Publications by authors named "Maryam Ghasemi"

54 Publications

The synergistic effect of topical insulin and clindamycin on acute dermal wound healing in rat model: a histological study.

J Histotechnol 2021 Mar 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Reducing the duration of wound healing is important to decrease the chance of infection. Insulin as a peptide hormone has a role in wound healing. Also, the use of clindamycin in the treatment of skin wounds has been studied very little. The aim of this study was to evaluate the synergistic effect of insulin and clindamycin on full-thickness wound healing. In this study, 24 Wistar rats (weight 180-200 g) were randomly divided into four equal groups: control (Eucerin), clindamycin, insulin, and insulin + clindamycin. Drugs were administered in the form of an ointment daily for twelve days. Wound healing rate and wound criteria such as epithelialization, neovascularization, collagen deposition, inflammation, and tissue granulation were investigated histologically on days 3, 7, and 14. The wound healing rate in the insulin + clindamycin group was significantly higher than the other groups on day 7 but there was no significant difference between groups on day 14. In addition, the combination of insulin and clindamycin had a beneficial effect on reducing inflammation and increasing collagen deposition, fibroblast maturation, neovascularization, and keratinization. The data showed that the topical application of insulin with clindamycin has an effective role in full-thickness wound healing by reducing inflammation and accelerating wound closure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01478885.2020.1861919DOI Listing
March 2021

First report of tamoxifen-induced baboon syndrome.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Nov 30. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD), National Institute of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Baboon syndrome is a rare, type IV hypersensitivity reaction causing a maculopapular rash. Tamoxifen is an antineoplastic agent, working as an estrogen receptor antagonist, also called a selective estrogen receptor modulator. A variety of rashes were reported with Tamoxifen use to-date except baboon syndrome. The Tamoxifen-induced baboon syndrome seems to be reversible, as discontinuation of the drug improves clinical outcomes.

Aim: Herein, we present the first case of Tamoxifen-induced baboon syndrome which occurred 8 years after initiation of Tamoxifen use.

Patients: A 44-year-old woman presented with papulovesicular eruption on her body and erythema on her face for a duration of 6 months. There was no evidence of ocular or mucosal involvement. She was diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with tamoxifen 10 mg twice daily over the past 8 years. She was not taking other medications or over-the-counter supplements at the time of presentation. The patient underwent urgent skin biopsies of two lesions on her buttock and thigh. No organisms were seen on Gram stain. The patient's skin biopsy revealed extensive hyperorthokeratosis, minimal parakeratosis, hypergranulosis, and lichenoid interface dermatitis in the irregularly acanthotic epidermis supporting diagnosis of fixed drug eruption. Following a multidisciplinary discussion, the patient was diagnosed with baboon syndrome or symmetrical drug-related intertriginous and flexural exanthema (SDRIFE) associated with Tamoxifen.

Results: Hence, Tamoxifen was immediately discontinued and treated with oral steroid along with topical agents. She showed improvement of clinical abnormalities within days after discontinuation of Tamoxifen.

Conclusions: Given the widespread use of Tamoxifen in the management of patients with breast cancer, it is important that healthcare professionals monitor for rare, however clinically significant, and potentially life-threatening dermatological manifestations of Tamoxifen use, such as baboon syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13863DOI Listing
November 2020

Co-localization of alopecia areata and lichen planopilaris in a patient receiving immunosuppressants: A rare case.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2021 Mar 24;20(3):976-979. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Immunogenetics Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: AA is an acquired dermatosis distributed universally, with multifactorial etiology. It affects the hair follicle with or without nail involvement, resulting in an acute nonscarring alopecia with a relapsing course. Being a relatively common skin disease, LPP (lichen planopilaris) is initiated by a chronic lymphocytic inflammation that selectively destructs the hair follicles and eventually leads to scarring alopecia. Also, even though there is enough literature available for the co-existence of AA and LPP with each other and their association with other autoimmune conditions, there are only very few reports on the anatomical concomitance of both disorders. AIMS: Although the incidence of not only one but two autoimmune diseases in an immunosuppressed individual is very unusual, we hereby report a case of co-localization of AA and LPP in a patient receiving immunosuppression due to a previous history of SLE (Systemic lupus erythematosus).

Patients: A 37-year-old woman, housewife, presented to our office with general alopecia on the scalp since about two years ago (Figure 1), particularly on the vertex which was accompanied by mild itching and trichodynia. She had a history of hypothyroidism and lupus erythematosus arthritis. She had been receiving long-term treatment with prednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, azathioprine, and levothyroxine but had not been treated for hair loss. Despite being on all of the above-mentioned immunosuppressants, the patient developed AA and LPP which are both immune-mediated diseases.

Results: In addition to continuing her oral immunosuppressants, the patient was treated with Minoxidil 5% and Clobetasol solution as well as a higher dose of Azathioprine than she was receiving beforehand. Approximately, 3 months into the treatment, the follicular hyperkeratosis and scalp erythema resolved. Also, hair growth could be seen on AA spots.

Conclusion: Our case report is indicating the possibly mutual immunopathogenesis of these two T cell-mediated disorders. Furthermore, we want to bring attention to the probability of new autoimmune diseases occurring even during treatment with immunosuppressive medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13600DOI Listing
March 2021

Modulatory effect of Vibrio cholerae toxin co-regulated pilus on mucins, toll-like receptors and NOD genes expression in co-culture model of Caco-2 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).

