Publications by authors named "Mary G Lawrence"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

Ophthalmology 2017 10 16;124(10):1496-1503. Epub 2017 May 16.

VA Tennessee Valley Healthcare System, Nashville, Tennessee; Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, Tennessee.

Purpose: To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life.

Design: Cohort study.

Participants: A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded.

Methods: Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores.

Main Outcome Measures: Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery.

Results: Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar improvements in socioemotional scores (-1.62 vs. -1.51 logits, P = 0.255).

Conclusions: Second eye cataract surgery improves visual function and quality of life well beyond levels achieved after first eye cataract surgery alone. For certain socioemotional aspects of quality of life, second eye cataract surgery results in comparable improvement to first eye cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2017.04.014DOI Listing
October 2017

Outcomes after cataract surgery in eyes with pseudoexfoliation: Results from the Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project.

Can J Ophthalmol 2017 Feb 7;52(1):61-68. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Ophthalmology Department, Jamaica Plain, MA; Harvard Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA; Boston University School of Medicine, Department of Ophthalmology, Boston, MA.. Electronic address:

Objective: To compare clinical outcomes of cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation (PXF).

Design: Retrospective deidentified data analysis.

Participants: A total of 123 PXF and 4776 non-PXF eyes of patients who underwent cataract surgery.

Methods: We compared data on visual acuity, Visual Function Questionnaire (VFQ)-based quality of life, and complications in PXF and non-PXF eyes from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Data Project across 5 VA medical centres.

Results: Pupillary expansion devices were used in 31 (25.2%) PXF cases and 398 (8.4%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.0001). Capsular tension rings were used in 6 (4.9%) PXF cases and 55 (1.2%) non-PXF cases (p < 0.004). The following complications occurred more frequently in PXF cases: zonular dehiscence without vitrectomy (4 [3.3%] PXF cases vs 40 [0.8%] non-PXF cases p = 0.02), persistent inflammation (28 [24.1%] vs 668 [14.5%]; p = 0.007), and persistent intraocular pressure elevation (5 [4.3%] vs 68 [1.5%]; p = 0.03). Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved in both groups after 1 month, but 87 (83.7%) PXF cases achieved postoperative BCVA better than or equal to 20/40 compared to 3991 (93.8%) non-PXF cases (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in the postoperative composite VFQ scores between PXF (82.1 ± 16.9) and non-PXF cases (84.2 ± 16.8, p = 0.09).

Conclusions: Several complications occurred more frequently in the PXF group compared to the non-PXF group, and fewer PXF cases achieved BCVA better than or equal to 20/40. Despite this, both groups experienced similar improvement in vision-related quality of life after cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjo.2016.07.019DOI Listing
February 2017

Outcomes of cataract surgery with residents as primary surgeons in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare System.

J Cataract Refract Surg 2016 Mar;42(3):370-84

From the Ophthalmology Department (Payal, Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Chen, Cakiner-Egilmez, Daly), Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, Jamaica Plain, the Department of Ophthalmology (Daly), Boston University School of Medicine, and the Department of Ophthalmology (Payal, Chen, Daly), Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; the Veteran Affairs Tennessee Valley Healthcare System Center and Vanderbilt Eye Institute (Chomsky), Vanderbilt University Medical, Nashville, Tennessee; the Michael E. DeBakey Veteran Affairs Medical Center and the Cullen Eye Institute (Baze), Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; the Ophthalmology Department, St. Louis Veteran Affairs Medical Center and the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences (Vollman), Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri; the Department of Defense/Veterans Affairs Vision Center of Excellence (Lawrence), Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To explore visual outcomes, functional visual improvement, and events in resident-operated cataract surgery cases.

Setting: Veterans Affairs Ophthalmic Surgery Outcomes Database Project across 5 Veterans Affairs Medical Centers.

Design: Retrospective data analysis of deidentified data.

Methods: Cataract surgery cases with residents as primary surgeons were analyzed for logMAR corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and vision-related quality of life (VRQL) measured by the modified National Eye Institute Vision Function Questionnaire and 30 intraoperative and postoperative events. In some analyses, cases without events (Group A) were compared with cases with events (Group B).

Results: The study included 4221 cataract surgery cases. Preoperative to postoperative CDVA improved significantly in both groups (P < .0001), although the level of improvement was less in Group B (P = .03). A CDVA of 20/40 or better was achieved in 96.64% in Group A and 88.25% in Group B (P < .0001); however, Group B had a higher prevalence of preoperative ocular comorbidities (P < .0001). Cases with 1 or more events were associated with a higher likelihood of a postoperative CDVA worse than 20/40 (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% confidence interval, 2.92-5.05; P < .0001) than those who did not experience an event. Both groups had a significant increase in VRQL from preoperative levels (both P < .0001); however, the level of preoperative to postoperative VRQL improvement was significantly less in Group B (P < .0001).

