Publications by authors named "Mary B Daly"

228 Publications

Maternal and prenatal factors and age at thelarche in the LEGACY Girls Study cohort: implications for breast cancer risk.

Int J Epidemiol 2022 May 25. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology, Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Earlier onset of breast development (thelarche) is associated with increased breast cancer risk. Identifying modifiable factors associated with earlier thelarche may provide an opportunity for breast cancer risk reduction starting early in life, which could especially benefit girls with a greater absolute risk of breast cancer due to family history.

Methods: We assessed associations of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), physical activity during pregnancy, gestational weight gain and daughters' weight and length at birth with age at thelarche using longitudinal Weibull models in 1031 girls in the Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study-a prospective cohort of girls, half of whom have a breast cancer family history (BCFH).

Results: Girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of ≥25 and gained ≥30 lbs were 57% more likely to experience earlier thelarche than girls whose mothers had a pre-pregnancy BMI of <25 and gained <30 lbs [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.16, 2.12]. This association was not mediated by childhood BMI and was similar in girls with and without a BCFH (BCFH: HR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.27; No BCFH: HR = 1.62, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.40). Daughters of women who reported no recreational physical activity during pregnancy were more likely to experience earlier thelarche compared with daughters of physically active women. Birthweight and birth length were not associated with thelarche.

Conclusion: Earlier thelarche, a breast cancer risk factor, was associated with three potentially modifiable maternal risk factors-pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain and physical inactivity-in a cohort of girls enriched for BCFH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyac108DOI Listing
May 2022

Coping With Changes to Sex and Intimacy After a Diagnosis of Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results From a Qualitative Investigation With Patients and Partners.

Front Psychol 2022 6;13:864893. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

College of Public Health and Human Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, United States.

Objective: Prior research examining sexual and intimacy concerns among metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients and their intimate partners is limited. In this qualitative study, we explored MBC patients' and partners' experiences of sexual and intimacy-related changes and concerns, coping efforts, and information needs and intervention preferences, with a focus on identifying how the context of MBC shapes these experiences.

Methods: We conducted 3 focus groups with partnered patients with MBC [ = 12; M age = 50.2; 92% White; 8% Black] and 6 interviews with intimate partners [ age = 47.3; 83% White; 17% Black]. Participants were recruited through the Fox Chase Cancer Center Tumor Registry and the Cancer Support Community. Qualitative data were analyzed using the Framework Method and Dedoose software.

Results: Qualitative analyses revealed several key themes reflecting ways in which MBC shapes experiences of sex/intimacy: (1) the heavy disease/treatment burden leads to significant, long-term sexual concerns (e.g., loss of interest and vaginal dryness/discomfort) and consequent heightened emotional distress for both patients (e.g., guilt around not being able to engage in intercourse) and partners (e.g., guilt around pressuring the patient to engage in sexual activity despite pain/discomfort); (2) viewing the relationship as having "an expiration date" (due to expected earlier mortality) influences patients' and partners' concerns related to sex/intimacy and complicates coping efforts; and (3) information needs extend beyond managing sexual side effects to include emotional aspects of intimacy and the added strain of the life-limiting nature of the disease on the relationship. The heightened severity of sexual concerns faced by patients with MBC, compounded by the terminal nature of the disease, may place patients and partners at risk for significant adverse emotional and interpersonal consequences.

Conclusion: Findings suggest unique ways in which sex and intimate relationships change after a diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer from both patients' and partners' perspectives. Consideration of the substantial physical and emotional burden of MBC and the broader context of the relationship and intimacy overall is important when developing a sexuality-focused intervention in this population. Addressing sexual concerns is a critical part of cancer care with important implications for patients' health and quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.864893DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9019080PMC
April 2022

Investigating the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast cancer clinicians' communication about sexual health.

Support Care Cancer 2022 Jul 29;30(7):5801-5810. Epub 2022 Mar 29.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, PA, 19111, Philadelphia, USA.

Purpose: We assessed breast cancer clinicians' perspectives on how the COVID-19 pandemic and increased use of telehealth affected their clinical communication about sexual heath.

Methods: Breast cancer clinicians participating in a sexual health communication intervention study (N = 29; 76% female; 66% oncologists; 34% advanced practice clinicians) completed an online survey. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics and thematic analysis.