Microb Pathog 2020 Dec 12;149:104566. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, tend to colonize the small intestine as a Gram-negative pathogen. The intestinal mucus layer forms mucin physical barrier, consisted of high molecular weight proteins. Regarding the role of toxin-coregulated pilus (TCP) as one of the most important colonization factors of V. cholerae, this experimental study was designed to determine the role of TcpA in induction of mucin production and its regulatory effect on innate immunity molecules including toll like receptors (TLRs) and Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins (NODs) using Caco2- PBMC co-cultures as an interactive model. The rTcpA protein of V. cholerae was expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli, purified using Ni-column chromatography and confirmed by western blotting. Nontoxic doses of rTcpA was determined on Caco-2 cell lines and different concentrations of rTcpA (1, 5, 10 and 50 μg/mL) showed a statistically significant effect on the expression of muc genes (MUC3 and MUC4) in a dose-dependent manner. This finding is supposed to facilitate physical adhesion and colonization of V. cholerae in intestinal lumen. The rTcpA moderately stimulated the expression of tlr4 and overexpressed tlr1, both of which are supposed to induce a mucosal protective response against bacterial infection. NOD2 was significantly increased which suggests that it may contribute in pro-inflammatory responses observed in cholera disease. No change in NOD1 expression was seen which might be attributed to the non-invasive nature of V. cholerae as an intestinal pathogen. In conclusion, the rTcpA protein of V. cholerae showed a statistically significant modulatory effect on the human gut epithelium gene expression which would help promising protection in prophylaxis applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104566DOI Listing
December 2020

A computational study of combination HIFU-chemotherapy as a potential means of overcoming cancer drug resistance.

Math Biosci 2020 11 22;329:108456. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Department of Applied Mathematics, Univ. Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1.

The application of local hyperthermia, particularly in conjunction with other treatment strategies (like chemotherapy and radiotherapy) has been known to be a useful means of enhancing tumor treatment outcomes. However, to our knowledge, there has been no mathematical model designed to capture the impact of the combination of hyperthermia and chemotherapies on tumor growth and control. In this study, we propose a nonlinear Partial Differential Equation (PDE) model which describes the tumor response to chemotherapy, and use the model to study the effects of hyperthermia on the response of prototypical tumor to the generic chemotherapeutic agent. Ultrasound energy is delivered to the tumor through High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU), as a noninvasive technique to elevate the tumor temperature in a controlled manner. The proposed tumor growth model is coupled with the nonlinear density dependent Westervelt and Penne's bio-heat equations, used to calculate the net delivered energy and temperature of the tumor and its surrounding normal tissue. The tumor is assumed to be composed of two species: drug-sensitive and drug-resistant. The central assumption underlying our model is that the drug-resistant species is converted to a drug-sensitive type when the tumor temperature is elevated above a certain threshold temperature. The "in silico" results obtained, confirm that hyperthermia can result in less aggressive tumor development and emphasize the importance of designing an optimized thermal dose strategy. Furthermore, our results suggest that increasing the length of the on/off cycle of the transducer is an efficient approach to treatment scheduling in the sense of optimizing tumor eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mbs.2020.108456DOI Listing
November 2020

Expression patterns of seven key genes, including β-catenin, Notch1, GATA6, CDX2, miR-34a, miR-181a and miR-93 in gastric cancer.

Sci Rep 2020 07 23;10(1):12342. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Student Research Committee, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and a major cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Incidence of GC is affected by various factors, including genetic and environmental factors. Despite extensive research has been done for molecular characterization of GC, it remains largely unknown. Therefore, further studies specially conducted among various ethnicities in different geographic locations, are required to know the precise molecular mechanisms leading to tumorigenesis and progression of GC. The expression patterns of seven candidate genes, including β-catenin, Notch1, GATA6, CDX2, miR-34a, miR-181a, and miR-93 were determined in 24 paired GC tissues and corresponding non-cancerous tissues by quantitative Real-Time PCR. The association between the expression of these genes and clinicopathologic factors were also investigated. Our results demonstrated that overall mRNA levels of GATA6 were significantly decreased in the tumor samples in comparison with the non-cancerous tissues (median fold change (FC) = 0.3143; P = 0.0003). Overall miR-93 levels were significantly increased in the tumor samples relative to the non-cancerous gastric tissues (FC = 2.441; P = 0.0002). β-catenin mRNA expression showed a strong positive correlation with miR-34a (r = 0.5784; P = 0.0031), and miR-181a (r = 0.5652; P = 0.004) expression. miR-34a and miR-181a expression showed a significant positive correlation (r = 0.4862; P = 0.016). Moreover, lower expression of Notch1 was related to distant metastasis in GC patients with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.0549). These data may advance our understanding of the molecular biology that drives GC as well as provide potential targets for defining novel therapeutic strategies for GC treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69308-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378835PMC
July 2020

Primary tonsillar tuberculosis: a forgotten clinical identity.

Iran J Microbiol 2019 Dec;11(6):542-545

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Primary tonsillar tuberculosis is an uncommon entity and a diagnostic challenge. Misdiagnosis can be prevented with early professional para-clinical finding. The true diagnosis is often delayed and infection management depends on recognizing disease patterns and early laboratory documentation. This rare clinical caseation granuloma with positive clinical symptoms, negative results of radiology/laboratory and alone based on histopathological finding without any particle indicates the role of an accurate laboratory/pathology finding for urgent medical intervention treatment and lifesaving of patients, particularly in immunocompromised group.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7048960PMC
December 2019

Bullous pemphigoid as an injection site reaction of glatiramer acetate.

