against the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD), with noticeable favorable effects on measures of metabolic profiles.

Trial Registration: NCT03008057.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2019.06.011DOI Listing
January 2020

Vitamin D in migraine headache: a comprehensive review on literature.

Neurol Sci 2019 Dec 3;40(12):2459-2477. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Introduction: As a primary headache, migraine has been established as the first leading disability cause worldwide in the subjects who aged less than 50 years. A variety of dietary supplements have been introduced for migraine complementary treatment. As an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agent, vitamin D is one of these agents which has been of interest in recent years. Although higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency has been highlighted among migraineurs compared to controls, there is not any consensus in prescribing vitamin D in clinical practice. Therefore, in the current review, in addition to observational and case-control studies, we also included clinical trials concerning the effects of vitamin D supplementation on migraine/headache.

Methods: Based on a PubMed/MEDLINE and ScienceDirect database search, this review study includes published articles up to June 2019 concerning the association between migraine/headache and vitamin D status or supplementation.

Results: The percentage of subjects with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among migraineurs and headache patients has been reported to vary between 45 and 100%. In a number of studies, vitamin D level was negatively correlated with frequency of headaches. The present findings show that supplementation with this vitamin in a dose of 1000-4000 IU/d could reduce the frequency of attacks in migraineurs.

Conclusion: It seems a high proportion of migraine patients might suffer from vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency. Further, the current evidence shows that in addition to routine drug therapy, vitamin D administration might reduce the frequency of attacks in migraineurs. However, these results have yet to be confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10072-019-04021-zDOI Listing
December 2019

Interleukin-10 and Transforming Growth Factor Beta1 Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Heart Failure.

Acta Biomed 2019 05 23;90(2):221-227. Epub 2019 May 23.

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Background: As cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10) and transforming growth factor beta 1(TGF-β1) seem to contribute towards the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure (CHF), this study was performed to assess the associations of certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of these genes in a case control study.

Methods: This investigation was carried out to determine the frequency of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of TGF-β1 and IL-10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 57 Iranian patients with CHF compared with 140 healthy subjects using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method.

Results: Results of the analyzed data divulged a negative association for both TGF-β1 GC genotype at codon 25 (P=0.047) and CT genotype at codon 10 (P=0.018) and CHF proneness. Although, TGF-β1 CC genotype at codon 10 was found to be positively associated with CHF (P=0.011). Moreover, the frequency of IL-10 (-1082, -819, -592) ATA haplotype and TGF-β1 (codon 10, codon 25) TG haplotype were significantly lower in the patients group (P=0.004 and P=0.040, respectively), while TGF-β1 (codon 10, codon 25) CG haplotype was overrepresented in patients with CHF (P=0.007).

Conclusions: Cytokine gene polymorphisms might affect vulnerability to CHF. Particular genotypes and haplotypes in IL-10 and TGF-β1 genes could render individuals more susceptible to CHF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23750/abm.v90i2.6681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6776215PMC
May 2019

Resolvin D1 impacts on insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome and healthy women.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2019 Jan - Feb;13(1):660-664. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Aims: The aim of this study was to determine the association between the intake of omega-3 PUFAs and the serum level of resolvin D1 and insulin resistance in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) compared to healthy women.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015-2016 in Tehran, Iran, among females referred to the infertility clinic at Valie-Asr Reproductive Health Research Centre. Thirty-one patients with PCOS (according to the criteria of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM)) and 29 healthy, normal cycling (NC) women of similar age, weight and height were enrolled. Anthropometric measurements, levels of resolvin D1, fasting insulin, glucose levels and insulin resistance index (HOMA) for each of the patients were determined.

Results: Intakes of macronutrients (protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) and omega-3 PUFAs were higher in the PCOS group compared to the control group; also, the PCOS group had significantly higher resolvin D1, fasting insulin, glucose levels and HOMA when compared with the control group. Moreover, resolvin D1 correlated negatively with HOMA and fasting insulin levels among both the PCOS and control women.

