Publications by authors named "Maryam Boshtam"

35 Publications

Generation of HBsAg DNA aptamer using modified cell-based SELEX strategy.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 5;48(1):139-146. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Aptamers as potential alternatives for antibodies could be employed against hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the great hallmark and first serological marker in HBV, for further theragnostic applications. Therefore, isolation HBsAg specific aptamer was performed in this study with a modified Cell-SELEX method. HEK293T overexpressing HBsAg and HEK293T as target and control cells respectively, were incubated with single-stranded rounds of DNA library during six SELEX and Counter SELEX rounds. Here, we introduced the new modified Cell-SELEX using deoxyribonuclease I digestion to separate single stranded DNA aptamers against the HBsAg. Characterization and evaluation of selected sequences were performed using flow cytometry analysis. The results led to isolation of 15 different ssDNA clones in six rounds of selection which were categorized to four clusters based on common structural motifs. The evaluation of SELEX progress showed growth in aptamer affinity with increasing in the cycle number. Taken together, the application of modified cell-SELEX demonstrated the isolation of HBsAg-specific ssDNA aptamers with proper affinity. Modified cell-SELEX as an efficient method can shorten the selection procedure and increase the success rate while the benefits of cell-based SELEX will be retained. Selected aptamers could be applied in purification columns, diagnostic kits, and drug delivery system against HBV-related liver cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-05995-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Recombinant C-Reactive Protein: A Potential Candidate for the Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis of BALB/c Mice Caused by Leishmania major.

Acta Parasitol 2021 Mar 16;66(1):53-59. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Hezarjerib Street, 8174643446, Isfahan, Iran.

Purpose: Leishmaniasis, a widespread parasitic disease, is a public health concern that is endemic in more than 90 countries. Owing to the drug resistance and also undesirable complications, designing new therapeutic methods are essential. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute phase protein of plasma with several immune modulatory functions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of human recombinant CRP (hrCRP) on treating cutaneous leishmaniasis in mice models.

Methods: hrCRP was expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami and extracted from the SDS-PAGE gel. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated subcutaneously at the base of their tails by 1 × 10 stationary-phase of Leishmania major promastigotes (MHRO/IR/75/ER) suspended in sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Nodules and subsequently, ulcers developed 14 days post-injection. 1.5 µg of the purified protein was administered on lesions of pre-infected mice by Leishmania major in the intervention group for five consecutive days.

Results: The mean area of the lesions was decreased by about seven folds in the intervention group as compared to the control group after two weeks of the treatment (p = 0.024). The results were verified by the real-time polymerase chain reaction so that the parasite burden was determined 2 times in the control group as compared to the intervention group (p = 0.02). Two weeks after treatment, the conversion of the lesions to scars in the intervention group was observed.

Conclusion: The results indicate a potential therapeutic role for hrCRP in improving cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania major in mice models. The healing was in a stage-dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11686-020-00251-wDOI Listing
March 2021

MicroRNAs as the actors in the atherosclerosis scenario.

J Physiol Biochem 2020 Feb 5;76(1):1-12. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Atherosclerosis is considered as the most common cardiovascular disease and a leading cause of global mortality, which develops through consecutive steps. Various cellular and molecular biomarkers such as microRNAs are identified to be involved in atherosclerosis progression. MicroRNAs are a group of endogenous, short, non-coding RNAs, which are able to bind to specific sequences on target messenger RNAs and thereby modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. MicroRNAs are key players in wide range of biological processes; thus, their expression level is regulated in pathophysiological conditions. Ample evidences including in vitro and in vivo studies approved a critical role of microRNAs in epigenetic and the sequential processes of atherosclerosis from risk factors to plaque formation, progression, and rupture. Based on these findings, miRNAs seems to be promising candidates for therapeutic approach. This review summarizes the role of miRNAs in atherosclerosis development, epigenetic, and therapy. Moreover, the application of exosomes in miRNA delivery, and/or their prognostic and diagnostic values are also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13105-019-00710-7DOI Listing
February 2020

Optimization and Comparison of Different Methods and Factors for Efficient Transformation of RB51strain.

Adv Biomed Res 2019 30;8:37. Epub 2019 May 30.

Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: The development of protective vaccines for spp. has been hampered by the difficulty in transformation of cells with foreign DNA for genetic manipulation. It seems that the formation of spheroplasts would increase the efficiency of transformation. The aim of this study was to devise an efficient method for the transformation of spp.

Materials And Methods: At first, spheroplast of was prepared by glycine and ampicillin induction and transformed using optimized protocols of CaCl, electroporation, and lipofection methods. Then, the efficacy of transformation was compared between the three-mentioned methods.

Results: Ampicillin-induced spheroplasts from early-log phase culture of when incubated in a medium-containing 0.2 M sucrose during cell recovery had higher transformation efficiency in three different methods. Comparison of the transformation efficiency of RB51 using the CaCl, lipofection, and electroporation methods revealed that the transformation efficiency with the lipofection method was significantly higher than with other two methods ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Lipofection method by lipofectamine 2000 on ampicillin-induced spheroplasts can be a suitable approach for transformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_14_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6555225PMC
May 2019

Development of α4 integrin DNA aptamer as a potential therapeutic tool for multiple sclerosis.