Results: All clinicians were using telehealth, with most (66%) using it for up to half of their clinic appointments. Although only 14% of clinicians reported having shorter clinic visits, 28% reported having less time to discuss sexual health; 69% reported no change; and 3% said they had more time. Forty-one percent reported sexual health was less of a priority; 55% reported no change; and 3% said it was more of a priority. Thirty-five percent reported telehealth was less conducive to discussing sexual health; 59% reported no change; and 7% reported more conducive. Qualitative analysis revealed key issues underlying the perceived impact of the pandemic on discussions of sexual health including heightened clinician discomfort discussing such issues via telehealth, the less personal nature and privacy issues in telehealth visits, increased concerns about risk of COVID-19 infection and other health concerns (e.g., missing recurrence, mental health) taking priority, and clinician-perceived patient factors (e.g., discomfort, decreased priority) in discussing sexual concerns.

Conclusion: Pandemic-related changes in breast cancer clinicians' practice could be exacerbating challenges to discussing sexual health. Methods for integrating sexual health into cancer care are needed, regardless of the mode of delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-022-07003-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8964249PMC
July 2022

Understanding clinical communication about mood disturbance symptoms among breast cancer patients: A mixed methods analysis.

Patient Educ Couns 2022 Jul 10;105(7):2089-2095. Epub 2022 Feb 10.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Objectives: We aimed to characterize the relationships between breast cancer patient mood symptom severity and demographic/medical factors with clinical communication about mood, and to explore mood discussion content.

Methods: 134 breast cancer patients (mean age=58.3; 14% minority; 13% metastatic) had oncology clinic visits audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded for mood communication. Patient Care Monitor assessed mood symptoms (anxiety/depression presence/severity). Logistic regressions measured associations between mood, demographic/medical factors, and communication. Thematic analysis characterized discussion topics.

Results: Over half of patients (55%; n = 73) reported mood symptoms. Worse mood symptoms were associated with younger age and current treatment (p's < 0.05). 19% of clinic visits (n = 26/134) contained mood discussions. Discussions were more common for younger women and those with non-metastatic disease (p's < 0.05). Odds of discussing mood increased with symptom severity (OR=4.52, p = 0.018). Cancer-related anxiety and medication management were among the most common topics discussed.

Conclusions: Communication about mood occurred infrequently, with women currently undergoing treatment, with metastatic disease, or with mild mood symptoms at potentially increased risk for inadequate discussion. Both patient-focused and provider-focused interventions to improve clinical communication about mood symptoms could be beneficial.

Practice Implications: Clinicians hold a key role in supporting cancer patients' well-being by using and encouraging effective communication about patients' mood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2022.02.004DOI Listing
July 2022

Reply to the Letter to the Editor From Ivanov et al.

Authors:
Mary B Daly

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2022 02;20(2):xxvi

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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2022.0014DOI Listing
February 2022

Cancer Risks Associated With and Pathogenic Variants.

J Clin Oncol 2022 May 25;40(14):1529-1541. Epub 2022 Jan 25.

Institute of Medical Genetics and Applied Genomics, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.

Purpose: To provide precise age-specific risk estimates of cancers other than female breast and ovarian cancers associated with pathogenic variants (PVs) in and for effective cancer risk management.

Methods: We used data from 3,184 and 2,157 families in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of to estimate age-specific relative (RR) and absolute risks for 22 first primary cancer types adjusting for family ascertainment.

Results: PVs were associated with risks of male breast (RR = 4.30; 95% CI, 1.09 to 16.96), pancreatic (RR = 2.36; 95% CI, 1.51 to 3.68), and stomach (RR = 2.17; 95% CI, 1.25 to 3.77) cancers. Associations with colorectal and gallbladder cancers were also suggested. PVs were associated with risks of male breast (RR = 44.0; 95% CI, 21.3 to 90.9), stomach (RR = 3.69; 95% CI, 2.40 to 5.67), pancreatic (RR = 3.34; 95% CI, 2.21 to 5.06), and prostate (RR = 2.22; 95% CI, 1.63 to 3.03) cancers. The stomach cancer RR was higher for females than males (6.89 2.76; = .04). The absolute risks to age 80 years ranged from 0.4% for male breast cancer to approximately 2.5% for pancreatic cancer for carriers and from approximately 2.5% for pancreatic cancer to 27% for prostate cancer for carriers.

Conclusion: In addition to female breast and ovarian cancers, and PVs are associated with increased risks of male breast, pancreatic, stomach, and prostate (only PVs) cancers, but not with the risks of other previously suggested cancers. The estimated age-specific risks will refine cancer risk management in men and women with PVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.02112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9084432PMC
May 2022

Therapeutic implications of germline vulnerabilities in DNA repair for precision oncology.