Iran J Neurol 2019 Oct;18(4):187-189

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7036050PMC
October 2019

Methylene blue-loaded niosome: preparation, physicochemical characterization, and in vivo wound healing assessment.

Drug Deliv Transl Res 2020 10;10(5):1428-1441

Pharmaceutics Research Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QJ, UK.

Following skin injury, the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during the inflammatory phase can cause tissue damage and delay in wound healing. Methylene blue (MB) decreases mitochondrial ROS production and has antioxidant effects. The authors aimed to prepare MB-loaded niosomes using the ultra-sonication technique as a green formulation method. A Box-Behnken design was selected to optimize formulation variables. The emulsifier to cholesterol ratio, HLB of mixed surfactants (Span 60 and Tween 60), and sonication time were selected as independent variables. Vesicle size, zeta potential (ZP), and drug entrapment capacity percentage were studied as dependent variables. The optimized formulation of niosomes showed spherical shape with optimum vesicle size of 147.8 nm, ZP of - 18.0 and entrapment efficiency of 63.27%. FTIR study showed no observable interaction between MB and other ingredients. In vivo efficacy of optimized formulation was evaluated using an excision wound model in male Wistar rat. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, an endogenous antioxidant) and malondialdehyde (MDA, an end product of lipid peroxidation) levels in skin tissue samples were evaluated. After 3 days, MDA was significantly decreased in niosomal gel-treated group, whereas SOD level was increased. Histological results indicate rats that received niosomal MB were treated effectively faster than other ones. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13346-020-00715-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7447683PMC
October 2020

Prenatal chest wall mesenchymal hamartoma: a case report and review of the literature.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Feb 25:1-3. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Mesenchymal hamartoma of the chest wall (MHCW) is a rare but benign tumor of childhood. Its clinical presentation varies from nonsymptomatic to respiratory distress. It is rarely detected in prenatal period and usually is diagnosed after birth. We discuss a male-fetus with MHCW detected by ultrasound during pregnancy. He was managed surgically due to scoliosis and multiple rib involvement also respiratory symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1728737DOI Listing
February 2020

The role of immunohistochemistry expression of COX-2 in differentiating pigmented benign and malignant skin neoplasms.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2019 25;33:75. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Skin cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and its annual mortality rate is increasing. The induction enzyme of cyclooxygenase COX-2 causes biosynthesis of prostaglandin and thromboxane during inflammation of the body. Increasing the expression of COX-2 has an important role in the development and progression of malignant epithelial cancers and other types of cancers. Considering the diagnostic status of the marker, this study aimed to evaluate the expression of COX-2 for diagnosis and differentiation of benign skin pigmented neoplastic lesions from malignant melanoma types. In this diagnostic study, the immunohistochemistry of COX-2 maker in 82 paraffin blocks of pigmented benign and malignant skin neoplasms of patients (49 men; 33 women) and its association with clinicopathological features of the tumor was evaluated. Data were analyzed using chi-squared and t test in SPSS18. Significance level was set at less than 5%. The findings showed that 20 patients (24.3%) had malignant melanoma and 13 had significant COX-2 (3+ High), while COX-2 marker was not detected in other benign and malignant pigmented skin neoplasms (p<0.001). A significant association was found between COX-2 marker and grade (p<0.001), but there was no significant correlation with other clinicopathological tumor criteria. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV value of the COX-2 marker were 65%, 100%, 89.9%, and 100%, respectively. Because of the high level of COX-2 in malignant melanoma skin marker, it can be used to distinguish benign and malignant neoplastic lesions (SCC and BCC) from melanoma and to provide effective therapeutic strategies through specific COX-2 enzyme inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6825383PMC
July 2019

A study of nitric oxide dynamics in a growing biofilm using a density dependent reaction-diffusion model.

J Theor Biol 2020 01 16;485:110053. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Dept. of Applied Mathematics, Univ. Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada, N2L 3G1.

One of a number of critical roles played by NO· as a chemical weapon (generated by the immune system) is to neutralize pathogens. However, the virulence of pathogens depends on the production activity of reductants to detoxify NO·. Broad reactivity of NO· makes it complicated to predict the fate of NO· inside bacteria and its effects on the treatment of any infection. Here, we present a mathematical model of biofilm response to NO·, as a stressor. The model is comprised of a PDE system of highly nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations that we study in computer simulations to determine the positive and negative effects of key parameters on bacterial defenses against NO·. From the reported results, we conjecture that the oscillatory behavior of NO· under a microaerobic regime is a temporal phenomenon and does not give rise to a spatial pattern. It is also shown computationally that decreasing the initial size of the biofilm colony negatively impacts the functionality of reducing agents that deactivate NO·. Whereas nutrient deprivation results in the development of biofilms with heterogeneous structure, its effect on the activity of NO· reductants depends on the oxygen availability, biofilm size, and the amount of NO·.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtbi.2019.110053DOI Listing
January 2020

Immunohistochemical Investigation of Mutant BRAF V600E in Common Pigmented Skin Neoplasms, Study on a Sample of Iranian Patients.