Conclusion: Resident-operated cases with and without events had an overall significant improvement in visual acuity and visual function compared with preoperatively, although this improvement was less marked in those that had an event.

Financial Disclosure: None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2015.11.041DOI Listing
March 2016

Functional Visual Improvement After Cataract Surgery in Eyes With Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Results of the Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015 Apr;56(4):2536-40

DoD/VA Vision Center of Excellence, Crystal City, Virginia, United States.

Purpose: To determine if cataract surgery on eyes with AMD confers as much functional visual improvement as surgery on eyes without retinal pathology.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of 4924 cataract surgeries from the Veterans Healthcare Administration Ophthalmic Surgical Outcomes Data Project (OSOD). We included cases of eyes with AMD that had both preoperative and postoperative NEI-VFQ-25 questionnaires submitted and compared their outcomes with controls without retinal pathology. We excluded patients with other retinal pathologies (740 patients). The analyses compared changes in visual acuity and overall functional visual improvement and its subscales using t-tests, multivariate logistic regressions, and linear regression modeling.

Results: Preoperative and postoperative questionnaires were submitted by 58.3% of AMD and 63.8% of no retinal pathology cases (controls). Analysis of overall score showed that cataract surgery on eyes with AMD led to increased visual function (13.8 ± 2.4 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001); however, increases were significantly less when compared with controls (-6.4 ± 2.9 NEI-VFQ units, P < 0.0001). Preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (preBCVA) in AMD was predictive of postoperative visual function (r = -0.38, P < 0.0001). In controls, postoperative visual function was only weakly associated with preBCVA (r = -0.075, P = 0.0002). Patients with AMD with vision of 20/40 or better had overall outcomes similar to controls (-2.2 ± 4.7 NEI-VFQ units, P = 0.37).

Conclusions: Cataract surgery on eyes with AMD offers an increase in functional visual improvement; however, the amount of benefit is associated with the eye's preBCVA. For eyes with preBCVA of 20/40 or greater, the improvement is similar to that of patients without retinal pathology. However, if preBCVA is less than 20/40, the amount of improvement was shown to be significantly less and decreased with decreasing preBCVA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.14-16069DOI Listing
April 2015

Reply: To PMID 24593958.

Am J Ophthalmol 2014 Oct;158(4):848-9

Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2014.07.019DOI Listing
October 2014

Reply: To PMID 24593958.

Am J Ophthalmol 2014 Oct;158(4):847-8

Bethesda, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2014.06.027DOI Listing
October 2014

Ocular blast injuries in mass-casualty incidents: the marathon bombing in Boston, Massachusetts, and the fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas.

Ophthalmology 2014 Sep 17;121(9):1670-6.e1. Epub 2014 May 17.

Department of Ophthalmology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Purpose: To report the ocular injuries sustained by survivors of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing and the April 17, 2013, fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas.

Design: Multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective, comparative case series.

Participants: Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients treated at 12 institutions were included in the study.

Methods: Ocular and systemic trauma data were collected from medical records.

Main Outcome Measures: Types and severity of ocular and systemic trauma and associations with mechanisms of injury.

Results: In the Boston cohort, 164 of 264 casualties were transported to level 1 trauma centers, and 22 (13.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. In the West cohort, 218 of 263 total casualties were transported to participating centers, of which 14 (6.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. Boston had significantly shorter mean distances to treating facilities (1.6 miles vs. 53.6 miles; P = 0.004). Overall, rigid eye shields were more likely not to have been provided than to have been provided on the scene (P<0.001). Isolated upper body and facial wounds were more common in West largely because of shattered windows (75.0% vs. 13.6%; P = 0.001), resulting in more open-globe injuries (42.9% vs. 4.5%; P = 0.008). Patients in Boston sustained more lower extremity injuries because of the ground-level bomb. Overall, 27.8% of consultations were called from emergency rooms, whereas the rest occurred afterward. Challenges in logistics and communications were identified.

Conclusions: Ocular injuries are common and potentially blinding in mass-casualty incidents. Systemic and ocular polytrauma is the rule in terrorism, whereas isolated ocular injuries are more common in other calamities. Key lessons learned included educating the public to stay away from windows during disasters, promoting use of rigid eye shields by first responders, the importance of reliable communications, deepening the ophthalmology call algorithm, the significance of visual incapacitation resulting from loss of spectacles, improving the rate of early detection of ocular injuries in emergency departments, and integrating ophthalmology services into trauma teams as well as maintaining a voice in hospital-wide and community-based disaster planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.04.004DOI Listing
September 2014

Telehealth practice recommendations for diabetic retinopathy, second edition.