Cancer Treat Rev 2022 Mar 5;104:102337. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States; Department of Radiation Oncology, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Electronic address:

DNA repair vulnerabilities are present in a significant proportion of cancers. Specifically, germline alterations in DNA repair not only increase cancer risk but are associated with treatment response and clinical outcomes. The therapeutic landscape of cancer has rapidly evolved with the FDA approval of therapies that specifically target DNA repair vulnerabilities. The clinical success of synthetic lethality between BRCA deficiency and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition has been truly revolutionary. Defective mismatch repair has been validated as a predictor of response to immune checkpoint blockade associated with durable responses and long-term benefit in many cancer patients. Advances in next generation sequencing technologies and their decreasing cost have supported increased genetic profiling of tumors coupled with germline testing of cancer risk genes in patients. The clinical adoption of panel testing for germline assessment in high-risk individuals has generated a plethora of genetic data, particularly on DNA repair genes. Here, we highlight the therapeutic relevance of germline aberrations in DNA repair to identify patients eligible for precision treatments such as PARP inhibitors (PARPis), immune checkpoint blockade, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and combined treatment. We also discuss emerging mechanisms that regulate DNA repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2021.102337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9016579PMC
March 2022

Polygenic risk modeling for prediction of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.

Eur J Hum Genet 2022 03 14;30(3):349-362. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Maria Sklodowska-Curie National Research Institute of Oncology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Diagnostics, Warsaw, Poland.

Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) have the potential to improve risk stratification. Joint estimation of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) effects in models could improve predictive performance over standard approaches of PRS construction. Here, we implemented computationally efficient, penalized, logistic regression models (lasso, elastic net, stepwise) to individual level genotype data and a Bayesian framework with continuous shrinkage, "select and shrink for summary statistics" (S4), to summary level data for epithelial non-mucinous ovarian cancer risk prediction. We developed the models in a dataset consisting of 23,564 non-mucinous EOC cases and 40,138 controls participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) and validated the best models in three populations of different ancestries: prospective data from 198,101 women of European ancestries; 7,669 women of East Asian ancestries; 1,072 women of African ancestries, and in 18,915 BRCA1 and 12,337 BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestries. In the external validation data, the model with the strongest association for non-mucinous EOC risk derived from the OCAC model development data was the S4 model (27,240 SNPs) with odds ratios (OR) of 1.38 (95% CI: 1.28-1.48, AUC: 0.588) per unit standard deviation, in women of European ancestries; 1.14 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19, AUC: 0.538) in women of East Asian ancestries; 1.38 (95% CI: 1.21-1.58, AUC: 0.593) in women of African ancestries; hazard ratios of 1.36 (95% CI: 1.29-1.43, AUC: 0.592) in BRCA1 pathogenic variant carriers and 1.49 (95% CI: 1.35-1.64, AUC: 0.624) in BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. Incorporation of the S4 PRS in risk prediction models for ovarian cancer may have clinical utility in ovarian cancer prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00987-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8904525PMC
March 2022

Cascade Genetic Testing for Hereditary Cancer Risk: An Underutilized Tool for Cancer Prevention.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 11;5:1387-1396

Department of Clinical Genetics, Fox Chase Cancer Center. Philadelphia, PA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.21.00163DOI Listing
November 2021

Common variants in breast cancer risk loci predispose to distinct tumor subtypes.

Breast Cancer Res 2022 01 4;24(1). Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified multiple common breast cancer susceptibility variants. Many of these variants have differential associations by estrogen receptor (ER) status, but how these variants relate with other tumor features and intrinsic molecular subtypes is unclear.

Methods: Among 106,571 invasive breast cancer cases and 95,762 controls of European ancestry with data on 173 breast cancer variants identified in previous GWAS, we used novel two-stage polytomous logistic regression models to evaluate variants in relation to multiple tumor features (ER, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and grade) adjusting for each other, and to intrinsic-like subtypes.

Results: Eighty-five of 173 variants were associated with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 5%), most commonly ER and grade, followed by PR and HER2. Models for intrinsic-like subtypes found nearly all of these variants (83 of 85) associated at p < 0.05 with risk for at least one luminal-like subtype, and approximately half (41 of 85) of the variants were associated with risk of at least one non-luminal subtype, including 32 variants associated with triple-negative (TN) disease. Ten variants were associated with risk of all subtypes in different magnitude. Five variants were associated with risk of luminal A-like and TN subtypes in opposite directions.

