Publications by authors named "Mary Piotrowski"

13 Publications

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The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Identification of a Potent, Highly Selective, and Brain Penetrant Phosphodiesterase 2A Inhibitor Clinical Candidate.

J Med Chem 2018 02 16;61(3):1001-1018. Epub 2018 Jan 16.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development , Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States.

Computational modeling was used to direct the synthesis of analogs of previously reported phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) inhibitor 1 with an imidazotriazine core to yield compounds of significantly enhanced potency. The analog PF-05180999 (30) was subsequently identified as a preclinical candidate targeting cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia. Compound 30 demonstrated potent binding to PDE2A in brain tissue, dose responsive mouse brain cGMP increases, and reversal of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist-induced (MK-801, ketamine) effects in electrophysiology and working memory models in rats. Preclinical pharmacokinetics revealed unbound brain/unbound plasma levels approaching unity and good oral bioavailability resulting in an average concentration at steady state (C) predicted human dose of 30 mg once daily (q.d.). Modeling of a modified release formulation suggested that 25 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) could maintain plasma levels of 30 at or above targeted efficacious plasma levels for 24 h, which became part of the human clinical plan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b01466DOI Listing
February 2018

Development of a high-performance, enterprise-level, multimode LC-MS/MS autosampler for drug discovery.

Bioanalysis 2017 Nov 9;9(21):1643-1654. Epub 2017 Nov 9.

Pfizer Inc., World-Wide Research & Development, Hit Discovery & Optimization Group. Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2017-0149DOI Listing
November 2017

Application of Structure-Based Design and Parallel Chemistry to Identify a Potent, Selective, and Brain Penetrant Phosphodiesterase 2A Inhibitor.

J Med Chem 2017 07 16;60(13):5673-5698. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development , Eastern Point Road, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States.

Phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A) inhibitors have been reported to demonstrate in vivo activity in preclinical models of cognition. To more fully explore the biology of PDE2A inhibition, we sought to identify potent PDE2A inhibitors with improved brain penetration as compared to current literature compounds. Applying estimated human dose calculations while simultaneously leveraging synthetically enabled chemistry and structure-based drug design has resulted in a highly potent, selective, brain penetrant compound 71 (PF-05085727) that effects in vivo biochemical changes commensurate with PDE2A inhibition along with behavioral and electrophysiological reversal of the effects of NMDA antagonists in rodents. This data supports the ability of PDE2A inhibitors to potentiate NMDA signaling and their further development for clinical cognition indications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.7b00397DOI Listing
July 2017

Discovery of Compounds that Positively Modulate the High Affinity Choline Transporter.

Front Mol Neurosci 2017 27;10:40. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Pfizer Neusentis, Cambridge, UK.

Cholinergic hypofunction is associated with decreased attention and cognitive deficits in the central nervous system in addition to compromised motor function. Consequently, stimulation of cholinergic neurotransmission is a rational therapeutic approach for the potential treatment of a variety of neurological conditions. High affinity choline uptake (HACU) into acetylcholine (ACh)-synthesizing neurons is critically mediated by the sodium- and pH-dependent high-affinity choline transporter (CHT, encoded by the gene). This transporter is comparatively well-characterized but otherwise unexplored as a potential drug target. We therefore sought to identify small molecules that would enable testing of the hypothesis that positive modulation of CHT mediated transport would enhance activity-dependent cholinergic signaling. We utilized existing and novel screening techniques for their ability to reveal both positive and negative modulation of CHT using literature tools. A screening campaign was initiated with a bespoke compound library comprising both the Pfizer Chemogenomic Library (CGL) of 2,753 molecules designed specifically to help enable the elucidation of new mechanisms in phenotypic screens and 887 compounds from a virtual screening campaign to select molecules with field-based similarities to reported negative and positive allosteric modulators. We identified a number of previously unknown active and structurally distinct molecules that could be used as tools to further explore CHT biology or as a starting point for further medicinal chemistry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2017.00040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5326799PMC
February 2017

Quantitative Prediction of Human Renal Clearance and Drug-Drug Interactions of Organic Anion Transporter Substrates Using In Vitro Transport Data: A Relative Activity Factor Approach.

Drug Metab Dispos 2017 04 8;45(4):409-417. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Metabolism Department, Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut (S.M., M.A.P., B.F., M.V.V.) and Cambridge Massachusetts (D.A.T., J.L.)

