Publications by authors named "Mary Kukolich"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rare deleterious mutations of HNRNP genes result in shared neurodevelopmental disorders.

Genome Med 2021 Apr 19;13(1):63. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

The Atwal Clinic: Genomic & Personalized Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Background: With the increasing number of genomic sequencing studies, hundreds of genes have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The rate of gene discovery far outpaces our understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, with clinical characterization remaining a bottleneck for understanding NDDs. Most disease-associated Mendelian genes are members of gene families, and we hypothesize that those with related molecular function share clinical presentations.

Methods: We tested our hypothesis by considering gene families that have multiple members with an enrichment of de novo variants among NDDs, as determined by previous meta-analyses. One of these gene families is the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), which has 33 members, five of which have been recently identified as NDD genes (HNRNPK, HNRNPU, HNRNPH1, HNRNPH2, and HNRNPR) and two of which have significant enrichment in our previous meta-analysis of probands with NDDs (HNRNPU and SYNCRIP). Utilizing protein homology, mutation analyses, gene expression analyses, and phenotypic characterization, we provide evidence for variation in 12 HNRNP genes as candidates for NDDs. Seven are potentially novel while the remaining genes in the family likely do not significantly contribute to NDD risk.

Results: We report 119 new NDD cases (64 de novo variants) through sequencing and international collaborations and combined with published clinical case reports. We consider 235 cases with gene-disruptive single-nucleotide variants or indels and 15 cases with small copy number variants. Three hnRNP-encoding genes reach nominal or exome-wide significance for de novo variant enrichment, while nine are candidates for pathogenic mutations. Comparison of HNRNP gene expression shows a pattern consistent with a role in cerebral cortical development with enriched expression among radial glial progenitors. Clinical assessment of probands (n = 188-221) expands the phenotypes associated with HNRNP rare variants, and phenotypes associated with variation in the HNRNP genes distinguishes them as a subgroup of NDDs.

Conclusions: Overall, our novel approach of exploiting gene families in NDDs identifies new HNRNP-related disorders, expands the phenotypes of known HNRNP-related disorders, strongly implicates disruption of the hnRNPs as a whole in NDDs, and supports that NDD subtypes likely have shared molecular pathogenesis. To date, this is the first study to identify novel genetic disorders based on the presence of disorders in related genes. We also perform the first phenotypic analyses focusing on related genes. Finally, we show that radial glial expression of these genes is likely critical during neurodevelopment. This is important for diagnostics, as well as developing strategies to best study these genes for the development of therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00870-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056596PMC
April 2021

Missense substitutions at a conserved 14-3-3 binding site in HDAC4 cause a novel intellectual disability syndrome.

HGG Adv 2021 Jan 14;2(1):100015. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Exeter Genomics Laboratory, Royal Devon and Exeter NHS Foundation Trust, Exeter EX2 5DW, UK.

Histone deacetylases play crucial roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and gene expression in the eukaryotic cell, and disruption of their activity causes a wide range of developmental disorders in humans. Loss-of-function alleles of , a founding member of the class IIa deacetylases, have been reported in brachydactyly-mental retardation syndrome (BDMR). However, while disruption of HDAC4 activity and deregulation of its downstream targets may contribute to the BDMR phenotype, loss of HDAC4 function usually occurs as part of larger deletions of chromosome 2q37; BDMR is also known as chromosome 2q37 deletion syndrome, and the precise role of HDAC4 within the phenotype remains uncertain. Thus, identification of missense variants should shed new light on the role of HDAC4 in normal development. Here, we report seven unrelated individuals with a phenotype distinct from that of BDMR, all of whom have heterozygous missense variants that affect a major regulatory site of HDAC4, required for signal-dependent 14-3-3 binding and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. Two individuals possess variants altering Thr244 or Glu247, whereas the remaining five all carry variants altering Pro248, a key residue for 14-3-3 binding. We propose that the variants in all seven individuals impair 14-3-3 binding (as confirmed for the first two variants by immunoprecipitation assays), thereby identifying deregulation of HDAC4 as a pathological mechanism in a previously uncharacterized developmental disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.xhgg.2020.100015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7841527PMC
January 2021

Further delineation of the clinical spectrum of KAT6B disorders and allelic series of pathogenic variants.

Genet Med 2020 08 19;22(8):1338-1347. Epub 2020 May 19.

Division of Genetics and Genomics, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Genitopatellar syndrome and Say-Barber-Biesecker-Young-Simpson syndrome are caused by variants in the KAT6B gene and are part of a broad clinical spectrum called KAT6B disorders, whose variable expressivity is increasingly being recognized.