Conclusion: This report demonstrates a high level of complexity in the etiology heterogeneity of breast cancer susceptibility variants and can inform investigations of subtype-specific risk prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01484-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8725568PMC
January 2022

Weight is More Informative than Body Mass Index for Predicting Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Risk: Prospective Family Study Cohort (ProF-SC).

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2022 Mar;15(3):185-191

Centre for Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

We considered whether weight is more informative than body mass index (BMI) = weight/height2 when predicting breast cancer risk for postmenopausal women, and if the weight association differs by underlying familial risk. We studied 6,761 women postmenopausal at baseline with a wide range of familial risk from 2,364 families in the Prospective Family Study Cohort. Participants were followed for on average 11.45 years and there were 416 incident breast cancers. We used Cox regression to estimate risk associations with log-transformed weight and BMI after adjusting for underlying familial risk. We compared model fits using the Akaike information criterion (AIC) and nested models using the likelihood ratio test. The AIC for the weight-only model was 6.22 units lower than for the BMI-only model, and the log risk gradient was 23% greater. Adding BMI or height to weight did not improve fit (ΔAIC = 0.90 and 0.83, respectively; both P = 0.3). Conversely, adding weight to BMI or height gave better fits (ΔAIC = 5.32 and 11.64; P = 0.007 and 0.0002, respectively). Adding height improved only the BMI model (ΔAIC = 5.47; P = 0.006). There was no evidence that the BMI or weight associations differed by underlying familial risk (P > 0.2). Weight is more informative than BMI for predicting breast cancer risk, consistent with nonadipose as well as adipose tissue being etiologically relevant. The independent but multiplicative associations of weight and familial risk suggest that, in terms of absolute breast cancer risk, the association with weight is more important the greater a woman's underlying familial risk.

Prevention Relevance: Our results suggest that the relationship between BMI and breast cancer could be due to a relationship between weight and breast cancer, downgraded by inappropriately adjusting for height; potential importance of anthropometric measures other than total body fat; breast cancer risk associations with BMI and weight are across a continuum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-21-0164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8977841PMC
March 2022

Recreational Physical Activity and Outcomes After Breast Cancer in Women at High Familial Risk.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2021 12 8;5(6). Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Recreational physical activity (RPA) is associated with improved survival after breast cancer (BC) in average-risk women, but evidence is limited for women who are at increased familial risk because of a BC family history or and pathogenic variants ( PVs).

Methods: We estimated associations of RPA (self-reported average hours per week within 3 years of BC diagnosis) with all-cause mortality and second BC events (recurrence or new primary) after first invasive BC in women in the Prospective Family Study Cohort (n = 4610, diagnosed 1993-2011, aged 22-79 years at diagnosis). We fitted Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age at diagnosis, demographics, and lifestyle factors. We tested for multiplicative interactions (Wald test statistic for cross-product terms) and additive interactions (relative excess risk due to interaction) by age at diagnosis, body mass index, estrogen receptor status, stage at diagnosis, / PVs, and familial risk score estimated from multigenerational pedigree data. Statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: We observed 1212 deaths and 473 second BC events over a median follow-up from study enrollment of 11.0 and 10.5 years, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, RPA (any vs none) was associated with lower all-cause mortality of 16.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.4% to 27.9%) overall, 11.8% (95% CI = -3.6% to 24.9%) in women without PVs, and 47.5% (95% CI = 17.4% to 66.6%) in women with / PVs (RPA* multiplicative interaction = .005; relative excess risk due to interaction = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.01 to 1.74). RPA was not associated with risk of second BC events.

Conclusion: Findings support that RPA is associated with lower all-cause mortality in women with BC, particularly in women with / PVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkab090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8692829PMC
December 2021

Germline variants and breast cancer survival in patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis.

Sci Rep 2021 10 5;11(1):19787. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Department of Breast Surgery, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer metastasis accounts for most of the deaths from breast cancer. Identification of germline variants associated with survival in aggressive types of breast cancer may inform understanding of breast cancer progression and assist treatment. In this analysis, we studied the associations between germline variants and breast cancer survival for patients with distant metastases at primary breast cancer diagnosis. We used data from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) including 1062 women of European ancestry with metastatic breast cancer, 606 of whom died of breast cancer. We identified two germline variants on chromosome 1, rs138569520 and rs146023652, significantly associated with breast cancer-specific survival (P = 3.19 × 10 and 4.42 × 10). In silico analysis suggested a potential regulatory effect of the variants on the nearby target genes SDE2 and H3F3A. However, the variants showed no evidence of association in a smaller replication dataset. The validation dataset was obtained from the SNPs to Risk of Metastasis (StoRM) study and included 293 patients with metastatic primary breast cancer at diagnosis. Ultimately, larger replication studies are needed to confirm the identified associations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-99409-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8492709PMC
October 2021

Association of germline genetic variants with breast cancer-specific survival in patient subgroups defined by clinic-pathological variables related to tumor biology and type of systemic treatment.