Conclusion: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance. We showed that omega-3 PUFAs can increase the synthesis of resolvin D1. Resolvin D1 is involved in insulin sensitivity by affecting insulin signaling and inflammatory pathways. Therefore, it can be a contributing factor in reducing insulin resistance in PCOS patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2018.11.018DOI Listing
May 2019

Resveratrol suppresses hyperglycemia-induced activation of NF-κB and AP-1 via c-Jun and RelA gene regulation.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 10;32:10. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Resveratrol (RSV) provides several important biological functions in wide variety of cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anti-inflammatory effect of RSV on HepG2 cells by assessing the gene expression of RelA and c-Jun- subunits of NF-κB and AP-1 transcription factors. HepG2 cells were settled in a serum- free medium with high concentrations of glucose (30 mM) and insulin (1 µM) overnight and were then incubated with RSV (5, 10, and 20 µM) for 24 and 48 hours. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine RelA and c-Jun expression. RSV diminished hyperglycemia/hyperinsulinemia stimulated expression of c-Jun dose- dependently after 24 and 48 hours (p<0.05). In addition, RelA gene expression was decreased dose-dependently in all RSV doses after 48-hour incubation (p<0.05). Our results indicated that RSV may reduce NF-κB and AP-1 activity via RelA and c-Jun gene regulation. The findings of the present study demonstrated that RSV may be considered as a preventative and therapeutic agent for antagonizing inflammation in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108266PMC
February 2018

and Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Chronic Heart Failure.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Jul-Sep;10(3):173-177

Molecular Immunology Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Inflammatory cytokines have been known to be associated with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). Given the importance of cytokines in the context of the failing heart, the prevalence of Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) polymorphisms was studied in patients with CHF due to ischemic heart disease in a case-control study.

Methods: Fifty-six Iranian patients with CHF were enrolled in this study as the case group and compared with 139 healthy subjects, using polymerase chain reaction with sequence-specific primers method, so as to determine the frequency of alleles, genotypes and haplotypes of (+874 A/T) and (-330 G/T, +166 G/T) SNPs.

Results: The GG genotype at -330 in patients with CHF was significantly over-represented in comparison with the control group (p=0.013). Such a positive genotypic association was also observed for +166/TT (p=0.022). Meanwhile, the GT genotype frequency at -330/GT in the patient group was significantly lower than the one in healthy controls (p=0.049). No significant association was detected between the gene polymorphisms and individuals' susceptibility to CHF.

Conclusion: Certain genotypes in gene were overrepresented in patients with CHF, which could render individuals more vulnerable to this disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064006PMC
August 2018

Cancer cachexia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2018 Jul 31;127:91-104. Epub 2018 May 31.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Cancer Immunology Project (CIP), Universal Scientific Education and Research Network (USERN), Sheffield, UK. Electronic address:

Cancer cachexia is a multi-factorial syndrome, which negatively affects quality of life, responsiveness to chemotherapy, and survival in advanced cancer patients. Our understanding of cachexia has grown greatly in recent years and the roles of many tumor-derived and host-derived compounds have been elucidated as mediators of cancer cachexia. However, cancer cachexia remains an unmet medical need and attempts towards a standard treatment guideline have been unsuccessful. This review covers the diagnosis, assessment, and treatment of cancer cachexia; the elements impeding the formulation of a standard management guideline; and future directions of research for the improvement and standardization of current treatment procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2018.05.006DOI Listing
July 2018

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Interleukin-6 Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Ischemic Heart Failure.

Avicenna J Med Biotechnol 2018 Apr-Jun;10(2):105-109

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Proinflammatory cytokines have been known to be elevated in patients with Chronic Heart Failure (CHF). Given the importance of proinflammatory cytokines in the context of the failing heart, the prevalence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin (IL)-6 polymorphisms in patients with CHF was studied due to ischemic heart disease.

Methods: Forty three patients with ischemic heart failure were enrolled in this study and compared with 140 healthy individuals. The allele and genotype frequency of four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the IL-6 (-174, nt565) and TNF-α (-308, -238) genes were determined, using Polymerase Chain Reaction with Sequence-Specific Primers (PCR-SSP) assay.

Results: The frequency of the TNF-α (-238) A/A genotype was significantly higher in patients comparing to controls (p=0.043), while TNF-α G/A genotype at the same position decreased significantly, in comparison with controls (p=0.018). The most frequent haplotype for TNF-α was A/A in the patient group in comparison with controls (p=0.003). There was no significant difference in allele and genotype frequencies of IL-6 at positions -174 and nt565, and TNF-α at position -308.

