Publications by authors named "Maryam Gharacheh"

9 Publications

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Acceptability and safety of the menstrual cups among Iranian women: a cross-sectional study.

BMC Womens Health 2021 Mar 13;21(1):105. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Menstrual cup is one of the menstrual management products that is available throughout the world and can be effective in improving women's quality of life by empowering women in menstrual management. Although menstrual cups have recently entered the Iranian market, the use of this product is limited among women. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability and safety of menstrual cups among Iranian women.

Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted in 2020. Iranian women between the ages of 18 and 50 with regular menstrual periods who used the menstrual cup at least for three months were included. Participants were selected through continuous sampling, and they completed a web-based questionnaire including a demographic characteristics form as well as checklists on acceptability and safety through a link sent electronically via social media.

Results: The mean score of the overall satisfaction with the cup was 6.54 ± 0.76, and the leakage had the lowest mean score among the satisfaction items (5.25 ± 1.63). About 83% of participants reported experiencing menstrual cup leakage. Among the reported health risks, the highest mean score was for vaginal pain during removal (23.9%). Most participants (83.9%) were familiar with the cup via social networks and 98.6% recommended this product to other women.

Conclusions: The high level of acceptability and safety of the menstrual cup showed that this product is a suitable alternative for menstrual management in Iranian women. The results of the study help healthcare providers to learn more about the potential advantages and disadvantages of using cup and create trust in the menstrual cup use based on the results of local evidence-based research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12905-021-01259-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7955610PMC
March 2021

A multicenter randomized controlled trial protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on fertility knowledge, intention and behavior among Iranian new couples.

BMC Public Health 2020 Dec 17;20(1):1917. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Nursing Care Research Center, School of Nursing and Midwifery, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Recent evidence shows that men and women have inadequate fertility knowledge which may negatively affect their childbearing decisions in future. Given the fact that decision making for fertility needs accurate information, targeted educational interventions especially through media are needed to improve knowledge regarding the best age of fertility, factors affecting fertility potential and fertility options available for sub-fertile couples. Aim of the study is to evaluate whether a fertility educational program can be effective in increasing fertility knowledge, childbearing intention and the planned pregnancy rate among couples referring to premarital counselling centers.

Methods: This study is a parallel randomised clinical trial with pre-test/post-test design. We will recruit 1240 marrying couples referring for compulsory premarital counselling in public health centers through stratified sampling in five metropolitan cities of Iran. The intervention group will receive both the typical premarital counselling training and a fertility knowledge package containing verbal and virtual educational package at five time episodes (one verbal session and four virtual sessions) within 4 weeks. The primary outcomes are fertility knowledge, childbearing intention and the first planned pregnancy rate (positive pregnancy test) and the secondary outcomes include contraception method use, miscarriage and unplanned pregnancy. Participants will respond to a self-administered demographic/reproductive characteristics questionnaire, the Cardiff Fertility Knowledge Scale (CFKS) and the childbearing intention questionnaire. Data will be collected through online questionnaires at baseline and 3, 12 and 18 months after the intervention. Data will be analyzed using Chi-square or Fisher-exact test for categorical variables, Independent sample t-test for normally distributed quantitative variables and Mann-Whitney U test for non-normally distributed quantitative variables. To compare the outcomes between the two groups over the time, repeated measures ANOVA will be used. We hypothesize that the positive impact of increasing the fertility knowledge is the reduced involuntarily childlessness.

Discussion: The findings are proposed to inform government policies and public education strategies aiming at supporting childbearing among young couples who postpone their first pregnancy while they might not have any important social and economic obstacles.

Trial Registration: This study was approved by Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT), Number: IRCT20201005048925N1 , Date of registration: 2020-10-12.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-10029-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745471PMC
December 2020

Prenatal attachment in pregnancy following assisted reproductive technology: a literature review.

J Reprod Infant Psychol 2020 02 18;38(1):86-108. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Nursing Care Research Centre, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

: To summarise the literature on prenatal attachment in pregnancies following Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART).: Prenatal attachment can predict the quality of the postpartum parent-infant relationship and is linked to perinatal mental health of the parents and their adjustment to the parental role. It might be expected prenatal attachment will be influenced by fertility treatment such as ART, but there are contradictory results.: In this review, studies with a cross-sectional and longitudinal design, published in 1990-2019 were included. A search was conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science and Scopus, and using the Google Scholar search engine. A total of 17 articles were found which met the inclusion criteria and after these articles were reviewed using the STROBE-checklist, 15 articles were included in the study.: In most couples who conceived following ART, the level of prenatal attachment was either similar to or higher than in couples who conceive without ART.: The findings challenge the idea that infertility problems affect attachment in pregnancies following ART. However, ART- couples may be more susceptible to anxiety due to pregnancy loss and support may be better focused on the pregnancy-related anxiety in these couples rather than any attachment intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02646838.2019.1705261DOI Listing
February 2020

A phenomenological study of the experience of domestic violence in Iranian women with HIV.

J Biosoc Sci 2020 03 29;52(2):168-183. Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Midwifery, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.