Telemed J E Health 2011 Dec 4;17(10):814-37. Epub 2011 Oct 4.

Department of Ophthalmology, Weill Cornell Medical College/The Methodist Hospital, Houston, Texas, USA.

Ocular telemedicine and telehealth have the potential to decrease vision loss from DR. Planning, execution, and follow-up are key factors for success. Telemedicine is complex, requiring the services of expert teams working collaboratively to provide care matching the quality of conventional clinical settings. Improving access and outcomes, however, makes telemedicine a valuable tool for our diabetic patients. Programs that focus on patient needs, consider available resources, define clear goals, promote informed expectations, appropriately train personnel, and adhere to regulatory and statutory requirements have the highest chance of achieving success.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2011.0075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6469533PMC
December 2011

Outcome of angle surgery in children with aphakic glaucoma.

J AAPOS 2010 Jun 11;14(3):235-9. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Department of Ophthalmology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-5501, USA.

Purpose: To investigate the outcome of trabeculotomy and/or goniotomy for pediatric aphakic glaucoma.

Methods: Retrospective chart review of consecutive children who had congenital cataract surgery between 1990 and 2006 and required goniotomy and/or trabeculotomy for aphakic glaucoma. Treatment success was defined as postoperative intraocular pressure of
Results: A total of 14 eyes of 11 patients met inclusion criteria, with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years. Of theses, 2 eyes had goniotomy alone, 3 eyes had goniotomy followed by trabeculotomy, and 9 eyes had trabeculotomy alone. Mean IOP before angle surgery was 35 +/- 10 mm Hg. Mean IOP at the last recorded visit was 22 +/- 4 mm Hg (p = 0.0005). Treatment success was observed in 8 of the 14 eyes (57.1%), with a mean number of angle procedures of 1.4 per eye: 6 eyes (42.8%) were successful after a single angle surgery, each involving an initial trabeculotomy; 3 eyes (21.4%) underwent subsequent shunt placement after initial goniotomy at 6 months, 1.3 years, and 5.5 years after the last angle surgery.

Conclusions: When intraocular surgery is indicated to control IOP in pediatric aphakic glaucoma, trabeculotomy and/or goniotomy can be successful in the majority of eyes and may decrease the need for filtering and shunting procedures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2010.01.005DOI Listing
June 2010

An outbreak of postoperative gram-negative bacterial endophthalmitis associated with contaminated trypan blue ophthalmic solution.

Clin Infect Dis 2009 Jun;48(11):1580-3

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

We report 6 cases of postsurgical endophthalmitis due to gram-negative bacteria associated with contaminated trypan blue dye from a compounding pharmacy. Unopened trypan blue syringes yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex on culture, with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns indistinguishable from patient isolates. Contamination of compounded medications should be considered when investigating outbreaks of postoperative endophthalmitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/598938DOI Listing
June 2009

Relationship between visual span and reading performance in age-related macular degeneration.

Vision Res 2008 Feb 14;48(4):577-88. Epub 2008 Jan 14.

Minnesota Laboratory for Low Vision Research, University of Minnesota, Department of Psychology, 75 East River Road, N218 Elliott Hall, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Purpose: Visual-span profiles are plots of letter-recognition accuracy as a function of letter position left and right of the point of fixation. Legge, Mansfield, and Chung [Legge, G. E., Mansfield, J. S., & Chung, S. T. L. (2001). Psychophysics of reading-XX. Linking letter recognition to reading speed in central and peripheral vision. Vision Research, 41(6), 725-743] proposed that reduced size of the visual span is a spatial factor limiting reading speed in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have recently shown that a temporal property of letter recognition--the exposure time required for a high level of accuracy--is also a factor limiting reading speed in AMD [Cheong, A. M. Y., Legge, G. E., Lawrence, M. G., Cheung, S. H., & Ruff, M. (2007). Relationship between slow visual processing and reading speed in people with macular degeneration. Vision Research, 47, 2943-2965]. We measured the visual-span profiles of AMD subjects and assessed the relationship of the spatial and temporal properties of these profiles to reading speed.

Methods: Thirteen AMD subjects and 11 age-matched normals were tested. Visual-span profiles were measured by using the trigram letter-recognition method described by Legge et al. (2001). Each individual's temporal threshold for letter recognition (80% accuracy criterion) was used as the exposure time for measuring the visual-span profile. Size of the visual span was computed as the area under the profile in bits of information transmitted. The information transfer rate in bits per second was defined as the visual-span size in bits divided by the exposure time in sec.