Conclusion: Certain alleles, genotypes, and haplotypes in TNF-α, but not IL-6, gene were overrepresented in patients with ischemic heart failure, which may, in turn, predispose individuals to this disease.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960055PMC
June 2018

Letter to Editor about "Tumor Cells Growth and Survival Time with the Ketogenic Diet in Animal Models: A Systematic Review".

Int J Prev Med 2018 16;9:38. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_283_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5938898PMC
April 2018

Efficacy of low glycemic index treatment in epileptic patients: a systematic review.

Acta Neurol Belg 2018 Sep 24;118(3):339-349. Epub 2018 Jan 24.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, 14155-6447, Iran.

Low glycemic index treatment (LGIT) is one of the new kinds of ketogenic diet (KD), designed to simplify the implementation of the KD. To date, several studies have attempted to determine the efficacy of LGIT in patients with epilepsy; however, their results are debatable. This study aims to retrieve all the LGIT studies to shed light on LGIT efficacy in epileptic patients. Electronic literature databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE were searched in July 2017. Interventional or observational studies exploring the efficacy of LGIT were included in the study. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute quality assessment tool was used for the quality assessment of included studies. Two hundred and eighteen records were retrieved through a literature search. Following the screening process, eight studies were included. According to the ratings of the quality assessment tool, four studies were classified as good and four were categorized as fair. The result of the current study reveals that LGIT has a beneficial effect in patients with intractable epilepsy. However, more high-quality studies are required to determine the efficacy of LGIT in patients with intractable epilepsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0881-4DOI Listing
September 2018

Combination treatment of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) inhibit IL-17 and RORγt gene expression in PBMCs of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Neurol Res 2018 Jan 18;40(1):11-17. Epub 2017 Nov 18.

b Department of Immunology, School of Public Health , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objectives: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disorder with a complex autoimmune pathophysiology. Its initiation and progression correlate with IL-17 and the related transcription factor, RORγt. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a bioactive derivative of vitamin A, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an active metabolite of omega-3 fatty acid; both have immunomodulatory effects in many immune disorders. This study investigated the effects of DHA and ATRA individually and in combination on IL-17 and RORγt gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who were receiving interferon beta (IFN-β).

Methods: The PBMCs of 15 RRMS patients were treated in vitro with 1 μM of ATRA and 15 μM of DHA as single and combination treatments for assessing probable additive or synergistic effects.

Results: The results showed that single treatment of ATRA (p = 0.05) could significantly decrease the expression of IL-17 gene and single treatment of ATRA (p = 0.04) and single treatment of DHA (p = 0.05) induced significant inhibition on the expression of RORγt gene. The suppressive effect of combined treatment with ATRA and DHA on IL-17 (p = 0.02) and RORγt (p = 0.01) was also found significant showing that the combined treatments can have additive effects.

Discussion: These results indicate that both DHA and ATRA might help control disease progression in IFN-β treated RRMS patients with the strongest effects produced by a combination of the two compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01616412.2017.1382800DOI Listing
January 2018

Short-term and long-term efficacy of classical ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet in children and adolescents with epilepsy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 May 25;22(5):317-334. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

a Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objectives: Classical ketogenic diet (KD) and modified Atkins diet (MAD) are two types of KD commonly used for the treatment of intractable epilepsy throughout the world. Studies have shown the efficacy of these diets. However, no systematic review and meta-analysis study has to date compared the efficacy of KD and MAD in a time trend. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to compare the short-term and long-term efficacy of classical KD and MAD in children and adolescents with epilepsy and to determine the efficacy of classical KD and MAD at multiple time points and in a time trend.

Methods: Main electronic literature databases, including MEDLINE/PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and EMBASE, were searched in November 2016. Rate difference and random effects model were used to compare the efficacy of the classical KD and MAD.

Results: Overall, 70 studies were eligible for inclusion. Meta-analysis revealed a non-significant trend toward a higher efficacy of MAD at month-3 and month-6 (P > 0.05). In the classical KD group, the percentage of responder patients achieving ≥50% seizure reduction was 62, 60, 52, 42, and 46% at month-1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 and for the MAD group was 55, 47, 42, and 29% at month-1, 3, 6, and 12, respectively.