Breast Cancer Res 2021 08 18;23(1):86. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Medicine, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.

Background: Given the high heterogeneity among breast tumors, associations between common germline genetic variants and survival that may exist within specific subgroups could go undetected in an unstratified set of breast cancer patients.

Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses within 15 subgroups of breast cancer patients based on prognostic factors, including hormone receptors, tumor grade, age, and type of systemic treatment. Analyses were based on 91,686 female patients of European ancestry from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium, including 7531 breast cancer-specific deaths over a median follow-up of 8.1 years. Cox regression was used to assess associations of common germline variants with 15-year and 5-year breast cancer-specific survival. We assessed the probability of these associations being true positives via the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP < 0.15).

Results: Evidence of associations with breast cancer-specific survival was observed in three patient subgroups, with variant rs5934618 in patients with grade 3 tumors (15-year-hazard ratio (HR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] 1.32 [1.20, 1.45], P = 1.4E-08, BFDP = 0.01, per G allele); variant rs4679741 in patients with ER-positive tumors treated with endocrine therapy (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.18 [1.11, 1.26], P = 1.6E-07, BFDP = 0.09, per G allele); variants rs1106333 (15-year-HR [95% CI] 1.68 [1.39,2.03], P = 5.6E-08, BFDP = 0.12, per A allele) and rs78754389 (5-year-HR [95% CI] 1.79 [1.46,2.20], P = 1.7E-08, BFDP = 0.07, per A allele), in patients with ER-negative tumors treated with chemotherapy.

Conclusions: We found evidence of four loci associated with breast cancer-specific survival within three patient subgroups. There was limited evidence for the existence of associations in other patient subgroups. However, the power for many subgroups is limited due to the low number of events. Even so, our results suggest that the impact of common germline genetic variants on breast cancer-specific survival might be limited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01450-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371820PMC
August 2021

Mobile Technology-Based (mLearning) Intervention to Enhance Breast Cancer Clinicians' Communication About Sexual Health: A Pilot Trial.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 08 13. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Most breast cancer clinicians lack training to counsel patients about sexual concerns. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of a mobile learning (mLearning) intervention (improving Sexual Health and Augmenting Relationships through Education [iSHARE]) aimed at enhancing breast cancer clinicians' knowledge of, beliefs about, and comfort with discussing patients' sexual health concerns.

Methods: Clinicians listened to a 2-part educational podcast series offering information on breast cancer-related sexual health concerns and effective communication on the topic, which consisted of interviews with expert guests. Intervention feasibility was assessed through rates of enrollment, retention, and intervention completion, with benchmarks of 40%, 70%, and 60%, respectively. Acceptability was assessed through program evaluations, with 75% of clinicians rating the intervention favorably (eg, relevance, satisfaction) signifying acceptability. Clinicians self-reported their knowledge about breast cancer-related sexual health concerns, beliefs (ie, self-efficacy for discussing sexual health concerns), and comfort with discussing sexual concerns measured at preintervention and postintervention. Qualitative analysis examined clinicians' perceptions of lessons learned from the intervention.

Results: A total of 32 breast cancer clinicians enrolled (46% of those invited; 97% of those who responded and screened eligible), 30 (94%) completed both the intervention and study surveys, and 80% rated the intervention favorably, demonstrating feasibility and acceptability. Results showed positive trends for improvement in clinician knowledge, beliefs, and comfort with discussing sexual health concerns. Clinicians reported key lessons learned, including taking a proactive approach to discussing sexual health concerns, normalizing the topic, addressing vaginal health, sending the message that help is available, and assessing sexual health concerns with patients from different backgrounds.

Conclusions: Breast cancer clinicians were amenable to participating in the iSHARE intervention and found it useful. iSHARE showed promise for improving clinician's knowledge and comfort discussing patients' sexual health concerns. A larger trial is required to demonstrate efficacy. Future studies should also examine whether iSHARE can improve patient-clinician communication and address patients' sexual concerns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.7032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8840991PMC
August 2021

Genetic risk assessment for hereditary renal cell carcinoma: Clinical consensus statement.