Methods: We herein present the phenotypes of 32 previously unreported individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of a KAT6B disorder, report 24 new pathogenic KAT6B variants, and review phenotypic information available on all published individuals with this condition. We also suggest a classification of clinical subtypes within the KAT6B disorder spectrum.

Results: We demonstrate that cerebral anomalies, optic nerve hypoplasia, neurobehavioral difficulties, and distal limb anomalies other than long thumbs and great toes, such as polydactyly, are more frequently observed than initially reported. Intestinal malrotation and its serious consequences can be present in affected individuals. Additionally, we identified four children with Pierre Robin sequence, four individuals who had increased nuchal translucency/cystic hygroma prenatally, and two fetuses with severe renal anomalies leading to renal failure. We also report an individual in which a pathogenic variant was inherited from a mildly affected parent.

Conclusion: Our work provides a comprehensive review and expansion of the genotypic and phenotypic spectrum of KAT6B disorders that will assist clinicians in the assessment, counseling, and management of affected individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0811-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737399PMC
August 2020

Encephalopathies with KCNC1 variants: genotype-phenotype-functional correlations.

Ann Clin Transl Neurol 2019 07 1;6(7):1263-1272. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Epilepsy Research Centre, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To analyze clinical phenotypes associated with KCNC1 variants other than the Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy-causing variant p.Arg320His, determine the electrophysiological functional impact of identified variants and explore genotype-phenotype-physiological correlations.

Methods: Ten cases with putative pathogenic variants in KCNC1 were studied. Variants had been identified via whole-exome sequencing or gene panel testing. Clinical phenotypic data were analyzed. To determine functional impact of variants detected in the K 3.1 channel encoded by KCNC1, Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and automated two-electrode voltage clamping were used.

Results: Six unrelated patients had a Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy and a recurrent de novo variant p.Ala421Val (c.1262C > T). Functional analysis of p.Ala421Val revealed loss of function through a significant reduction in whole-cell current, but no dominant-negative effect. Three patients had a contrasting phenotype of Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures and different KCNC1 variants, all of which caused loss of function with reduced whole-cell currents. Evaluation of the variant p.Ala513Val (c.1538C > T) in the tenth case, suggested it was a variant of uncertain significance.

Interpretation: These are the first reported cases of Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy due to KCNC1 mutation. The spectrum of phenotypes associated with KCNC1 is now broadened to include not only a Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsy, but an infantile onset Developmental and Epileptic Encephalopathy, as well as Developmental Encephalopathy without seizures. Loss of function is a key feature, but definitive electrophysiological separation of these phenotypes has not yet emerged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/acn3.50822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649578PMC
July 2019

DYRK1A-related intellectual disability: a syndrome associated with congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract.

Genet Med 2019 12 2;21(12):2755-2764. Epub 2019 Jul 2.

Renal Section, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

Purpose: Haploinsufficiency of DYRK1A causes a recognizable clinical syndrome. The goal of this paper is to investigate congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) and genital defects (GD) in patients with DYRK1A variants.

Methods: A large database of clinical exome sequencing (ES) was queried for de novo DYRK1A variants and CAKUT/GD phenotypes were characterized. Xenopus laevis (frog) was chosen as a model organism to assess Dyrk1a's role in renal development.

Results: Phenotypic details and variants of 19 patients were compiled after an initial observation that one patient with a de novo pathogenic variant in DYRK1A had GD. CAKUT/GD data were available from 15 patients, 11 of whom presented with CAKUT/GD. Studies in Xenopus embryos demonstrated that knockdown of Dyrk1a, which is expressed in forming nephrons, disrupts the development of segments of embryonic nephrons, which ultimately give rise to the entire genitourinary (GU) tract. These defects could be rescued by coinjecting wild-type human DYRK1A RNA, but not with DYRK1A or DYRK1A RNA.

Conclusion: Evidence supports routine GU screening of all individuals with de novo DYRK1A pathogenic variants to ensure optimized clinical management. Collectively, the reported clinical data and loss-of-function studies in Xenopus substantiate a novel role for DYRK1A in GU development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0576-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895419PMC
December 2019

ZMIZ1 Variants Cause a Syndromic Neurodevelopmental Disorder.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 02 10;104(2):319-330. Epub 2019 Jan 10.

Cook Children's Medical Center, Fort Worth, TX 76102, USA.