This study explores the lived experience of domestic violence in HIV-infected women in Iran using a qualitative phenomenological approach. Data were collected in 2014 through in-depth interview of twelve HIV-infected women purposefully selected from a counselling centre in Tehran. The qualitative data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. The main theme that emerged was 'the sunset of life' - an emotional numbing and fragile marital relationship resulting from the violence suffered by the women. From this, three sub-themes expressing women's feelings of hopelessness were extracted: 'the destroyed life', 'being in the destiny prison' and 'living on the edge of annihilation'. The results revealed that although the experience of domestic violence had devastating effects on women's lives, HIV infection was the factor that forced them to remain trapped in violent relationships. The findings emphasize the importance of designing comprehensive violence prevention strategies tailored to meeting the needs of HIV-infected women in Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021932019000336DOI Listing
March 2020

Determinants of Early Marriage from Married Girls' Perspectives in Iranian Setting: A Qualitative Study.

J Environ Public Health 2016 30;2016:8615929. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Department of Health Education, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Early marriage is a worldwide problem associated with a range of health and social consequences for teenage girls. Designing effective health interventions for managing early marriage needs to apply the community-based approaches. However, it has received less attention from policymakers and health researchers in Iran. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore determinants of early marriage from married girls' perspectives. The study was conducted from May 2013 to January 2015 in Ahvaz, Iran. A purposeful sampling method was used to select fifteen eligible participants. Data were collected through face-to-face, semistructured interviews and were analyzed using the conventional content analysis approach. Three categories emerged from the qualitative data including "family structure," "Low autonomy in decision-making," and "response to needs." According to the results, although the participants were not ready to get married and intended to postpone their marriage, multiple factors such as individual and contextual factors propelled them to early marriage. Given that early marriage is a multifactorial problem, health care providers should consider a multidimensional approach to support and empower these vulnerable girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8615929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829716PMC
December 2016

Iranian pregnant teenage women tell the story of "fast development": A phenomenological study.

Women Birth 2016 Aug 1;29(4):303-9. Epub 2015 Dec 1.

Department of Reproductive Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major health problem significantly associated with negative impacts on the health of both teenage mothers and their newborn. However, little is known about teenage pregnancy from teenager's perspective, particularly in developing countries including Iran.

Aim: This study aimed to explore the experience of pregnancy in Iranian teenage women.

Methods: An interpretive phenomenological study was used as a suitable research design to conduct this research. Data were collected through individual, semi structured and in-depth interview with 11 married teenage women aged between 15 and 19 years old, primigravida with singleton pregnancy. Data were analysed through thematic analysis approach.

Findings: "Fast development" was the main theme that emerged from the participants' experiences. It refers to the unexpected development process that occurs simultaneously with other important development events. Fast development consists of three themes, 'unexpected development', 'development within development', and 'struggle with development'.

Conclusion: Teenage pregnant women simultaneously encounter multiple developmental challenges related to adolescence period, marriage, pregnancy, and mothering responsibilities. According to the results, fast development concept should be considered by healthcare providers in order to offer comprehensive and age-appropriate health services to pregnant teenage women for successful transition from the multiple developmental stages. Moreover, this concept will help health care providers, especially midwives, to understand how to deal with pregnant teenagers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wombi.2015.11.003DOI Listing
August 2016

Domestic Violence During Pregnancy and Women's Health-Related Quality of Life.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Jun 1;8(2):27-34. Epub 2015 Jun 1.

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Domestic violence during pregnancy is a major health problem with significant psychological and physical impairments for pregnant women. To assess the relationship between domestic violence during pregnancy and women's health-related quality of life (HRQoL), a cross-sectional study was conducted on 341 postnatal women who referred to urban health care centers in Gachsaran, Islamic Republic of Iran. Domestic violence was assessed using a questionnaire modified from the Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS), and Iranian version of Short Form-36 questionnaire was used to assess women's HRQoL. The findings of the study showed 44.5% of women reported experiencing domestic violence during pregnancy. All the SF-36 subscales including both physical and mental health dimensions scored lower in the abused women compared to the non-abused women, and differences between the groups in the six subscales of SF-36 except 'physical functioning' and 'bodily pain' were statistically significant (P<.05). These results suggest that domestic violence during pregnancy is associated with poor HRQoL in abused women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v8n2p27DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803975PMC
June 2015

The Lived Experience of Domestic Violence in Iranian HIV-Infected Women.

Glob J Health Sci 2015 Feb 24;7(5):43-50. Epub 2015 Feb 24.

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Domestic violence is one of the most prevalent problems linked to HIV. Domestic violence in HIV-infected women has not been sufficiently explored, particularly in developing countries including Iran. This study aimed to explore the lived experience of domestic violence in Iranian HIV-infected women. A qualitative approach was used to conduct the study. Data were collected through semi-structured, in-depth interviews with ten HIV-infected women and were analyzed using content analysis. During the data analysis, four main themes emerged including, "regretful past", "disappointing future", "loneliness", and "no other option", which refer to the condition that the participants experienced in their lives due to challenges that mainly stem from the experience of HIV-related domestic violence. HIV infection can be a risk factor for domestic violence. Health care providers need to address domestic violence during the assessment of HIV-infected women and make appropriate referrals for abused women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n5p43DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4803845PMC
February 2015

Pregnancy through the Lens of Iranian Women with HIV: A Qualitative Study.

J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 2016 Mar-Apr;15(2):148-52. Epub 2015 Jul 8.

Reproductive Health department, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

To explore the experience of pregnancy among Iranian women with HIV, 12 HIV-infected pregnant women who referred to counseling center for behavioral diseases in Imam Khomeini Hospital were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected by face-to-face, semi-structured interview and were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Four main themes emerged from the data: fear and hope, stigma and discrimination, marital life stability, and trust in God. Despite concerns about mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and uncertain life span, HIV-infected women tended to continue their pregnancy, and having children was viewed as a window of hope for them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325957415593636DOI Listing
June 2016