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are important in the renal secretion, and thus, the clearance, of many drugs; and their functional change can result in pharmacokinetic variability. In this study, we applied transport rates measured in vitro using OAT-transfected human embryonic kidney cells to predict human renal secretory and total renal clearance of 31 diverse drugs. Selective substrates to OAT1 (tenofovir), OAT2 (acyclovir and ganciclovir), and OAT3 (benzylpenicillin, oseltamivir acid) were used to obtain relative activity factors (RAFs) for these individual transporters by relating in vitro transport clearance (after physiologic scaling) to in vivo secretory clearance. Using the estimated RAFs (0.64, 7.3, and 4.1, respectively, for OAT1, OAT2, and OAT3, respectively) and the in vitro active clearances, renal secretory clearance and total renal clearance were predicted with average fold errors (AFEs) of 1.89 and 1.40, respectively. The results show that OAT3-mediated transport play a predominant role in renal secretion for 22 of the 31 drugs evaluated. This mechanistic static approach was further applied to quantitatively predict renal drug-drug interactions (AFE ∼1.6) of the substrate drugs with probenecid, a clinical probe OAT inhibitor. In conclusion, the proposed in vitro-in vivo extrapolation approach is the first comprehensive attempt toward mechanistic modeling of renal secretory clearance based on routinely employed in vitro cell models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.116.074294DOI Listing
April 2017

Intracellular concentrations determine the cytotoxicity of adefovir, cidofovir and tenofovir.

Toxicol In Vitro 2015 Feb;29(1):251-8

Compound Safety Prediction, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Lack of in vitro to in vivo translation is a major challenge in safety prediction during early drug discovery.One of the most common in vitro assays to evaluate the probability of a compound to cause adverse effects is a cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity of a compound is often measured by dose–response curves assuming the administered doses and intracellular exposures are equal at the time of measurement.However, this may not be true for compounds with low membrane permeability or those which are substrates for drug transporters as intracellular concentrations are determined both by passive permeability and active uptake through drug transporters. We show here that three antiviral drugs, adefovir, cidofovir and tenofovir exhibit significantly increased cytotoxicity in HEK293 cells transfected with organic anion transporter (OAT) 1 and 3 compared to a lack of cytotoxicity in HEK293 wildtype cells. A further look at the media and intracellular drug concentrations showed that 24 h after dosing, all three drugs had higher intracellular drug concentrations than that of media in the HEK-OAT1 cells whereas the intracellular drug concentrations in the wildtype cells were much lower than the administered doses. Comparing cytotoxicity IC(50) values of adefovir, cidofovir and tenofovir based on administered doses and measured intracellular concentrations in HEK-OAT1 cells revealed that intracellular drug concentrations have significant impact on calculated IC(50) values. Tenofovir showed much less intrinsic cytotoxicity than adefovir and cidofovir using intracellular concentrations rather than media concentration. Our data suggest that for low permeable drugs or drugs that are substrates for drug transporters, the choice of cellular model is critical for providing an accurate determination of cytotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2014.10.019DOI Listing
February 2015

Quantitative assessment of the contribution of sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) to the hepatic uptake of rosuvastatin, pitavastatin and fluvastatin.

Biopharm Drug Dispos 2013 Nov 3;34(8):452-61. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut, USA.

Hepatic uptake transport is often the rate-determining step in the systemic clearance of drugs. The ability to predict uptake clearance and to determine the contribution of individual transporters to overall hepatic uptake is therefore critical in assessing the potential pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic variability associated with drug-drug interactions and pharmacogenetics. The present study revisited the interaction of statin drugs, including pitavastatin, fluvastatin and rosuvastatin, with the sodium-dependent taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) using gene transfected cell models. In addition, the uptake clearance and the contribution of NTCP to the overall hepatic uptake were assessed using in vitro hepatocyte models. Then NTCP protein expression was measured by a targeted proteomics transporter quantification method to confirm the presence and stability of NTCP expression in suspended and cultured hepatocyte models. It was concluded that NTCP-mediated uptake contributed significantly to active hepatic uptake in hepatocyte models for all three statins. However, the contribution of NTCP-mediated uptake to the overall active hepatic uptake was compound-dependent and varied from about 24% to 45%. Understanding the contribution of individual transporter proteins to the overall hepatic uptake and its functional variability when other active hepatic uptake pathways are interrupted could improve the current prediction practice used to assess the pharmacokinetic variability due to drug-drug interactions, pharmacogenetics and physiopathological conditions in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdd.1861DOI Listing
November 2013

Development of a high-speed, multiplexed sample-delivery instrument for LC-MS/MS bioanalysis.

Bioanalysis 2012 May;4(9):1039-56

Pfizer Inc., Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Background: The number of new chemical entities and types of in vitro and in vivo samples that require bioanalysis in drug discovery is large and diverse. In addition, method development time is limited as data turnaround is the highest priority. These circumstances require that a well-defined set of bioanalysis options be available in short timeframes to triage samples for analysis.