Discussion: Classical KD does not differ substantially from MAD in ≥50% and ≥90% reduction of seizure frequency at month-3 and month-6. Overall, the number of patients achieving seizure freedom increases over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2017.1387721DOI Listing
May 2019

Is there sufficient evidence to support the use of vitamin supplements in the asthmatic patient?

Expert Rev Respir Med 2017 11 26;11(11):851-853. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

d Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17476348.2017.1383897DOI Listing
November 2017

Letter to the Editor About "Efficacy of Treatments for Infantile Spasms: A Systematic Review".

Clin Neuropharmacol 2017 Sep/Oct;40(5):235

Department of Cellular Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Students' Scientific Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Department of Cellular Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/WNF.0000000000000231DOI Listing
March 2018

Combined effect of retinoic acid and calcium on the in vitro differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells to adipocytes.

Arch Physiol Biochem 2018 May 29;124(2):109-118. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

f Department of Immunology, School of Public Health , Tehran University of Medical sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Context: It has been shown that adipogenesis can be modulated by factors such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and calcium.

Objective: To determine, the combined effect of ATRA and calcium on the differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs).

Methods: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were differentiated into the adipocytes by 0.5 and 1 µM of ATRA and 5 and 10 mM calcium separately or in combination. After MTS assay the differentiation of MSCs to adipocyte was evaluated, Oil Red O staining, GLUT4 concentration and gene expression of PPARG2, adiponectin, and GLUT4 were measured by Real-Time PCR.

Results: Except 10 mM calcium treated group, other groups and more significantly combination treatments could reduce all adipocyte markers compared to the control.

Conclusion: These results suggest that ATRA and calcium together have significant inhibitory effect on adipogenesis that can be helpful for finding new mechanisms to prevent or control the adipogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2017.1367009DOI Listing
May 2018

The effect of weight loss on HDL subfractions and LCAT activity in two genotypes of APOA-II -265T>C polymorphism.

Nutr J 2017 May 25;16(1):34. Epub 2017 May 25.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Hojatdoost Ave., Naderi St., Keshavarz Blvd., Tehran, Iran.

Background: People may have different responses to the same environmental changes. It has been reported that genome variations may be responsible for these differences. Also, HDL subfractions may be influenced by different genetic variations. The aim of the present study was to determine gene-diet interactions and to evaluate the influence of weight loss on HDL subfractions between two genotypes of -265 T>C APOA-II polymorphism.

Methods: In the present study, 56 overweight and obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus were selected from 697 genotype-specified subjects. After matching for gender, age and BMI at the beginning of the study, an equal number of patients remained on each genotype of APOA-II (TT/TC and CC group). After a 6-week calorie restriction program, 44 patients completed the study. Serum HDL subfractions, including HDL2 and HDL3 and LCAT activity, were compared between the two genotypes and, before and after the intervention, were separated in each genotype.

Results: Serum concentration of HDL and its subfractions decreased significantly due to the weight loss. A comparison of the mean changes between the genotypes showed that HDL3 significantly decreased in the CC genotype while, in the TT/TC group, the serum concentration of HDL2 was significantly reduced. However, the increase of LCAT activity was not significant among the two genotypes.

Conclusion: A comparison of mean changes of variables within two genotype groups showed that C homozygote carriers lead to a general shift toward larger size HDL subfractions and T allele carriers shift toward smaller size HDL subfractions after weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12937-017-0255-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445295PMC
May 2017

Study of the relationship between APOA-II -265T>C polymorphism and HDL function in response to weight loss in overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients.

Clin Nutr 2018 06 9;37(3):965-969. Epub 2017 Apr 9.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, International Campus, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Diabetes Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: It has been reported that people may respond differently to the same environmental changes because of genome variations.

Objective: The main purpose of the present study is to determine gene-diet interactions between -265T>C apolipoprotein A-II polymorphisms and evaluate the effect of weight loss on parameters related to HDL function.