Iran J Pathol 2019 27;14(1):8-16. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Professor, Immunogenetics Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background & Objective: This study was designed for the first time for the detec- tion of mutant BRAF V600E and its correlation with clinicophathologic features in a sample of Iranian patients with pathologically proved pigmented skin neoplasms.

Methods: 82 paraffin-embedded blocks, including melanocytic nevi, malignant melanoma, Basel cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma were evaluated for BRAF V600E expression by immunohistochemistry in the patients admitted to Ibn Sina Hospital, in the city of Sari, Mazandaran province, North of Iran. The evaluation of immunohistochemical staining was performed by two of the authoring pathologists, and staining intensity was graded from negative (0), weak (1+), moderate (2+) to strong (3+). If twenty percent (or greater) of the tumor cells showed modest to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity (score 3+), the neoplasm was considered positive for this tumor marker.

Results: Among 82 studied patients, 12 cases (60%) of the malignant melanoma group revealed a high intensity of immunostaining for BRAF V600E, while a signifi- cant expression of this marker did not occur in the other investigated skin neoplasm. A great relation between BRAF (V600E) expression and the histologic type of skin cancer was noted. No significant relationship with other parameters such as gender, age, and the grade differentiation of the non-melanoma skin cancer was found. BRAF V600E was weakly correlated with the Clark level of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

Conclusion: This data provided further evidence for the strong role of the BRAF V600E mutation in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma, compared to non-melanoma skin cancers in the North of Iran. We advised future studies to evaluate the beneficial effects of anti-BRAF V600E target therapy on the Iranian melanoma patient who harbors this marker by way of immunostaining tumor tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30699/IJP.14.1.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6708560PMC
December 2019

The Application of PRECEDE Model on Preventing Osteoporosis in Women.

Clin Nurs Res 2021 Mar 21;30(3):241-252. Epub 2019 Aug 21.

Department of Public Health, School of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.

The aim of this study is investigating the efficiency of educational intervention based on PRECEDE model on promotion of osteoporosis prevention behaviors in women. This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 200 women registered in two health centers of Fasa city, Fars province, Iran in 2017 to 2018. A questionnaire including items evaluating demographic information and PRECEDE model constructs was used for measuring nutrition and walking performance of studied women in osteoporosis prevention before and 12 months after intervention. Bone mineral density (BMD) was recorded at the lumbar spine and femur before and 12 months after intervention. One year after intervention, the intervention group showed a significant increase in knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, reinforcing factors, enabling factors, nutrition, and walking performance compared to the control group. Also, the value of lumbar spine and hip BMD T-Score of the intervention group was increased, while this value was reduced in the control group. Our findings showed that educational interventions based on PRECEDE model can positively affect prevention behaviors from osteoporosis by improving subjects' knowledge, attitude, enabling factors (resources such as health care access and services that can provide motivation for prevention behaviors from osteoporosis in women), self-efficacy, and reinforcing factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1054773819865874DOI Listing
March 2021

Investigation of HIV/AIDS prevalence and associated risk factors among female sex workers from 2010 to 2017: a meta-analysis study.

HIV AIDS (Auckl) 2019 16;11:105-117. Epub 2019 May 16.

Faculty of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Female sex workers (FSW) are highly at risk of HIV, and can potentially transmit the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different societies. The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of HIV/AIDS and associated risk factors among FSW between 2010 and 2017 using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis approach. International databases were searched, including ISI Web of Science, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus. Using the appropriate keywords, relevant studies published on the HIV/AIDS prevalence among FSW between 2010 and 2017 were identified. Afterwards, the information was extracted and analyzed by STATA version 14. Thirty-seven studies were found eligible for inclusion in this research, encompassing a total of 46,657 subjects. The results revealed that the global prevalence of HIV/AIDS among FSW was 2.17 (95% CI=1.37-3.14). These findings demonstrated the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS among FSWs worldwide. Accordingly, strict educational and interventional programs should be implemented globally to reduce HIV/AIDS prevalence among this group, as well as to prevent probable HIV transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/HIV.S196085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6529623PMC
May 2019

Status of Serum Copper, Magnesium, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2020 Jan 2;193(1):111-117. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

This study evaluates serum copper and magnesium and total antioxidant capacity levels in PCOS patients. In this regard, the probable association of copper and magnesium with total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was investigated. In total, 150 women (60 PCOS patients and 90 healthy subjects) participated in this case-control study. PCOS was diagnosed according to the Rotterdam criteria (2003). Serum Cu, Mg, Ca, TAC, insulin levels, and insulin resistance indices were determined. Insulin was measured using ELISA methods. Serum Cu and Mg levels were measured by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer and the Xylidyl Blue method respectively. The correlations between the parameters were analyzed using the Spearman correlation test. Serum Cu level was significantly higher while TAC was significantly lower in the PCOS patients than those in the controls (p = 0.019 and p = 0.002 respectively). No significant difference was detected between the two groups in terms of serum Mg and Ca levels and Ca/Mg ratio. In insulin-resistant PCOS subjects, there was a negative correlation between Mg levels and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (r = - 0.449, p = 0.006) but a positive correlation between Mg levels and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (r = 0.480, p = 0.003). A negative correlation also existed between Mg levels and TAC in non-insulin-resistant PCOS patients (r = - 0.407, p = 0.04). According to the results, copper and magnesium seem to contribute to oxidative stress and insulin resistance in PCOS patients. Therefore, to prevent long-term metabolic complications in PCOS women, it is recommended that these elements be routinely monitored. Also, significantly lower levels of serum TAC in PCOS patients than in normal women may suggest increased oxidative stress in such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-019-01705-7DOI Listing
January 2020

Effect of Peer Group Education on the Quality of Life of Elderly Individuals with Diabetes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Iran J Nurs Midwifery Res 2019 Jan-Feb;24(1):44-49

Department of Health, Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Center, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Considering the important role of education and the benefits of peer education in increasing patients' independence in self-care, as well as the socio-economic benefit of using peer education, the present study was conducted to assess the effect of peer education on the quality of life (QOL) of elderly people with diabetes.