Results: AMD visual-span sizes were substantially smaller (median of 23.9 bits) than normal visual-span sizes in central vision (median of 40.8 bits, p<.01). For the nine AMD subjects with eccentric fixation, the visual-span sizes (median of 20.6 bits) were also significantly smaller than visual spans of normal controls at 10 degrees below fixation in peripheral vision (median of 29.0 bits, p=.01). Information transfer rate for the AMD subjects (median of 29.5 bits/s) was significantly slower than that for the age-matched normals at both central and peripheral vision (median of 411.7 and 290.5 bits/s respectively, ps<.01). Information transfer rates were more strongly correlated with reading speed than the size of the visual span, and explained 36% of the variance in AMD reading speed.

Conclusion: Both visual-span size and information transfer rate were significantly impaired in the AMD subjects compared with age-matched normals. Information transfer rate, representing the combined effects of a reduced visual span and slower temporal processing of letters, was a better predictor of reading speed in AMD subjects than was the size of the visual span.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2007.11.022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2323914PMC
February 2008

Relationship between slow visual processing and reading speed in people with macular degeneration.

Vision Res 2007 Oct 18;47(23):2943-55. Epub 2007 Sep 18.

Minnesota Laboratory for Low Vision Research, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.

Purpose: People with macular degeneration (MD) often read slowly even with adequate magnification to compensate for acuity loss. Oculomotor deficits may affect reading in MD, but cannot fully explain the substantial reduction in reading speed. Central-field loss (CFL) is often a consequence of macular degeneration, necessitating the use of peripheral vision for reading. We hypothesized that slower temporal processing of visual patterns in peripheral vision is a factor contributing to slow reading performance in MD patients.

Methods: Fifteen subjects with MD, including 12 with CFL, and five age-matched control subjects were recruited. Maximum reading speed and critical print size were measured with rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP). Temporal processing speed was studied by measuring letter-recognition accuracy for strings of three randomly selected letters centered at fixation for a range of exposure times. Temporal threshold was defined as the exposure time yielding 80% recognition accuracy for the central letter.

Results: Temporal thresholds for the MD subjects ranged from 159 to 5881 ms, much longer than values for age-matched controls in central vision (13 ms, p<0.01). The mean temporal threshold for the 11 MD subjects who used eccentric fixation (1555.8 +/- 1708.4 ms) was much longer than the mean temporal threshold (97.0 +/- 34.2 ms, p<0.01) for the age-matched controls at 10 degrees in the lower visual field. Individual temporal thresholds accounted for 30% of the variance in reading speed (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The significant association between increased temporal threshold for letter recognition and reduced reading speed is consistent with the hypothesis that slower visual processing of letter recognition is one of the factors limiting reading speed in MD subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2007.07.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2094698PMC
October 2007

Causes of preventable visual loss in type 2 diabetes mellitus: an evaluation of suboptimally timed retinal photocoagulation.

J Gen Intern Med 2005 May;20(5):467-9

VA Center for Practice Management and Outcomes Research, VA Ann Arbor Health Care System, Ann Arbor, MI 48113-0170, USA.

To examine circumstances surrounding suboptimally timed retinal photocoagulation, we reviewed the medical records of 238 patients who had received photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy at one of three large referral centers. Forty-three percent (95% confidence interval, 36% to 49%) of cases were rated as probably or definitely suboptimally timed (i.e., patient could have benefited from earlier photocoagulation). About one third of cases were due to patients going many years without screening (> 3 years), and two thirds were associated with surveillance problems (failures to achieve close follow-up for known retinopathy). We found that suboptimal timing of photocoagulation was common but was not due to patients going between 13 and 36 months between screening visits, suggesting that current performance measures, which focus on annual retinal examinations, may be requiring wasteful care while not addressing a major quality problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.40073.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1490102PMC
May 2005

Telehealth practice recommendations for diabetic retinopathy.

Telemed J E Health 2004 ;10(4):469-82

Telehealth holds the promise of increased adherence to evidenced-based medicine and improved consistency of care. Goals for an ocular telehealth program include preserving vision, reducing vision loss, and providing better access to medicine. Establishing recommendations for an ocular telehealth program may improve clinical outcomes and promote informed and reasonable patient expectations. This document addresses current diabetic retinopathy telehealth clinical and administrative issues and provides recommendations for designing and implementing a diabetic retinopathy ocular telehealth care program. The recommendations also form the basis for evaluating diabetic retinopathy telehealth techniques and technologies. Recommendations in this document are based on careful reviews of current evidence, medical literature and clinical practice. They do not, however, replace sound medical judgment or traditional clinical decision-making. "Telehealth Practice Recommendations for Diabetic Retinopathy" will be annually reviewed and updated to reflect evolving technologies and clinical guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2004.10.469DOI Listing
March 2005
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