ZMIZ1 is a coactivator of several transcription factors, including p53, the androgen receptor, and NOTCH1. Here, we report 19 subjects with intellectual disability and developmental delay carrying variants in ZMIZ1. The associated features include growth failure, feeding difficulties, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism, and various other congenital malformations. Of these 19, 14 unrelated subjects carried de novo heterozygous single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) or single-base insertions/deletions, 3 siblings harbored a heterozygous single-base insertion, and 2 subjects had a balanced translocation disrupting ZMIZ1 or involving a regulatory region of ZMIZ1. In total, we identified 13 point mutations that affect key protein regions, including a SUMO acceptor site, a central disordered alanine-rich motif, a proline-rich domain, and a transactivation domain. All identified variants were absent from all available exome and genome databases. In vitro, ZMIZ1 showed impaired coactivation of the androgen receptor. In vivo, overexpression of ZMIZ1 mutant alleles in developing mouse brains using in utero electroporation resulted in abnormal pyramidal neuron morphology, polarization, and positioning, underscoring the importance of ZMIZ1 in neural development and supporting mutations in ZMIZ1 as the cause of a rare neurodevelopmental syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.12.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6369415PMC
February 2019

NBEA: Developmental disease gene with early generalized epilepsy phenotypes.

Ann Neurol 2018 11 25;84(5):788-795. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA.

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.25350DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6249120PMC
November 2018

Functional variants in TBX2 are associated with a syndromic cardiovascular and skeletal developmental disorder.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 07;27(14):2454-2465

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, USA.

The 17 genes of the T-box family are transcriptional regulators that are involved in all stages of embryonic development, including craniofacial, brain, heart, skeleton and immune system. Malformation syndromes have been linked to many of the T-box genes. For example, haploinsufficiency of TBX1 is responsible for many structural malformations in DiGeorge syndrome caused by a chromosome 22q11.2 deletion. We report four individuals with an overlapping spectrum of craniofacial dysmorphisms, cardiac anomalies, skeletal malformations, immune deficiency, endocrine abnormalities and developmental impairments, reminiscent of DiGeorge syndrome, who are heterozygotes for TBX2 variants. The p.R20Q variant is shared by three affected family members in an autosomal dominant manner; the fourth unrelated individual has a de novo p.R305H mutation. Bioinformatics analyses indicate that these variants are rare and predict them to be damaging. In vitro transcriptional assays in cultured cells show that both variants result in reduced transcriptional repressor activity of TBX2. We also show that the variants result in reduced protein levels of TBX2. Heterologous over-expression studies in Drosophila demonstrate that both p.R20Q and p.R305H function as partial loss-of-function alleles. Hence, these and other data suggest that TBX2 is a novel candidate gene for a new multisystem malformation disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6030957PMC
July 2018

The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome: 18 new affected individuals from 14 families.

Genet Med 2017 01 19;19(1):45-52. Epub 2016 May 19.

Department of Molecular Neuroscience, University College London Institute of Neurology, London, UK.

Purpose: Truncating mutations in the maternally imprinted, paternally expressed gene MAGEL2, which is located in the Prader-Willi critical region 15q11-13, have recently been reported to cause Schaaf-Yang syndrome, a Prader-Willi-like disease that manifests as developmental delay/intellectual disability, hypotonia, feeding difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder. The causality of the reported variants in the context of the patients' phenotypes was questioned, as MAGEL2 whole-gene deletions seem to cause little or no clinical phenotype.

Methods: Here we report a total of 18 newly identified individuals with Schaaf-Yang syndrome from 14 families, including 1 family with 3 individuals found to be affected with a truncating variant of MAGEL2, 11 individuals who are clinically affected but were not tested molecularly, and a presymptomatic fetal sibling carrying the pathogenic MAGEL2 variant.

Results: All cases harbor truncating mutations of MAGEL2, and nucleotides c.1990-1996 arise as a mutational hotspot, with 10 individuals and 1 fetus harboring a c.1996dupC (p.Q666fs) mutation and 2 fetuses harboring a c.1996delC (p.Q666fs) mutation. The phenotypic spectrum of Schaaf-Yang syndrome ranges from fetal akinesia to neurobehavioral disease and contractures of the small finger joints.

Conclusion: This study provides strong evidence for the pathogenicity of truncating mutations of the paternal allele of MAGEL2, refines the associated clinical phenotypes, and highlights implications for genetic counseling for affected families.Genet Med 19 1, 45-52.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/gim.2016.53DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5116288PMC
January 2017

Clinical delineation of the PACS1-related syndrome--Report on 19 patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2016 Mar 3;170(3):670-5. Epub 2016 Feb 3.