Cancer 2021 Nov 3;127(21):3957-3966. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: Although renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is believed to have a strong hereditary component, there is a paucity of published guidelines for genetic risk assessment. A panel of experts was convened to gauge current opinions.

Methods: A North American multidisciplinary panel with expertise in hereditary RCC, including urologists, medical oncologists, clinical geneticists, genetic counselors, and patient advocates, was convened. Before the summit, a modified Delphi methodology was used to generate, review, and curate a set of consensus questions regarding RCC genetic risk assessment. Uniform consensus was defined as ≥85% agreement on particular questions.

Results: Thirty-three panelists, including urologists (n = 13), medical oncologists (n = 12), genetic counselors and clinical geneticists (n = 6), and patient advocates (n = 2), reviewed 53 curated consensus questions. Uniform consensus was achieved on 30 statements in specific areas that addressed for whom, what, when, and how genetic testing should be performed. Topics of consensus included the family history criteria, which should trigger further assessment, the need for risk assessment in those with bilateral or multifocal disease and/or specific histology, the utility of multigene panel testing, and acceptance of clinician-based counseling and testing by those who have experience with hereditary RCC.

Conclusions: In the first ever consensus panel on RCC genetic risk assessment, 30 consensus statements were reached. Areas that require further research and discussion were also identified, with a second future meeting planned. This consensus statement may provide further guidance for clinicians when considering RCC genetic risk assessment.

Lay Summary: The contribution of germline genetics to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has long been recognized. However, there is a paucity of guidelines to define how and when genetic risk assessment should be performed for patients with known or suspected hereditary RCC. Without guidelines, clinicians struggle to define who requires further evaluation, when risk assessment or testing should be done, which genes should be considered, and how counseling and/or testing should be performed. To this end, a multidisciplinary panel of national experts was convened to gauge current opinion on genetic risk assessment in RCC and to enumerate a set of recommendations to guide clinicians when evaluating individuals with suspected hereditary kidney cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8711633PMC
November 2021

Mendelian randomisation study of smoking exposure in relation to breast cancer risk.

Br J Cancer 2021 10 2;125(8):1135-1145. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Department of Health and Human Services, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Background: Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk.

Methods: We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy.

Results: Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 × 10), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect.

Conclusion: Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01432-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505411PMC
October 2021

Functional annotation of the 2q35 breast cancer risk locus implicates a structural variant in influencing activity of a long-range enhancer element.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 07 18;108(7):1190-1203. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Genomic Epidemiology Group, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg 69120, Germany.

A combination of genetic and functional approaches has identified three independent breast cancer risk loci at 2q35. A recent fine-scale mapping analysis to refine these associations resulted in 1 (signal 1), 5 (signal 2), and 42 (signal 3) credible causal variants at these loci. We used publicly available in silico DNase I and ChIP-seq data with in vitro reporter gene and CRISPR assays to annotate signals 2 and 3. We identified putative regulatory elements that enhanced cell-type-specific transcription from the IGFBP5 promoter at both signals (30- to 40-fold increased expression by the putative regulatory element at signal 2, 2- to 3-fold by the putative regulatory element at signal 3). We further identified one of the five credible causal variants at signal 2, a 1.4 kb deletion (esv3594306), as the likely causal variant; the deletion allele of this variant was associated with an average additional increase in IGFBP5 expression of 1.3-fold (MCF-7) and 2.2-fold (T-47D). We propose a model in which the deletion allele of esv3594306 juxtaposes two transcription factor binding regions (annotated by estrogen receptor alpha ChIP-seq peaks) to generate a single extended regulatory element. This regulatory element increases cell-type-specific expression of the tumor suppressor gene IGFBP5 and, thereby, reduces risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% CI 0.74-0.81, p = 3.1 × 10).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.05.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322933PMC
July 2021

The predictive ability of the 313 variant-based polygenic risk score for contralateral breast cancer risk prediction in women of European ancestry with a heterozygous BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant.

Genet Med 2021 09 10;23(9):1726-1737. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.

Purpose: To evaluate the association between a previously published 313 variant-based breast cancer (BC) polygenic risk score (PRS) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk, in BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant heterozygotes.

Methods: We included women of European ancestry with a prevalent first primary invasive BC (BRCA1 = 6,591 with 1,402 prevalent CBC cases; BRCA2 = 4,208 with 647 prevalent CBC cases) from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA), a large international retrospective series. Cox regression analysis was performed to assess the association between overall and ER-specific PRS and CBC risk.