J Cell Biochem 2019 09 20;120(9):16264-16272. Epub 2019 May 20.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

One of the most important molecules for multiple sclerosis pathogenesis is α4 integrin, which is responsible for autoreactive leukocytes migration into the brain. The monoclonal antibody, natalizumab, was introduced to market for blocking the extravasation of autoreactive leukocytes via inhibition of α4 integrin. However, the disadvantages of antibodies provided a suitable background for other agents to be replaced with antibodies. Considering the profound advantages of aptamers over antibodies, aptamer isolation against α4 integrin was intended in the current study. The α4 integrin-specific aptamers were selected using cell-systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method with human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293T overexpressing α4 integrin and HEK-293T as target and control cells, respectively. Evaluation of selected aptamer was performed through flow cytometric analysis. The selected clones were then sequenced and analyzed for any possible secondary structure and affinity. The results of this study led to isolation of 13 different single-stranded DNA clones in 11 rounds of selection which were categorized to three clusters based on common structural motifs and the equilibrium dissociation constant (K ) of the most stable structure was calculated. The evaluation of SELEX progress showed growth in aptamer affinity with increasing of the number of cycles. Taken together, the findings of this study demonstrated the isolation of α4-specific single-stranded DNA aptamers with suitable affinity for ligand, which can further be replaced with natalizumab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.28907DOI Listing
September 2019

Display of human and rabbit monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 on human embryonic kidney 293T cell surface.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Oct;13(5):430-439

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) is a protein that is secreted immediately upon endothelial injury, and thereby it plays a key role in inflammation via recruitment of leucocytes to the site of inflammation at the beginning and throughout the inflammatory processes. Aim of this study was to develop two separate cell lines displaying either human MCP-1 (HMCP-1) or rabbit MCP-1 (RMCP-1) on their surface. A DNA fragment containing HMCP-1- or RMCP-1-encoding sequence was inserted into a pcDNA plasmid. cells strain TOP 10F' was separately transformed with the pcDNA/ or / ligation mixture. Following the cloning and construct verification, human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK 293T) was transfected with either of the linearized plasmids. Plasmid integration into the genomic DNA of HEK 293T cells was verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HMCP-1 and RMCP-1 expression was evaluated at RNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. PCR products of the expected sizes were amplified from the chromosomal DNA of transfected HEK 293T cells, i.e. 644 bp for H-MCP1 and 737 bp for RMCP-1 constructs. Real-time PCR revealed that the copy numbers of and mRNA per cell were 294 and 500, respectively. Flow cytometry analysis indicated 85% for RMCP-1 and 87% for HMCP-1 expression levels on the surface of transfected cells, when compared with an isotype control. The experiments thus confirmed that the genes were integrated into the HEK 293T genomic DNA and the encoded proteins were stably expressed on the cell surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.236836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082034PMC
October 2018

Construction and characterization of human embryonic kidney-(HEK)-293T cell overexpressing truncated α4 integrin.

Res Pharm Sci 2018 Aug;13(4):353-359

Isfahan Neurosciences Research Center, Alzahra Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Blockade of α4 integrin by antibodies could be an appropriate treatment strategy in multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease. Considering disadvantages of antibodies, other elements (e.g. aptamers) have been proposed for antibodies replacement. Isolation of aptamers through cell-SELEX (systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment) method requires positive and negative expressing α4 integrin cell lines. For a better isolation, we intended to construct a negative cell line lacking of specific ligand binding site of α4 integrin. strain top 10 was used for truncated integrin subunit α4 () expression vector. Human embryonic kidney (HEK)-293T cell was transfected with linearized plasmid and subsequently screened for stable truncated expressing cells. Chromosomal DNA of truncated -transfected cells was extracted and the presence of truncated gene in HEK-293T genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The expression level of truncated on HEK-293T cells was also analysed by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Real-time PCR and flow cytometric analysis showed significant difference of truncated expression between untransfected HEK-293T cells compared to transfected cells. The results suggest that we have successfully constructed the truncated integrin α4 expressing HEK-293T cell, which will facilitate further research into the production of antibody, nanobody, and aptamer against α4 integrin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.235162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6040166PMC
August 2018

Disruption of SOX6 gene using CRISPR/Cas9 technology for gamma-globin reactivation: An approach towards gene therapy of β-thalassemia.

J Cell Biochem 2018 11 16;119(11):9357-9363. Epub 2018 Jul 16.

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Elevation of Hemoglobin F ameliorates symptoms of β-thalassemia, a common autosomal recessive disorder. The transcription factor SOX6 plays a key role in the γ to β-globin gene switching. In the current investigation, a mutation was induced using the CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the binding domain region of SOX6 to reactivate γ-globin expression. Three CRISPR/Cas9 cassettes were provided, whose single-guide RNAs targeted different regions in the SOX6 gene-binding domain. After transfection of K562 cells with CRISPR a, b and c, and subsequent erythroid differentiation, the indel percentage of the cells was about 30%, 25%, and 24%, respectively. Relative quantification showed that the γ-globin mRNA level increased to 1.3-, 2.1-, and 1.1-fold in the cells treated with CRISPR/Cas9 a, b, and c, respectively, compared with untreated cells. Our results show that mutation induction in the binding site of the SOX6 gene leads to γ-globin reactivation. These findings support the idea that CRISPR interrupts the SOX6 binding site, and, as a result, SOX6 is incapable of binding the γ-globin promoter. In conclusion, SOX6 disruption could be considered as a therapeutic approach for β-thalassemia treatment. CRISPR/Cas9 was selected for this purpose as it is the most rapidly evolving technology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27253DOI Listing
November 2018

Expression and purification of biologically active recombinant rabbit monocyte chemoattractant protein1 in Escherichia coli.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2018 05;365(9)

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan 8174643446, Iran.

Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) with recruiting monocytes is an important factor at the beginning of inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis which seems its blocking preclude this process and help improvement of related diseases. To perform clinical research in this field, MCP1 protein is required but firstly, animal studies should be done. As the rabbit is a suitable model for many inflammatory disorders, and Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) (BL21) cell is a high-efficiency host for protein expression, we decided to produce recombinant rabbit MCP1 (rRMCP1) in BL21/pET28a system. After codon usage, a construct containing RMCP1 sequence was synthesized, cloned into the pET28a plasmid, and overexpressed in BL21 cells. Followed that, with changing expression condition such as cell concentration before the induction, time period, temperature, shaking rate and inducer concentration (IPTG), rRMCP1 expression was optimized, and purified by Ni-NTA. The biological activity of the expressed protein was verified using monocyte migration assay. Using this expression system, nearly 28 mg/mL rRMCP1 was produced at 26°C/180 rpm for 24 h in LB broth medium with 1 mM IPTG. Therefore, we were succeeded to express the intermediate level of rRMCP1 with this method. This amount of protein is sufficient for biological researches in the laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fny070DOI Listing
May 2018

The silencing effect of miR-30a on gene expression : an approach for gene therapy.

Res Pharm Sci 2017 Dec;12(6):456-464

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, I.R. Iran.

Integrins are adhesion molecules which play crucial roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Very late antigen-4 or α4β1 and lymphocyte Peyer's patch adhesion molecule-1 or α4β7, are key factors in the invasion of tumor cells and metastasis. Based on the previous reports, integrin α4 () is overexpressed in some immune disorders and cancers. Thus, inhibition of could be a therapeutic strategy. In the present study, miR-30a was selected in order to suppress expression. The 3' UTR was amplified, cloned in the Z2827-M67-() plasmid and named as Z2827-M67/3'UTR. HeLa cells were divided into five groups; (1) untreated without any transfection, (2) mock with Z2827-M67/3'UTR transfection and X-tremeGENE reagent, (3) negative control with Z2827-M67/3'UTR transfection alone, (4) test with miR-30a mimic and Z2827-M67/3'UTR transfection and (5) scramble with miR-30a scramble and Z2827-M67/3'UTR transfection. The MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell survival and cytotoxicity in each group. Real-time RT-PCR was applied for the expression analysis. The findings of this study showed that miR-30a downregulated expression and had no effect on the cell survival. Due to the silencing effect of miR-30a on the gene expression, this agent could be considered as a potential tool for cancer and immune disorders therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1735-5362.217426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5691572PMC
December 2017

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 as a Regulator of Fibrosis.

J Cell Biochem 2018 01 12;119(1):17-27. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Fibrosis is known as a frequent and irreversible pathological condition which is associated with organ failure. Tissue fibrosis is a central process in a variety of chronic progressive diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and persistent inflammation. This state could contribute to chronic injury and the initiation of tissue repair. Fibrotic disorders represent abnormal wound healing with defective matrix turnover and clearance that lead to excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix components. A variety of identified growth factors, cytokines, and persistently activated myofibroblasts have critical roles in the pathogenesis of fibrosis. Irrespective of etiology, the transforming growth factor-β pathway is the major driver of fibrotic response. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a crucial downstream target of this pathway. Transforming growth factor-β positively regulates PAI-1 gene expression via two main pathways including Smad-mediated canonical and non-canonical pathways. Overexpression of PAI-1 reduces extracellular matrix degradation via perturbing the plasminogen activation system. Indeed, elevated PAI-1 levels inhibit proteolytic activity of tissue plasminogen activator and urokinase plasminogen activator which could contribute to a variety of inflammatory elements in the injury site and to excessive matrix deposition. This review summarizes the current knowledge of critical pathways that regulate PAI-1 gene expression and suggests effective approaches for the treatment of fibrotic disease. J. Cell. Biochem. 119: 17-27, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.26146DOI Listing
January 2018

Aptamers Against Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines: A Review.