Institute of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen, Germany.

We report on 19 individuals with a recurrent de novo c.607C>T mutation in PACS1. This specific mutation gives rise to a recognizable intellectual disability syndrome. There is a distinctive facial appearance (19/19), characterized by full and arched eyebrows, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, long eye lashes, ptosis, low set and simple ears, bulbous nasal tip, wide mouth with downturned corners and a thin upper lip with an unusual "wavy" profile, flat philtrum, and diastema of the teeth. Intellectual disability, ranging from mild to moderate, was present in all. Hypotonia is common in infancy (8/19). Seizures are frequent (12/19) and respond well to anticonvulsive medication. Structural malformations are common, including heart (10/19), brain (12/16), eye (10/19), kidney (3/19), and cryptorchidism (6/12 males). Feeding dysfunction is presenting in infancy with failure to thrive (5/19), gastroesophageal reflux (6/19), and gastrostomy tube placement (4/19). There is persistence of oral motor dysfunction. We provide suggestions for clinical work-up and management and hope that the present study will facilitate clinical recognition of further cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.37476DOI Listing
March 2016

Joubert Syndrome in French Canadians and Identification of Mutations in CEP104.

Am J Hum Genet 2015 Nov 17;97(5):744-53. Epub 2015 Oct 17.

McGill University and Génome Québec Innovation Centre, Montreal, QC H3A 1A4, Canada.

Joubert syndrome (JBTS) is a primarily autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by a distinctive mid-hindbrain and cerebellar malformation, oculomotor apraxia, irregular breathing, developmental delay, and ataxia. JBTS is a genetically heterogeneous ciliopathy. We sought to characterize the genetic landscape associated with JBTS in the French Canadian (FC) population. We studied 43 FC JBTS subjects from 35 families by combining targeted and exome sequencing. We identified pathogenic (n = 32 families) or possibly pathogenic (n = 2 families) variants in genes previously associated with JBTS in all of these subjects, except for one. In the latter case, we found a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.735+2T>C) in CEP104. Interestingly, we identified two additional non-FC JBTS subjects with mutations in CEP104; one of these subjects harbors a maternally inherited nonsense mutation (c.496C>T [p.Arg166*]) and a de novo splice-site mutation (c.2572-2A>G), whereas the other bears a homozygous frameshift mutation (c.1328_1329insT [p.Tyr444fs*3]) in CEP104. Previous studies have shown that CEP104 moves from the mother centriole to the tip of the primary cilium during ciliogenesis. Knockdown of CEP104 in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE1) cells resulted in severe defects in ciliogenesis. These observations suggest that CEP104 acts early during cilia formation by regulating the conversion of the mother centriole into the cilia basal body. We conclude that disruption of CEP104 causes JBTS. Our study also reveals that the cause of JBTS has been elucidated in the great majority of our FC subjects (33/35 [94%] families), even though JBTS shows substantial locus and allelic heterogeneity in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.09.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4667103PMC
November 2015

The Koolen-de Vries syndrome: a phenotypic comparison of patients with a 17q21.31 microdeletion versus a KANSL1 sequence variant.

Eur J Hum Genet 2016 May 26;24(5):652-9. Epub 2015 Aug 26.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS; OMIM #610443), also known as the 17q21.31 microdeletion syndrome, is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterised by (neonatal) hypotonia, developmental delay, moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial dysmorphism. Expressive language development is particularly impaired compared with receptive language or motor skills. Other frequently reported features include social and friendly behaviour, epilepsy, musculoskeletal anomalies, congenital heart defects, urogenital malformations, and ectodermal anomalies. The syndrome is caused by a truncating variant in the KAT8 regulatory NSL complex unit 1 (KANSL1) gene or by a 17q21.31 microdeletion encompassing KANSL1. Herein we describe a novel cohort of 45 individuals with KdVS of whom 33 have a 17q21.31 microdeletion and 12 a single-nucleotide variant (SNV) in KANSL1 (19 males, 26 females; age range 7 months to 50 years). We provide guidance about the potential pitfalls in the laboratory testing and emphasise the challenges of KANSL1 variant calling and DNA copy number analysis in the complex 17q21.31 region. Moreover, we present detailed phenotypic information, including neuropsychological features, that contribute to the broad phenotypic spectrum of the syndrome. Comparison of the phenotype of both the microdeletion and SNV patients does not show differences of clinical importance, stressing that haploinsufficiency of KANSL1 is sufficient to cause the full KdVS phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2015.178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4930086PMC
May 2016

Mutations in PURA cause profound neonatal hypotonia, seizures, and encephalopathy in 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome.