Materials And Methods: This clinical trial was conducted with 44 diabetic people aged over 65 years in selected health centers of Isfahan, Iran, in 2014. After preparing the peer group, 8 educational sessions were held for the participants of the groups by their peers (intervention group) and by the researcher (control group). The Diabetes Quality-of-Life (DQOL) measure was used to assess their QOL before, immediately after, and 1 month after the intervention.

Results: The difference between the groups in terms of the total quality of life score immediately after the intervention was significant ( = 8.63; = 0.001). The results showed that the QOL score in the dimensions of worries about diabetes effects ( = 12.13, = 0.042), impact of diabetes treatment, ( = 8.63, = 0.001), and satisfaction with diabetes treatment ( = 11.33, = 0.001) was significantly different in the groups immediately after the intervention.

Conclusions: Peer education increased the QOL of patients with diabetes, with significantly better results than the researcher training group immediately after the training. Thus, this method can be used to improve the QOL of the aged population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijnmr.IJNMR_39_17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6298160PMC
January 2019

Modulatory effects of flower and leaf extracts upon oxidative stress-related damage in an experimental model of ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity.

Appl Physiol Nutr Metab 2019 May 11;44(5):521-527. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

a Pharmaceutical Science Research Center, Hemoglobinopathy Institute, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Ethanol is the most widely abused drug in the world and its long-term use induces oxidative stress in the liver tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effect of against ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rat. Animals were divided into 9 groups as follows: control (normal saline), ethanol (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), ethanol with 3 doses (125, 250, and 500 mg/kg) of ethyl acetate flower and leaf extracts, and positive control (vitamin E 80 mg/kg). Animals were gavaged 30 min before ethanol injection for 28 days. Then, animals were killed and the livers were separated. Oxidative stress parameters, including reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and protein carbonyl as well as glutathione content, were evaluated. Also, histopathological examination was performed and assessment of blood alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total antioxidant capacity were evaluated. Ethanol significantly increased oxidative stress markers in liver. Interestingly, administration of both extracts significantly decreased oxidative stress markers in liver tissue and biochemical parameters in the plasma. In addition, abnormal pathological features were improved after treatment with flower and leaf extracts. These results suggested that can be considered a candidate for improving conditions due to ethanol-induced tissue oxidative damage because of its antioxidant activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/apnm-2018-0559DOI Listing
May 2019

Investigation of CCR7 Marker Expression Using Immunohistochemical Method and Its Association with Clinicopathologic Properties in Patients with Breast Cancer.

Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res 2018 Apr;12(2):103-110

Research and Development Unit of Referral Laboratory, Deputy of Health Management, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers among women in the world, especially in Iran. There are large numbers of molecular and genomic factors causing breast cancer as well as many markers associated with tumor invasion. Chemokines are small proteins that primarily regulate leukocyte trafficking in the homeostatic conditions and specific immune responses. Chemokine receptor 7 (CCR7) belongs a class A subtype 7-span transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor. CCR7 plays a role in the migration of tumor cells such as immune cells into lymphoid organs through binding to its only two ligands CCL19/CCL21. High expression of this marker has been observed in breast cancer. However, there have been limited and contradictory data in studies conducted on the relationship between the increasing expression of this marker with various clinical and pathological factors. This case-control practical study was carried out on total mastectomy samples from 70 patients with breast cancer and tumor-adjacent normal tissue using immunohistochemistry technique to assess the expression of CCR7 marker. The relationship among the marker expression with different clinical and pathological tumor factors such as age, tumor size, microscopic grade, neurovascular invasion, lymph node metastasis and tumor stage were evaluated in all patients. Since the both groups were matched for age, so McNemar test, Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the expression of CCR7 marker in the case and control groups. Conditional logistic regression was employed to compare the effects of other variables regarding the age harmonization. CCR7 expression was observed in 63 (91.4%) out of 70 studied patients and in tumor-adjacent normal tissue of 55 patients (78.6%), while the marker expression intensity in normal tissue was lower than tumoral tissue (P<0.032) There was a significant relationship among the expression of CCR7 marker with disease stage (P<0.001), grade (P<0.035), lymph node metastasis (P<0.003), perineural invasion (P<0.037) and vascular invasion (P<0.01), but no significant relationship was found among CCR7 expression with other tumor clinicopathologic parameters such as age (P>0.19) and tumor size (P>0.105). Increased expression of CCR7 has a significant relationship with disease stage, grade, lymph node metastasis and neurovascular invasion of breast cancer but has no relationship with age of patients and tumor size. Therefore, this biomarker can be utilized as a predictive factor for tumor metastasis and survival of patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6141431PMC
April 2018

The prevalence and genotyping of human papillomavirus in patients with oral tumors in health centers and clinics of Mazandaran in Iran.