Method: The Apricot Designs Dual Arm (ADDA) instrument is an LC-MS/MS sample delivery system that features a flexible hardware design coupled with software automation to enhance throughput in LC-MS/MS bioanalysis drug discovery. The instrument can perform high-throughput LC-MS/MS (8-10 s/sample) for screening and in vitro bioanalysis, as well as multiplexed LC for traditional gradient or isocratic LC approaches. The instrument control software is designed to integrate with DiscoveryQuant™ software (AB Sciex) and a global database of MS/MS conditions.

Conclusion: Development of the sample delivery platform and its application in high-throughput and gradient LC will be described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.12.87DOI Listing
May 2012

Modulation of NMDA receptor function by inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase in rodent brain.

Neuropharmacology 2011 Oct-Nov;61(5-6):1001-15. Epub 2011 Jul 7.

Neuroscience Research Unit, Pfizer Inc, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Observations that N-Methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) antagonists produce symptoms in humans that are similar to those seen in schizophrenia have led to the current hypothesis that schizophrenia might result from NMDA receptor hypofunction. Inhibition of D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO), the enzyme responsible for degradation of D-serine, should lead to increased levels of this co-agonist at the NMDA receptor, and thereby provide a therapeutic approach to schizophrenia. We have profiled some of the preclinical biochemical, electrophysiological, and behavioral consequences of administering potent and selective inhibitors of DAAO to rodents to begin to test this hypothesis. Inhibition of DAAO activity resulted in a significant dose and time dependent increase in D-serine only in the cerebellum, although a time delay was observed between peak plasma or brain drug concentration and cerebellum D-serine response. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling employing a mechanism-based indirect response model was used to characterize the correlation between free brain drug concentration and D-serine accumulation. DAAO inhibitors had little or no activity in rodent models considered predictive for antipsychotic activity. The inhibitors did, however, affect cortical activity in the Mescaline-Induced Scratching model, produced a modest but significant increase in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents in primary neuronal cultures from rat hippocampus, and resulted in a significant increase in evoked hippocampal theta rhythm, an in vivo electrophysiological model of hippocampal activity. These findings demonstrate that although DAAO inhibition did not cause a measurable increase in D-serine in forebrain, it did affect hippocampal and cortical activity, possibly through augmentation of NMDA receptor-mediated currents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.06.029DOI Listing
February 2012

Discovery, SAR, and pharmacokinetics of a novel 3-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one series of potent D-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2009 Jun;52(11):3576-85

Pfizer Global Research and Development, Groton Laboratories, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

3-Hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one (2) was discovered by high throughput screening in a functional assay to be a potent inhibitor of human DAAO, and its binding affinity was confirmed in a Biacore assay. Cocrystallization of 2 with the human DAAO enzyme defined the binding site and guided the design of new analogues. The SAR, pharmacokinetics, brain exposure, and effects on cerebellum D-serine are described. Subsequent evaluation against the rat DAAO enzyme revealed a divergent SAR versus the human enzyme and may explain the high exposures of drug necessary to achieve significant changes in rat or mouse cerebellum D-serine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm900128wDOI Listing
June 2009

Concentration-dependent modulation of amyloid-beta in vivo and in vitro using the gamma-secretase inhibitor, LY-450139.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2006 Nov 18;319(2):924-33. Epub 2006 Aug 18.

Pfizer, Inc., Eastern Point Rd., MS# 8220-4183, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

LY-450139 is a gamma-secretase inhibitor shown to have efficacy in multiple cellular and animal models. Paradoxically, robust elevations of plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta) have been reported in dogs and humans after administration of subefficacious doses. The present study sought to further evaluate Abeta responses to LY-450139 in the guinea pig, a nontransgenic model that has an Abeta sequence identical to that of human. Male guinea pigs were treated with LY-450139 (0.2-60 mg/kg), and brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and plasma Abeta levels were characterized at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 14 h postdose. Low doses significantly elevated plasma Abeta levels at early time points, with return to baseline within hours. Higher doses inhibited Abeta levels in all compartments at early time points, but elevated plasma Abeta levels at later time points. To determine whether this phenomenon occurs under steady-state drug exposure, guinea pigs were implanted with subcutaneous minipumps delivering LY-450139 (0.3-30 mg/kg/day) for 5 days. Plasma Abeta was significantly inhibited at 10-30 mg/kg/day, but significantly elevated at 1 mg/kg/day. To further understand the mechanism of Abeta elevation by LY-450139, H4 cells overexpressing the Swedish mutant of amyloid-precursor protein and a mouse embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal cell line were studied. In both cellular models, elevated levels of secreted Abeta were observed at subefficacious concentrations, whereas dose-responsive inhibition was observed at higher concentrations. These results suggest that LY-450139 modulates the gamma-secretase complex, eliciting Abeta lowering at high concentrations but Abeta elevation at low concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.106.110700DOI Listing
November 2006