Inflammation 2017 Feb;40(1):340-349

Department of Genetics and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Inflammatory disorders result from continuous inflammation in injured sites. Many molecules are involved in this process; the inhibition of which could prevent the inflammation. Chemokines are a group of these biological mediators which are categorized into pro-, anti-, and pro-/anti-inflammatory. Thus, targeting these essential molecules can be an effective way for prevention and control of inflammatory diseases. Various therapeutic agents have been developed for primary and secondary prevention of these disorders, but each of them has its own limitations. Aptamers, as novel therapeutic agents, are a new generation of drugs which could replace other medications even antibodies. Aptamer can bind to its target molecule to trap it and prohibit its function. Among large group of inflammatory cytokines, only 11 aptamers have been selected either against cytokines or their related receptors. These cytokines include interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-11, IL-17, IL-32, TGF-β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CCL2, and IP-10. Most of the isolated aptamers are against pro-inflammatory or dual function cytokines, and it seems that they could be used for diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the related inflammatory diseases. Most of the aptamers have been tested in vitro, but so far, none of them has been approved for in vivo use. Given a vast number of inflammatory cytokines, more aptamers against this group of biological molecules will be selected in the near future. The available aptamers will also be tested in clinical trials. Therefore, a significant improvement is expected for the prevention and control of inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-016-0477-1DOI Listing
February 2017

Assessing body shape index as a risk predictor for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome among Iranian adults.

Nutrition 2014 Jun 1;30(6):636-44. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Food Security Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran; Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: Several studies have concluded a positive association between abdominal obesity, general obesity, and chronic diseases. However, the best anthropometric measures to predict the risk for chronic diseases should be clarified in each population. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the predictive power of A Body Shape Index (ABSI), body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-height ratio and Clinica Universidad de Navarra-Body Adiposity Estimator for metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks among Iranians in different age and sex categories.

Methods: This population-based cross-sectional study conducted on 9555 individuals, ages ≥19 y. Anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and biochemical markers were measured using standard protocols. Hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypercholesterolemia, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were considered as the CVD risks.

Results: Mean (SD) of age and BMI of participants were 38.7 y (mean 15.5) and 25.7 kg/m(2) (mean 4.6), respectively. ABSI demonstrated the weakest correlations and lowest area under curve (AUC) for various risk factors and MetS. However, the highest odds ratio was observed for ABSI and MetS in different age and sex categories.

Conclusions: Based on the AUC, we concluded that ABSI is a weak predictor for CVD risks and MetS. More studies are needed to determine the best predictor of CVD risk among the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2013.10.021DOI Listing
June 2014

Comparison of effects of soft margarine, blended, ghee, and unhydrogenated oil with hydrogenated oil on serum lipids: A randomized clinical trail.

ARYA Atheroscler 2013 Nov;9(6):363-71

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Trans fatty acids (TFAs) are known as the most harmful type of dietary fats. Therefore, this study was done to compare the effects of some different oils including unhydrogenated, blended, ghee, and soft magazine with hydrogenated oil on serum lipid profile of healthy adults.

Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial conducted on 206 healthy participants of 20 to 60 years of age. Subjects were randomly divided into 5 groups and each of them was treated with a diet containing unhydrogenated oil, ghee, blended oil, soft margarine, or hydrogenated oil for 40 days. Fasting serum lipids were measured before and after the study.

Results: Compared to hydrogenated oil, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) had a significant reduction in all groups, LDL-C declined in unhydrogenated oil and soft margarine groups, and apolipoprotein (Apo) B only in unhydrogenated oil group (all P < 0.05). However, there was a significant enhancement in ApoA of ghee oil (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Consuming unhydrogenated oil, ghee, soft margarine, and blended oil had some beneficial effects on serum lipids.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933054PMC
November 2013

Impacts of fresh lime juice and peel on atherosclerosis progression in an animal model.

ARYA Atheroscler 2013 Nov;9(6):357-62

Isfahan Hypertension Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: The main protective role of antioxidants in the progression of atherosclerosis has been shown in some studies. Therefore, this project evaluated the effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel on antioxidant activity and atherosclerosis progression in rabbits receiving a hypercholesterolemic diet.

Methods: Forty white New Zealand male rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups. All groups were on hypercholesterolemic diet for two months. While the first group was considered as the hypercholesterolemic control, groups 2 and 3 (intervention groups) received 5 ml/day lime juice and 1 g/day dried lime peel powder, respectively. Group 4 was fed a normal diet (normal control). Before and after the study, weight was measured and a fasting blood specimen was taken from the rabbits. Serum lipids analyses and antioxidant activity evaluations were then performed. The rabbits' aorta and coronary arteries were separated and the presence of fatty streaks was studied.

Results: Comparing to the hypercholesterolemic control group (-25.2 ± 7.0), only the plasma total antioxidant capacity change was significantly more in rabbits supplemented with lime juice (16.3 ± 14.7) and peel (8.6 ± 7.1) (P = 0.008). The presence of fatty streaks in coronary arteries and aorta of the intervention groups [juice (0.2 ± 0.01); peel (0.0 ± 0.00)] was significantly decreased compared to the hypercholesterolemic control group (1.2 ± 0.4) (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Based on our findings, Citrus aurantifolia peel and juice increase plasma antioxidant capacity in rabbits, and can thus prevent or decelerate the process of atherogenesis. However, lime peel is more effective than lime juice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3933061PMC
November 2013

Serum paraoxonase 1 activity is associated with fatty acid composition of high density lipoprotein.

Dis Markers 2013 12;35(4):273-80. Epub 2013 Sep 12.

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Cardioprotective effect of high density lipoprotein (HDL) is, in part, dependent on its related enzyme, paraoxonase 1 (PON1). Fatty acid composition of HDL could affect its size and structure. On the other hand, PON1 activity is directly related to the structure of HDL. This study was designed to investigate the association between serum PON1 activity and fatty acid composition of HDL in healthy men.