Virusdisease 2018 Sep 31;29(3):297-302. Epub 2018 Jul 31.

4Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Oral cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in the world which contains many kinds of malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Due to the carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) and its prevalence in cancer, including the oral cancer, this study was aimed at investigate the prevalence of HPV and its genotypes in patients suffering from oral tumors using PCR method. In this study, 83 samples of oral lesions were collected in the form of paraffin-embedded tissue. After extracting the DNA using DNA extraction kits, high-risk HPV positive samples were examined using special kits for genotyping, and low-risk types were sequenced after nested PCR. The results showed that 13.2% of samples was HPV positive. The result of PCR using genotyping kit indicated that high-risk types of 18, 31, 16, and 33 appeared in samples with prevalence rate of 27.2, 18.1, 9.09 and 9.09%, respectively. In this manner, the result of sequence indicated that the prevalence of HPV- genotype was 36.3% in the samples. The results of this study indicated that both low-risk and high-risk types of HPV are associated with the risk of oral tumors, so that Types 6 and 18 were reported as the most prevalent types in the samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-018-0472-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6111957PMC
September 2018

Identification of Mucorales in patients with proven invasive mucormycosis by polymerase chain reaction in tissue samples.

Mycoses 2018 Dec 28;61(12):909-915. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Medical Mycology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: Accurate diagnosis of mucormycosis, a life-threatening fungal infection, remains a challenge for physicians.

Objectives: To identify the causative Mucorales in fresh clinical samples and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples of patients with proven mucormycosis by molecular method.

Patients/methods: Fresh clinical samples of patients with proven mucormycosis according to the EORTC/MSG criteria admitted between 2015 and 2017 and histopathologically proven FFPE archives collected during 2004-2007 and 2015-2017 from Mazandaran University-affiliated hospitals of northern Iran were included. Seminested PCR targeting the 18S rDNA of Mucorales and ITS region was performed, and PCR products were then sequenced.

Results: While culture was positive only in 5 of 9 (56%) of fresh specimen cases, PCR was positive in all 9 (100%) histologically proven mucormycosis. Ten of 18 (56%) FFPE samples were PCR-positive. Overall, Mucorales PCR was positive in 19 of 27 (70%) samples. Mucorales species were Rhizopus arrhizus in 16 (84%) cases, R. arrhizus/Amylomyces rouxii in 2 (10.5%) cases and Rhizopus stolonifer in one case (5.5%). Among 27 mucormycosis cases, 25 (93%) cases were rhinocerebral, and 2 (7%) cases were disseminated. Diabetes mellitus (74%) and neutropaenia (63%) were the main risk factors.

Conclusions: Seminested PCR targeting 18S rDNA region of Mucorales is useful for identification of the causative agents of mucormycosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/myc.12837DOI Listing
December 2018

Simulation-Based Exploration of Quorum Sensing Triggered Resistance of Biofilms to Antibiotics.

Bull Math Biol 2018 07 24;80(7):1736-1775. Epub 2018 Apr 24.

Zentrum Mathematik, TU München, Boltzmannstr. 3, 85748, Garching, Germany.

We present a mathematical model of biofilm response to antibiotics, controlled by a quorum sensing system that confers increased resistance. The model is a highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations that we investigate in computer simulations. Our results suggest that an adaptive, quorum sensing-controlled, mechanism to switch between modes of fast growth with little protection and protective modes of slow growth may confer benefits to biofilm populations. It enhances the formation of micro-niches in the inner regions of the biofilm in which bacteria are not easily reached by antibiotics. Whereas quorum sensing inhibitors can delay the onset of increased resistance, their advantage is lost after up-regulation. This emphasizes the importance of timing for treatment of biofilms with antibiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11538-018-0433-3DOI Listing
July 2018

The emu oil emulsified in egg lecithin and butylated hydroxytoluene enhanced the proliferation, stemness gene expression, and in vitro wound healing of adipose-derived stem cells.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim 2018 Mar 29;54(3):205-216. Epub 2018 Jan 29.

The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In recent decades, mesenchymal stem cells originated from adipose tissue (adipose-derived stem cells, ASCs) have gained increased attention for production of cell-based therapeutics. Emu oil as a natural compound showed antioxidant effects in previous studies. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of crude emu oil on the proliferation, cell cycle progression, stemness genes expression, and in vitro wound healing potential of ASCs. An emulsion of emu oil was prepared using egg lecithin and butylated hydroxytoluene to improve bioavailability and solubility of emu oil in the expansion medium. The ASCs were treated using a series of emu oil concentrations in emulsion form, diluted in expansion medium (0.03-3 mg/ml). The emu oil-free emulsion was used as control treatment. The results revealed that emu oil (1.25 mg/ml) in emulsion form significantly (p < 0.001) increased ASCs proliferation and colony formation. Additionally, emu oil caused upregulation of stemness marker genes (Sox2, Oct4, Nanog, and Nestin) (p < 0.05). The cell cycle analysis after emu oil treatments showed an increase in the population of ASCs in S-phase of the cell cycle. Besides, an accelerated in vitro scratch wound healing was observed in emu oil-treated ASCs. Emu oil enhanced proliferation, colony formation, stemness genes expression, and in vitro wound healing of ASCs. These findings suggest that emu oil treatment could maintain the stemness of ex vivo cultivated ASCs and enhance their regenerative potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11626-018-0228-8DOI Listing
March 2018

Evaluation of vitamin D status and its correlation with oxidative stress markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Int J Reprod Biomed 2017 Jun;15(6):345-350

Fatemeh Zahra Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: There is little evidence about antioxidant properties of vitamin D. Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress may play a major role in the pathophysiology of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but the association of vitamin D with oxidative stress is still not known in PCOS.

Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the correlation between serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D and oxidative stress markers in PCOS group compared to control group.

Materials And Methods: 60 PCOS women (20-40 yr old) and 90 healthy women as control group were participated in this case-control study. Fasting serum level of 25(OH) D, glucose, insulin, calcium, malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (PC), also homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) were measured.

Results: It was found that the mean of serum 25(OH)D was lower in the PCOS group (10.76±4.17) than in the control group (12.07±6.26) but this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.125). Fasting insulin, HOMA-IR and MDA were significantly higher in the PCOS patients as compared to the controls, whereas PC level did not differ for the two groups (p=0.156). No significant correlations were found between 25(OH)D levels and oxidative stress markers (MDA and PC).

Conclusion: The findings indicated no significant differences in the serum 25(OH)D levels between the PCOS patients and the matched controls. Also, no correlation was found between the serum vitamin D levels and oxidative stress markers in both groups.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5605855PMC
June 2017

Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) delivery to retina: an overview of current research advancements.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Dec 24;46(8):1694-1707. Epub 2017 Oct 24.

a The Umbilical Cord Stem Cell Research Center (UCSRC) , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences , Tabriz , Iran.

The intraocular administration of the ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been found to attenuate the photoreceptor degeneration and preserve retinal functions in the animal research models of the inherited or induced retinal disease. Studies with the aim of CNTF transfer to the posterior segment inside the eye have been directed to determine the best method for its administration. An ideal delivery method would overcome the eye drug elimination mechanisms or barriers and provide the sustained release of the CNTF into retina in the safest fashion with the minimum harm to the quality of life. This review focuses on the present state of CNTF delivery to retina, also provides an overview of available technologies and their challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1391820DOI Listing
December 2018

Involvement of nitrergic system in anticonvulsant effect of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus: Evaluation of iNOS and COX-2 genes expression.

Eur J Pharmacol 2017 Nov 4;815:454-461. Epub 2017 Oct 4.

Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

This study aims to investigate the role of zolpidem in lithium-pilocarpine induced status epilepticus (SE) and probable mechanisms involved in seizure threshold alteration. In the present study, lithium chloride (127mg/kg) was administered 20h prior to pilocarpine (60mg/kg) to induce SE in adult male Wistar rats. Different doses of zolpidem (0.1, 1, 2, 5, 10mg/kg) were injected 30min before pilocarpine administration. Furthermore, to find out whether nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in the observed effect, L-arginine and L-NAME were injected 15min before zolpidem. Afterward, we identified the particular NO isoform mediating the effect of zolpidem by injecting aminoguanidine (AG) and 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI) 15min prior to zolpidem. Moreover, in both 6 and 24h after pilocarpine injection, experimental groups underwent hippocampectomy to evaluate cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) genes expression by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Pre-treatment with zolpidem significantly prevented the onset of SE in a dose-dependent manner. AG and L-NAME significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant effect of zolpidem while L-arginine inverted this effect. Our qRT-PCR exerted that there was a continuous elevation of iNOS and COX-2 genes expression over 6 and 24h after pilocarpine administration in SE and L-arginine+Zolpidem groups while in AG/L-NAME+Zolpidem and zolpidem groups this upregulation was prevented. Our study indicates that zolpidem prevents the onset of SE through inhibition of iNOS/COX-2 genes upregulation following lithium-pilocarpine administration. Consistent with our results, we suggest that iNOS activation could be probably upstream of COX-2 gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2017.10.002DOI Listing
November 2017

Fuzzy logic modeling of Pb (II) sorption onto mesoporous NiO/ZnCl-Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite prepared by ultrasound-assisted co-precipitation technique.

Ultrason Sonochem 2018 Jan 24;40(Pt A):748-762. Epub 2017 Aug 24.

Ayatollah Amoli Branch, Department of Chemical Engineering, Islamic Azad University, Amol, Iran.

In this study, NiO/Rosa Canina-L seeds activated carbon nanocomposite (NiO/ACNC) was prepared by adding dropwise NaOH solution (2mol/L) to raise the suspension pH to around 9 at room temperature under ultrasonic irradiation (200W) as an efficient method and characterized by FE-SEM, FTIR and N adsorption-desorption isotherm. The effect of different parameters such as contact time (0-120min), initial metal ion concentration (25-200mg/L), temperature (298, 318 and 333K), amount of adsorbent (0.002-0.007g) and the solution's initial pH (1-7) on the adsorption of Pb (II) was investigated in batch-scale experiments. The equilibrium data were well fitted by Langmuir model type 1 (R>0.99). The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (q) of NiO/ACNC was 1428.57mg/L. Thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS°) were also calculated. The results showed that the adsorption of Pb (II) onto NiO/ACNC was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic under studied conditions. In addition, a fuzzy-logic-based model including multiple inputs and one output was developed to predict the removal efficiency of Pb (II) from aqueous solution. Four input variables including pH, contact time (min), dosage (g) and initial concentration of Pb (II) were fuzzified using an artificial intelligence-based approach. The fuzzy subsets consisted of triangular membership functions with eight levels and a total of 26 rules in the IF-THEN approach which was implemented on a Mamdani-type of fuzzy inference system. Fuzzy data exhibited small deviation with satisfactory coefficient of determination (R>0.98) that clearly proved very good performance of fuzzy-logic-based model in prediction of removal efficiency of Pb (II). It was confirmed that NiO/ACNC had a great potential as a novel adsorbent to remove Pb (II) from aqueous solution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2017.08.022DOI Listing
January 2018