Methods: In the present study, 56 overweight and obese type 2 diabetic patients were chosen from 697 genotype-specified subjects. After matching for gender, age and BMI, an equal number of patients were chosen for each genotype of APOA-II (TT/TC and CC group). After six-week calorie restriction programme, 44 patients completed the study. Serum paraoxonase-1 (PON1), paraoxonase-3 (PON3), pentraxin-3 (PTX3), and PTX3 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared between two genotypes and also before and after the intervention separated in each genotype.

Results: The mean differences of PON enzymes and PTX3 between groups were not significant at the baseline. After weight loss, the mean weight, BMI and serum concentration of PON1 and PON3 decreased significantly and PTX3 increased in total population. Although, the mean differences of PON enzymes and PTX3 between two groups were not significant. However, in comparison of mean differences within the groups, decreased PON3 and increased PTX3 have been observed only in TT group.

Conclusion: A comparison of the mean differences in PON3 and PTX3 within two genotype groups showed that T allele carriers are more sensitive to lifestyle modification, and serum PON3 and PTX3 levels significantly changed only in the TT/TC group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2017.04.001DOI Listing
June 2018

Systematic review and meta-analysis shows a specific micronutrient profile in people with Down Syndrome: Lower blood calcium, selenium and zinc, higher red blood cell copper and zinc, and higher salivary calcium and sodium.

PLoS One 2017 19;12(4):e0175437. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Research Center for Immunodeficiencies, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Different metabolic profiles as well as comorbidities are common in people with Down Syndrome (DS). Therefore it is relevant to know whether micronutrient levels in people with DS are also different. This systematic review was designed to review the literature on micronutrient levels in people with DS compared to age and sex-matched controls without DS. We identified sixty nine studies from January 1967 to April 2016 through main electronic medical databases PubMed, Scopus, and Web of knowledge. We carried out meta-analysis of the data on four essential trace elements (Cu, Fe, Se, and Zn), six minerals (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, and P), and five vitamins (vitamin A, B9, B12, D, and E). People with DS showed lower blood levels of Ca (standard mean difference (SMD) = -0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): -1.16 to -0.09), Se (SMD = -0.99; 95% CI: -1.55 to -0.43), and Zn (SMD = -1.30; 95% CI: -1.75 to -0.84), while red cell levels of Zn (SMD = 1.88; 95% CI: 0.48 to 3.28) and Cu (SMD = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.96 to 3.57) were higher. They had also higher salivary levels of Ca (SMD = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.38 to 1.33) and Na (SMD = 1.04; 95% CI: 0.39 to 1.69). Our findings that micronutrient levels are different in people with DS raise the question whether these differences are related to the different metabolic profiles, the common comorbidities or merely reflect DS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0175437PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396920PMC
April 2017

Differences in the interaction between CETP Taq1B polymorphism and dietary fat intake on lipid profile of normolipedemic and dyslipidemic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Clin Nutr 2018 02 31;37(1):270-275. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

Department of Cellular and Molecular Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Diabetic Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinical Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Background & Aim: Dyslipidemia is one of the major complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Dietary fat intake and genetic factors including CETP Taq1B polymorphism could also affect lipid profile concentrations, in particular HDL-c. We decided to study the frequency of this polymorphism and its interaction with dietary fat intake on HDL-c concentration among Iranian T2DM patients with and without dyslipidemia.

Methods: In this comparative study, serum samples were collected from 55 patients with dyslipidemia and 129 patients without dyslipidemia. Validated semi-quantitative FFQ was used for food consumption data. CETP Taq1B polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). We used χ and two-way ANOVA tests for statistical analysis.

Results: The frequency of B1B1 genotype was higher in patients with dyslipidemia (p = 0.01). There was no significant relationship between CETP Taq1B polymorphism and lipid profile concentrations. In patients without dyslipidemia, the interaction between the polymorphism and total fat intake on HDL-c concentration as well as TG/HDL ratio was significant (p = 0.02 and p = 0.009 respectively). This was more evident in B1B1 genotype. Moreover, HDL-c concentration was significantly higher in B2B2 genotype with low total fat intake.

Conclusion: Higher total fat intake may affect the relationship between CETP Taq1B polymorphism and HDL-c concentration in patients with normolipidemic T2DM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2016.12.024DOI Listing
February 2018