Methods: One hundred and forty healthy men participated in this research. HDL was separated by sequential ultracentrifugation, and its fatty acid composition was analyzed by gas chromatography. PON1 activity was measured spectrophotometrically using paraxon as substrate.

Results: Serum PON1 activity was directly correlated with the amount of stearic acid and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA). PON1/HDL-C was directly correlated with the amount of miristic acid, stearic acid, and DGLA and was inversely correlated with total amount of ω 6 fatty acids of HDL.

Conclusion: The fatty acid composition of HDL could affect the activity of its associated enzyme, PON1. As dietary fats are the major determinants of serum lipids and lipoprotein composition, consuming some special dietary fatty acids may improve the activity of PON1 and thereby have beneficial effects on health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/612035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3787566PMC
June 2014

Healthy eating index and cardiovascular risk factors among Iranians.

J Am Coll Nutr 2013 ;32(2):111-21

a Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , IRAN.

Objective: To determine the associations between Healthy Eating Index (HEI) and cardiometabolic risk factors among Iranian population.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 9568 Iranians who participated in Isfahan Healthy Heart program (IHHP). Dietary intakes were assessed using a 48-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). HEI scores were calculated based on the number of food groups, different kinds of fat intakes, sodium intake, and dietary diversity score in 10 separate components. The assessment of anthropometric and biochemical variables was done using standard protocols.

Results: Mean ± SD of the HEI score was 39.1 ± 5.2. Those in the highest quintile of HEI consumed more fruits, vegetables, and dairy products and had lower total fat, saturated fatty acid, cholesterol, and sodium intakes. HEI scores were inversely associated with serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in both women and men (β = -0.07 for both men and women; p < 0.001). Women in the highest quintile of HEI had the lowest mean values of systolic blood pressure and apolipoprotein B (mean ± SD = 112.7 ± 20.2, 112.6 ± 20.5, 110.6 ± 19.5 mmHg; p = 0.001 and mean ± SD = 99.3 ± 26.0, 100.1 ± 26.6, 97.7 ± 23.1 (mg/dL); p = 0.04, respectively). HEI weakly correlated with various cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusions: The low mean of HEI scores in this sample indicates the need to improve diet quality. Higher HEI scores were associated with healthier dietary habits and a weak inverse association was found between HEI scores and serum levels of CRP, apolipoprotein B, and systolic blood pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.767590DOI Listing
March 2014

How does the impact of a community trial on cardio-metabolic risk factors differ in terms of gender and living area? Findings from the Isfahan healthy heart program.

J Res Med Sci 2012 Aug;17(8):732-40

Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute,Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: To assess the impact of gender and living area on cardiovascular risk factors in the context of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention program.

Design: Data from independent sample surveys before (2000--2001) and after (2007) a community trial, entitled the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were used to compare differences in the intervention area (IA) and reference area (RA) by gender and living area.

Setting: The interventions targeted the population living in Isfahan and Najaf-Abad counties as IA and Arak as RA.

Participants: Overall, 12 514 individuals who were more than 19 years of age were studied at baseline, and 9570 were studied in postintervention phase.

Interventions: Multiple activities were conducted in connection with each of the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increasing physical activity, tobacco control, and coping with stress.

Main Outcomes: Comparing serum lipids levels, blood pressure, blood glucose and obesity indices changes between IA and RA based on sex and living areas during the study.

Results: In IA, while the prevalence of hypertension declined in urban and rural females (P < 0.05). In IA, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia decreased in both females and males of urban and rural areas except for hypercholesterolemia in rural males (P < 0.01). In RA, the significant changes include both decrease in the hypercholesterolemia among rural males (P < 0.001) and hypertriglyceridemia in urban females (P < 0.01), while hypertriglyceridemia was significantly increased in rural females (P < 0.01).

Conclusions: This comprehensive community trial was effective in controlling many risk factors in both sexes in urban and rural areas. These findings also reflect the transitional status of rural population in adopting urban lifestyle behaviors.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3687879PMC
August 2012

Effects of Pioglitazone on Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Nondiabetic Patients (EPICAMP Study): A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial.

PPAR Res 2013 18;2013:358074. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

AJA University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1411718541, Iran.

The present trial aimed to investigate the effects of pioglitazone on the serum level of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a marker of endothelial function, and some indices of inflammation and glucose and lipid metabolism in nondiabetic metabolic syndrome patients. 104 eligible participants (57% female; age between 20 and 70) were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomized to receive either pioglitazone (uptitrated to 30 mg/day) or matching placebo for 24 weeks. Participants were clinically examined and a blood sample was obtained at baseline and at the end of the trial. Pioglitazone significantly improved C-reactive protein level irrespective of changes in insulin sensitivity. Compared with the placebo group, alanine and aspartate transaminases were decreased and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was increased after treatment with pioglitazone. A considerably greater weight gain was also recorded in the intervention group. We failed to observe any significant changes in serum ADMA in either group and between groups with and without adjustment for age, sex, and components of the metabolic syndrome. In a nutshell, pioglitazone seems to have positive effects on lipid profile, liver transaminases, and systemic inflammation. However, its previously demonstrated endothelial function-improving properties do not seem to be mediated by ADMA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/358074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3654334PMC
May 2013

Is Friedewald formula a good estimation for low density lipoprotein level in Iranian population?