Does Evolocumab, as a PCSK9 Inhibitor, Ameliorate the Lipid Profile in Familial Hypercholesterolemia Patients? A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

J Pharm Pharm Sci 2017 ;20:81-96

Toxicology and Diseases Group, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a member of regulatory serine proteases which is mostly expressed in liver. In the physiological condition, LDL-C binds to LDL receptors (LDLRs) and via endocytosis, LDLRs are degraded. PCSK9 binds to the epidermal growth factor-like repeat A (EGFA) domain of extracellular LDLRs, and then physiological recycling of LDLRs from surface of liver is cancelled, resulting in elevation of circulating LDL-C in plasma. To evaluate whether evolucomab, as PCSK9 inhibitor monoclonal antibody, ameliorates lipid profile in familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) patients, this meta-analysis has been conducted. PubMed, Web of Science (ISI) and Scopus databases were searched for studies which had investigated the efficacy of evolucomab. Types of outcome investigated were percentage changes from baseline of the lipid profile. Our meta-analysis shows that evolucomab at the dosage of 420 mg monthly could decrease LDL-C  by 54.71%, TC by 35.08%, VLDL-C by 28.37 %, ratio of TC to HDL-C by 39.14 %, triglycerides by 12.11 %, and increased HDL-C by 6.06% from baseline compared to placebo at the end of study in FH patients. Our findings indicate that evolocumab could be a hopeful agent for challenging patients, such as statin intolerance or patients who fail to attain the target goal of LDL-C despite consumption of maximum doses of statins. This article is open to POST-PUBLICATION REVIEW. Registered readers (see "For Readers") may comment by clicking on ABSTRACT on the issue's contents page.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18433/J36C8NDOI Listing
December 2017

Zinc Deficiency and Oxidative Stress Involved in Valproic Acid Induced Hepatotoxicity: Protection by Zinc and Selenium Supplementation.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2017 Sep 25;179(1):102-109. Epub 2017 Jan 25.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug, which its usage is limited due to its hepatotoxicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), necessary trace elements, against VPA-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, VPA 200 mg/kg, VPA + Zn (100 mg/kg), VPA + Se (100 mg/kg), and VPA + Zn + Se. The administration of VPA for four consecutive weeks resulted in decrease in serum level of Zn in rats. Also, an increase in liver marker enzymes (ALT and AST) and also histological changes in liver tissue were shown after VPA administration. Oxidative stress was evident in VPA group by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl (PCO), glutathione (GSH) oxidation, and reducing total antioxidant capacity. Zn and Se (100 mg/kg) administration was able to protect against deterioration in liver enzyme, abrogated the histological change in liver tissue, and suppressed the increase in oxidative stress markers. Zn and combination of Zn plus Se treatment showed more protective effects than Se alone. These results imply that Zn and Se should be suggested as effective supplement products for the prevention of VPA-induced hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-017-0944-zDOI Listing
September 2017

Effects of Platelet-Rich Plasma & Platelet-Rich Fibrin with and without Stromal Cell-Derived Factor-1 on Repairing Full-Thickness Cartilage Defects in Knees of Rabbits.

Iran J Med Sci 2016 Nov;41(6):507-517

Department of Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to create biomaterial scaffolds like platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) containing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF) as a chemokine to induce hyaline cartilage regeneration of rabbit knee in a full thickness defect.

Methods: We created a full thickness defect in the trochlear groove of thirty-six bilateral knees of eighteen mature male rabbits. The knees were randomly divided into six groups (group I: untreated control, group II: PRP, group III: PRF, group IV: Gelatin+SDF, group V: PRP+SDF, and group VI: PRF+SDF). After four weeks, the tissue specimens were evaluated by macroscopic examination and histological grading, immunofluorescent staining for collagen type II, and analyzed for cartilage marker genes by real-time PCR. The data were compared using statistical methods (SPSS 20, Kruskal-Wallis test, Bonferroni post hoc test and P<0.05).

Results: Macroscopic evaluations revealed that international cartilage repair society (ICRS) scores of the PRF+SDF group were higher than other groups. Microscopic analysis showed that the ICRS score of the PRP group was significantly lower than other groups. Immunofluorescent staining for collagen II demonstrated a remarkable distribution of type II collagen in the Gel+SDF, PRP+SDF and PRF+SDF groups compared with other groups. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of SOX9 and aggrecan were significantly greater in the PRF+SDF, PRP+SDF, Gel+SDF and PRF groups than the control group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: Our results indicate that implantation of PRF scaffold containing SDF1 led to the greatest evaluation scores of full-thickness lesions in rabbits.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5106566PMC
November 2016