Results: For BRCA1 heterozygotes the estrogen receptor (ER)-negative PRS showed the largest association with CBC risk, hazard ratio (HR) per SD = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.06-1.18), C-index = 0.53; for BRCA2 heterozygotes, this was the ER-positive PRS, HR = 1.15, 95% CI (1.07-1.25), C-index = 0.57. Adjusting for family history, age at diagnosis, treatment, or pathological characteristics for the first BC did not change association effect sizes. For women developing first BC < age 40 years, the cumulative PRS 5th and 95th percentile 10-year CBC risks were 22% and 32% for BRCA1 and 13% and 23% for BRCA2 heterozygotes, respectively.

Conclusion: The PRS can be used to refine individual CBC risks for BRCA1/2 heterozygotes of European ancestry, however the PRS needs to be considered in the context of a multifactorial risk model to evaluate whether it might influence clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8460445PMC
September 2021

Mothers' Diet and Family Income Predict Daughters' Healthy Eating.

Prev Chronic Dis 2021 03 18;18:E24. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

College of Social Work, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Introduction: Understanding the degree to which parents may influence healthy behaviors may provide opportunities to intervene among populations at increased risk of diseases, such as breast cancer. In this study, we examined the association between daughters' healthy eating habits and family lifestyle behaviors among girls and their families by using baseline data from the LEGACY (Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer from Youth) Girls Study. Our objective was to examine the relationship between daughters' healthy eating and family lifestyle behaviors and to compare these associations between families with and without a history of breast cancer.

Methods: We examined demographic and lifestyle data from a cohort of 1,040 girls aged 6 to 13 years from year 1 (2011) of the LEGACY study. Half had a family history of breast cancer (BCFH). We used mixed-effects linear regression to assess the influence of the mother and father's physical activity, family relationship scores, the mother's diet, the family's income, and the daughter's sports participation, age, body mass index (BMI), and race/ethnicity on the daughter's Healthy Eating Index (HEI) score.

Results: Daughters' healthy eating was significantly correlated with the mother's diet (r[668] = 0.25, P = .003) and physical activity (r[970] = 0.12, P = .002), the father's physical activity (r[970] = 0.08, P = .01), and the family income (r[854] = 0.13, P = .006). Additionally, the mother's diet (β coefficient = 0.71, 95% CI, 0.46-0.88, P = .005) and family income (β coefficient = 3.28, 95% CI, 0.79-5.78, P = .002) significantly predicted a daughter's healthy eating. Analyses separated by family history status revealed differences in these associations. In families without a history of breast cancer, only the mother's diet (β coefficient = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.29-0.95; P = .001) significantly predicted the daughter's healthy eating. In families with a history of breast cancer, the mother's diet (β coefficient = 0.73, 95% CI, 0.42-1.03, P = .006) and family income (β coefficient = 6.24; 95% CI, 2.68-9.80; P = .004) significantly predicted a daughter's healthy eating.

Conclusion: A mother's diet and family income are related to the daughter's healthy eating habits, although differences exist among families by family history of breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5888/pcd18.200445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986974PMC
March 2021

Association of Risk-Reducing Salpingo-Oophorectomy With Breast Cancer Risk in Women With BRCA1 and BRCA2 Pathogenic Variants.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Apr;7(4):585-592

Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Women with pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are at high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers. They usually undergo intensive cancer surveillance and may also consider surgical interventions, such as risk-reducing mastectomy or risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy has been shown to reduce ovarian cancer risk, but its association with breast cancer risk is less clear.

Objective: To assess the association of RRSO with the risk of breast cancer in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This case series included families enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry between 1996 and 2000 that carried an inherited pathogenic variant in BRCA1 (498 families) or BRCA2 (378 families). A survival analysis approach was used that was designed specifically to assess the time-varying association of RRSO with breast cancer risk and accounting for other potential biases. Data were analyzed from August 2019 to November 2020.

Exposure: Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy.

Main Outcomes And Measures: In all analyses, the primary end point was the time to a first primary breast cancer.