J Res Med Sci 2012 Jun;17(6):519-22

Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: Serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) level is an important biomarker for coronary artery disease (CAD). As direct LDL measurement is expensive and not cost effective, especially in a large population, it is estimated by Friedewald formula. Therefore, we decided to compare the direct LDL measurement method with LDL measured by Friedewald formula in a large general population for the first time in Iran. Furthermore, we examined the association of total cholesterol (TCh), triglyceride (TG), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) with LDL.

Subjects And Methods: This study was conducted on the subjects, aged 11-97 years, in the third phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) from three cities: Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak. A fasting blood sample was taken from all subjects and referred to Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center (ICRC) laboratory (central laboratory of IHHP) to assess TCh, TG, HDL, and LDL directly. Also, the LDL level was calculated by Friedewald formula, in addition.

Results: The mean level of LDL by direct method was lower than that calculated by Friedewald formula. The mean difference between the two methods was significant, which was 6.6 ± 15.5 mg/dl difference (t = -42.925, P < 0.0001). There was strong correlation between direct and calculated LDL levels (adjusted R(2) = 80.4%). Using regression model, a new formula was found for the estimation of LDL.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the Friedewald formula overestimates the LDL level compared to the direct method in general Iranian population. It is suggested that LDL measurement be carried out directly, especially in high-risk people. If a formula is necessary for LDL estimation, it is better to obtain an especial formula for each population.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3634287PMC
June 2012

Is the association between salt intake and blood pressure mediated by body mass index and central adiposity?

Arch Iran Med 2013 Mar;16(3):167-71

Hypertension Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective: To assess the amount of salt intake among normotensive (NT) and prehypertensive (PHT) subjects and to determine whether the association between salt intake and blood pressure is correlated with body weight and waist circumference (WC) or is independent.

Methods: A total of 806 NT and PHT subjects from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) were enrolled in the study. A standard questionnaire was used to assess sociodemographic characteristics. The amount of salt intake was measured by the 24-hour urine collection method. Blood pressure, height, weight, and WC were measured based on standard protocols.

Results: The mean ages (± SD) of NT and PHT subjects were 35.9 (± 11.9) and 44.7 (± 12.5) years, respectively (P < 0.001). The mean values of body mass index (BMI) and WC were greater among PHT than NT subjects (BMI: 27.9 ± 3.8 vs. 25.1 ± 4.3 kg/m2; P < 0.001 and WC: 90.2 ± 8.6 vs. 81.2 ± 11.2 cm; P < 0.001, respectively). PHT subjects had higher amount of salt intake than NT ones (10.3 ± 6.2 vs. 12.7 ± 7.1 g/d, respectively; P = 0.003). Odds ratio (OR) for being PHT increased significantly across the tertiles of salt intake in crude model and sociodemographic- adjusted model. Further adjustment for BMI and WC values weakened the OR for being PHT and showed nonsignificant trend (OR (and 95% CI) for BMI across tertiles of salt intake: 1, 1.26 (0.59 - 2.69), 1.89 (0.93 - 3.81); P = 0.063 and OR (and 95% CI) for WC across tertiles of salt intake: 1, 1.22 (0.58 - 2.57), 1.79(0.89 - 3.56); P = 0.082).

Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the association between salt intake and blood pressure is related to body weight and WC.
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http://dx.doi.org/013163/AIM.009DOI Listing
March 2013

Evaluation of the effects of weak and moderate static magnetic fields on the characteristics of human low density lipoprotein in vitro.

Bioelectromagnetics 2013 Jul 29;34(5):397-404. Epub 2013 Jan 29.

Plasma Physics Research Center, Sciences and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.

It has been suggested that exposure to electromagnetic fields may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease in humans. Low density lipoprotein (LDL) modifications such as peroxidation and aggregation have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study investigated the effects of weak (0.125-0.5 mT) and moderate (1-4 mT) static magnetic fields (SMFs) on LDL oxidation, aggregation and zeta potential in vitro. Our results demonstrated that magnetic flux densities of 0.25 and 0.5 mT decreased, and magnetic flux densities of 3 and 4 mT increased the zeta potential and LDL oxidation in comparison with the control samples. All doses of SMFs increased the LDL aggregation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It is concluded that SMFs can alter the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation and this alteration is dependent on the applied magnetic flux density. The SMF, in addition to its role in the production and stabilization of free radicals and promotion of lipid peroxidation, may influence the metabolism of lipoproteins and their interaction with other molecules such as apolipoproteins, enzymes and receptors through the alteration of the LDL zeta potential and its particles tendency to aggregation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bem.21779DOI Listing
July 2013

Outcomes of a comprehensive healthy lifestyle program on cardiometabolic risk factors in a developing country: the Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

Arch Iran Med 2013 Jan;16(1):4-11

Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: This study evaluated the outcome of a comprehensive, community-based healthy lifestyle program on cardiometabolic risk factors. The Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) was a comprehensive action-oriented, multi-component intervention with a quasi-experimental design and reference area.  