Am J Hum Genet 2014 Nov 16;95(5):579-83. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA; Whole Genome Laboratory, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by neonatal hypotonia, encephalopathy with or without epilepsy, and severe developmental delay, and the minimal critical deletion interval harbors three genes. We describe 11 individuals with clinical features of 5q31.3 microdeletion syndrome and de novo mutations in PURA, encoding transcriptional activator protein Pur-α, within the critical region. These data implicate causative PURA mutations responsible for the severe neurological phenotypes observed in this syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4225583PMC
November 2014

Sensenbrenner syndrome (Cranioectodermal dysplasia): clinical and molecular analyses of 39 patients including two new patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2013 Nov 3;161A(11):2762-76. Epub 2013 Oct 3.

Medical Genetics, MassGeneral Hospital for Children, Boston, Massachusetts.

Sensenbrenner syndrome, also known as cranioectodermal dysplasia, is a rare multiple anomaly syndrome with distinctive craniofacial appearance, skeletal, ectodermal, connective tissue, renal, and liver anomalies. Dramatic advances with next-generation sequencing have expanded its phenotypic variability and molecular heterogeneity. We review 39 patients including two new patients, one with compound heterozygous novel mutations in WDR35 and a previously unreported multisutural craniosynostosis that may be a part of Sensenbrenner syndrome. In 14 of 25 (56.0%) patients pathogenic mutations have been identified in 4 different genes that regulate (intraflagellar) cilia transport. We compared Sensenbrenner syndrome to asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy-Jeune syndrome (ATD-JS) and other ciliopathies. Our analyses showed that the high anterior hairline, forehead bossing and dolichocephaly (accompanied by sagittal craniosynostosis in more than half of the patients) occur in almost all patients with Sensenbrenner syndrome. Metaphyseal dysplasia with narrow thorax, proximal limb shortness, and short fingers are typical of Sensenbrenner syndrome and ATD-JS. Respiratory complications have been reported in both syndromes, usually less severe with Sensenbrenner syndrome. Proposed diagnostic criteria for Sensenbrenner syndrome include the distinctive craniofacial appearance, ubiquitous brachydactyly and ectodermal anomalies, and sagittal craniosynostosis. Mild heart defects have been noted, but there have been no atrioventricular canal or heterotaxy defects that are common in Ellis-Van Creveld syndrome. We anticipate that the steady identification of molecularly defined patients may allow correlation of phenotype and genotype. Additional natural history data will improve genetic counseling and current guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36265DOI Listing
November 2013

Duplication of chromosome band 12q24.11q24.23 results in apparent Noonan syndrome.

Am J Med Genet A 2008 Apr;146A(8):1042-8

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Noonan syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder with an estimated incidence of 1 in 1,000 to 1 in 2,500 live births. It is characterized by postnatal-onset short stature, characteristic facial changes, webbed neck, pectus carinatum, or excavatum, congenital heart defects, and bleeding abnormalities. Gain-of-function mutations in the PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, and RAF1 genes that are components of the RAS/MEPK signaling pathway are identified in about 70-85% of individuals with Noonan syndrome. We report here a case of duplication of chromosome region 12q24.11q24.23 identified by array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) that includes the PTPN11 gene in a 3-year-old girl with apparent Noonan syndrome. The patient presented with postnatal-onset failure-to-thrive, developmental delay, microcephaly, velopalatal incompetence, pectus excavatum, coarctation of aorta, atrial and ventricular septal defects, decreased muscle tone, and minor facial anomalies consistent with Noonan syndrome. At 3 years of age her speech, gross and fine motor development were at the level of a 12-18 month old child. This degree of developmental delay was atypical for an individual with Noonan syndrome, raising concerns for a chromosomal abnormality. Array-CGH showed an interstitial duplication of 10 Mb including the PTPN11 gene. Sequencing of PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1 and the coding region of RAF1 did not identify mutations. The increased gene dosage of the PTPN11 gene in the form of duplication is expected to have the same consequence as gain-of-function mutations seen in Noonan syndrome. We propose that at least some of the 15-30% of individuals with Noonan syndrome who do not have a mutation by sequencing may have a gain in copy number of PTPN11 and recommend that comprehensive testing for Noonan syndrome should include analysis for copy number changes of PTPN11.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.32215DOI Listing
April 2008