Methods: IHHP targeted the population-at-large (n = 2,180,000) in three districts in central Iran. Data from independent sample surveys before (2000 - 2001) and after (2007) this program were used to compare differences in the intervention area  and reference area over time after controlling for age, education level and income. The samples in 2000 - 2001 and 2007 included 6175 and 4719 participants in intervention area, and 6339 and 4853 in reference area, respectively. Multiple interventional activities were performed based on the four main strategies of healthy nutrition, increased physical activity, tobacco control and coping with stress. 

Results: The prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and high LDL-C decreased significantly in the intervention area versus the reference area in both sexes. However the reduction in overweight and obesity was significant only in females (P < 0.05 for all). There were no significant changes in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus.  In the intervention area, the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia decreased from 23.5% to 12.5% among females without any changes in females in the reference area (p < 0.0001). In males, hypercholesterolemia decreased significantly in both intervention area (18.5% to 9.6%) and reference area (14.4% to 9.8%; p = 0.005). Mean triglyceride levels had a significant decrease in the intervention area and a non-significant decrease in the reference area (p < 0.0001). 

Conclusions: A comprehensive healthy lifestyle program comprising preventive and promotional activities that considers both population and high risk approaches can be effective in controlling cardiometabolic risk factors in a middle-income country.
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http://dx.doi.org/013161/AIM.004DOI Listing
January 2013

Impact of a community-based lifestyle intervention program on blood pressure and salt intake of normotensive adult population in a developing country.

J Res Med Sci 2012 Mar;17(3):235-41

Associate Professor in Cardiology, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Data on the effect of lifestyle intervention programs on salt intake and blood pressure in developing countries are scarce. This study aimed to assess the impact of a healthy lifestyle community-based trial on salt intake and blood pressure among a representative sample of normotensive Iranian adults.

Materials And Methods: We compared the data for salt intake, urinary sodium levels and blood pressure from three cross-sectional surveys in time points of 1999, 2001-2002 (beginning of the community interventions), and 2007 (after the community trial) for normotensive adult population of Isfahan, Iran in the framework of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program. Using multi-stage cluster sampling method, one of the family members at each household was randomly selected with Iranian adult population as a target. Dietary salt intake was estimated based on 24 hour urinary sodium levels. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured according to standard methods.

Results: Dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased during the 9-year study period. Unlike systolic and diastolic blood pressures that had a consistent decrement between 1999 and 2007, dietary sodium intake and urinary sodium levels were slightly raised from 1999 to 2000-2001 and then reduced between 2001-2 and 2007 evaluations. The same findings were reached when data were analyzed separately by gender or weight status.

Conclusions: A lifestyle community trial was effective in controlling the escalating trend of blood pressure and salt intake in Iranian population. It can be considered as a model to be adopted in other developing countries.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3527040PMC
March 2012

The effects of a comprehensive community trial on cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program.

ARYA Atheroscler 2012 ;7(4):184-90

Professor, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: This study aimed to assess the effects of a 6-year-long community-participatory program including school-based interventions on mean values and prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors among adolescents.

Methods: The interventions of this community trial, conducted from 2000 to 2007 in Iran, targeted the whole population (of nearly two millions) living in two cities considered as the intervention area (IA) in comparison with a reference area (RA). Data from surveys conducted before and after interventions was used to compare the differences between the secondary school students of the IA and RA.

Results: The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia declined significantly in girls and boys in the IA (P < 0.01). The prevalence of high LDL-C decreased significantly in the girls in the RA (P = 0.002). Among both sexes in the IA, the prevalence of low HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.001), whereas it decreased in the girls and boys in the RA (P = 0.04). Although in the IA, the prevalence of overweight and obesity decreased significantly in girls (P = 0.001), it increased in boys (P = 0.001) as well as in the girls of the RA (P = 0.01).

Conclusion: By performing school-based interventions, our study was successful, at least in part, in controlling some cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents. Such modifications may have long-term impacts on non-communicable diseases prevention in adulthood.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3413088PMC
December 2012

Effects of olive leaves extract on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO(4) in vitro.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2012 Jul;25(3):571-5

Razi Herbal Medicine Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khoramabad, Iran.

Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The use of some natural antioxidant and herbal medicine may lead to the inhibition of production of oxidized LDL and may decrease both the development and the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Olive leaves ethanol extract (OLE) on LDL oxidation induced-CuSO(4) quantitatively in vitro. Low-density lipoprotein was incubated with CuSO(4) and the formation of conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Inhibition of this Cu-induced oxidation was studied in the presence of vitamin E and various concentration of OLE. It was demonstrated that OLE reduced the formation of conjugated dienes and TBARS of LDL against oxidation in vitro (p<0.05). The inhibitory effects of the OLE on LDL oxidation were dose-dependent at concentrations ranging from (2μg/ml) to (200μg/ml). Moreover, we compared effects of OLE on LDL oxidation with vitamin E as positive control. This study showed that OLE is a source of potent antioxidants and prevented the oxidation of LDL in vitro and it may be suitable for use in food and pharmaceutical applications.
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July 2012

Antioxidant effects of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm) juice and peel extract on LDL oxidation.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Jul;16(7):951-5

Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: We studied the antioxidant effects of fresh juice and peel extract of Citrus aurantifolia (Christm).

Methods: Low density lipoprotein (LDL) was separated from one hypercholesterolemic human serum by modified Bronzert and Brewer procedure. Oxidation of LDL was measured at 234 nm against 0, 5, 10, 20, 25, 30 and 40 μl of fresh lime juice and 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 μl of peel polyphenolic extract solution in DMSO.

Results: 5 μl of lime juice didn't change LDL oxidation. 10 μl of juice inhibited LDL oxidation, and with increasing the juice concentration, LDL was oxidized faster. The higher concentrations of peel extract prevented LDL oxidation better than the lower ones.

Conclusions: Both juice and peel demonstrated antioxidant properties, but the excessive consumption of lime juice seems not to be beneficial. Regarding the intensity and type of flavonoids, lime juice and peel may show different effects.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3263110PMC
July 2011

Metabolic syndrome and health-related quality of life in Iranian population.

J Res Med Sci 2011 Mar;16(3):254-61

Professor of Medicine, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Institute, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: To investigate the association between Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and Health related quality of life (QoL) in Iranian population.

Methods: We used data from the post-intervention phase of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP), a community trial for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention and control. We recruited 9570 healthy adults, aged ≥ 19 years who were randomly selected using multistage random sampling method. World Health Organization QoL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) which contains 26 items was used to assess QoL. It assesses four domains of QoL; Physical health, Psychological health, Social relationship and Environmental issues. MetS was defined based on ATP III criteria.

Results: The mean age of participants was 38.8±15.6 years (mean ± SD) and the prevalence of MetS was 22.5%. From all participant 18.2% were illiterate and 13.2% had university educational level. Two way multivariate analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) test after adjusting age showed significant difference between women with and without Mets in regard to physical health and social relations domains, while none of QoL domains was different in men with Mets in comparison to men without it.

Conclusions: After adjusting the role of socio-demographic factors as components of QoL score, no association was observed between QoL domains and MetS in men, while only social relations and physical health scores were higher in women with Mets compared to those without Mets. Other variety of health-related QoL assessment tools or definitions of MetS may show different relationship in the Iranian socio-cultural context.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3214330PMC
March 2011

Effects of 5-year interventions on cardiovascular risk factors of factories and offies employees of isfahan and najafabad: worksite intervention project-isfahan healthy heart program.

ARYA Atheroscler 2010 ;6(3):94-101

MSc, Animal Physiology, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Effects of 5-year interventions of Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program on cardiovascular risk factors of factories and offices employees were studied in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention area) compared to Arak (control area).

Methods: We had especial interventions for nutrition, physical activity and smoking as well as hypertension and obesity screening systems in all offices and factories, and other risk factors screening systems whenever possible. Before and after the interventions, questionnaires containing demographic and other required data were completed for the two populations; height, weight and blood pressure (BP) were measured and a fasting and 2h blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood sugar (BS) and lipid levels.

Results: The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, but low HDL increased in office staff (P < 0.01). Waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol mean values decreased, and diastolic BP and fasting and 2h BS increased among the intervention group. In factory workers, the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia and central obesity decreased, while low HDL prevalence increased in intervention group (P < 0.001). Mean values of waist circumference, HDL and total cholesterol, and triglyceride decreased significantly (P < 0.001), while diastolic BP and fasting BS increased.

Conclusion: It seems that Worksite Intervention Project has a protective effect on CVD risk factors in factories and offices employees. So, the modifiable project can be used as an applicable tool for health improvement in worksites which creates tangible changes in employees' lifestyle.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347823PMC
October 2012

Effect of CRP on Some of the in vitro Physicochemical Properties of LDL.

ARYA Atheroscler 2010 ;6(3):85-9

Assistant Professor of Biochemistry, Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan Branch, Department of Biochemistry, Falavarjan, Iran.

Background: Atherosclerosis is the most important underlying cause of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) which recently has been classified as an inflammatory disorder. Accumulation of large amounts of oxidized LDL in the intima during local inflammation reaction led to increase several factors such as C -reactive protein (CRP). It has also been reported that CRP is able to bind with modified forms of LDL as well as oxidized LDL. These findings suggest possible positive or negative involvement of this protein in atherogenesis. The main objective of the present study was to assess the influence of CRP on LDL oxidation and the possible physical \changes of LDL in the presence of CRP in vitro.

Methods: In this study, the susceptibility of purified LDL to oxidation was assayed by monitoring of formation of conjugated dienes in different physiological concentrations of CRP (0 - 0.5 -2 µg/ml) using a shimadzu spectrophotometer. Electrophoresis was used to determine the electrophoretic mobility of LDL in those conditions.

Results: CRP significantly reduced the susceptibility of Cu(++) -induced LDL oxidation through increasing the lag timeand there was positive relationship between these findings and CRP concentration (P < 0.05). CRP caused a significant reduction in the electrophotretic mobility of LDL compared to native LDL (n-LDL) (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: A considerable reduction was shown in LDL oxidation, in higher concentration of CRP, via an unknown mechanism. The electrophoretic mobility of LDL, in the oxidative condition, decreases in the presence of CRP compared to n-LDL, which can be indicative of the effect of this protein on the physical and chemical properties of LDL. It seems that, other pathway than LDL oxidation is responsible for the effect of CRP on the atherogenesis processes.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3347822PMC
October 2012