Results: A total of 876 families were evaluated, including 498 with BRCA1 (2650 individuals; mean [SD] event age, 55.8 [19.1] years; 437 White probands [87.8%]) and 378 with BRCA2 (1925 individuals; mean [SD] event age, 57.0 [18.6] years; 299 White probands [79.1%]). Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers within 5 years after surgery (hazard ratios [HRs], 0.28 [95% CI, 0.10-0.63] and 0.19 [95% CI, 0.06-0.71], respectively), whereas the corresponding HRs were weaker after 5 years postsurgery (HRs, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.38-0.97] and 0.99 [95% CI; 0.84-1.00], respectively). For BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers who underwent RRSO at age 40 years, the cause-specific cumulative risk of breast cancer was 49.7% (95% CI, 40.0-60.3) and 52.7% (95% CI, 47.9-58.7) by age 70 years, respectively, compared with 61.0% (95% CI, 56.7-66.0) and 54.0% (95% CI, 49.3-60.1), respectively, for women without RRSO.

Conclusions And Relevance: Although the primary indication for RRSO is the prevention of ovarian cancer, it is also critical to assess its association with breast cancer risk in order to guide clinical decision-making about RRSO use and timing. The results of this case series suggest a reduced risk of breast cancer associated with RRSO in the immediate 5 years after surgery in women carrying BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants, and a longer-term association with cumulative breast cancer risk in women carrying BRCA1 pathogenic variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.7995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907985PMC
April 2021

A case-only study to identify genetic modifiers of breast cancer risk for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers.

Nat Commun 2021 02 17;12(1):1078. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Copenhagen General Population Study, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20496-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7890067PMC
February 2021

Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic, Version 2.2021, NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 01 6;19(1):77-102. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

24The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center - James Cancer Hospital and Solove Research Institute.

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.0001DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of a multimedia intervention in facilitating breast cancer patients' clinical communication about sexual health: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

Psychooncology 2021 05 23;30(5):681-690. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: Many women with breast cancer (BC) hesitate to raise sexual concerns clinically. We evaluated a multimedia intervention to facilitate BC patients' communication about sexual/menopausal health, called Starting the Conversation (STC).

Methods: Female BC patients (N = 144) were randomly assigned to either STC (20-min video, workbook, and resource guide) or control (resource guide only). Audio-recorded dialogue from patients' next oncology clinic encounter was coded for patients' sexual health communication. Self-report surveys assessed patients' beliefs about sexual health communication, self-efficacy for clinical interactions, sexual function/activity, anxiety/depression symptoms, and quality of life at baseline, post-intervention, and 2-month follow-up. T-tests or mixed-effects logistic regression compared study arms.

Results: Women in the STC arm were more likely to raise the topic of sexual health (51%; OR = 2.62 [1.02, 6.69], p = 0.04) and ask a sexual health question (40%; OR = 2.85 [1.27, 6.38], p = 0.01) during their clinic encounter than those in the control arm (30% and 19% for raise and ask, respectively). At follow-up, women in the STC arm showed greater improvements in sexual health communication self-efficacy (p = 0.009) and in anxiety symptoms (p = 0.03), and more women were sexually active at follow-up, compared to the control arm (OR = 1.5, 70% vs. 46%, p = 0.04).

Conclusions: The STC intervention facilitated women's clinical communication about sexual health and reduced women's anxiety, possibly due to increased confidence in expressing their medical needs. Helpful information gained from clinical discussions could have improved women's willingness or ability to engage in sexual activity. Future studies should identify aspects of the clinical encounter most critical to improving women's sexual outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.5613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113064PMC
May 2021

Comparing 5-Year and Lifetime Risks of Breast Cancer using the Prospective Family Study Cohort.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 06;113(6):785-791

Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Clinical guidelines often use predicted lifetime risk from birth to define criteria for making decisions regarding breast cancer screening rather than thresholds based on absolute 5-year risk from current age.

Methods: We used the Prospective Family Cohort Study of 14 657 women without breast cancer at baseline in which, during a median follow-up of 10 years, 482 women were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer. We examined the performances of the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS) and Breast and Ovarian Analysis of Disease Incidence and Carrier Estimation Algorithm (BOADICEA) risk models when using the alternative thresholds by comparing predictions based on 5-year risk with those based on lifetime risk from birth and remaining lifetime risk. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Using IBIS, the areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curves were 0.66 (95% confidence interval = 0.63 to 0.68) and 0.56 (95% confidence interval = 0.54 to 0.59) for 5-year and lifetime risks, respectively (Pdiff < .001). For equivalent sensitivities, the 5-year incidence almost always had higher specificities than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 20-39 years, 5-year risk performed better than lifetime risk from birth. For women aged 40 years or older, receiver-operating characteristic curves were similar for 5-year and lifetime IBIS risk from birth. Classifications based on remaining lifetime risk were inferior to 5-year risk estimates. Results were similar using BOADICEA.

Conclusions: Our analysis shows that risk stratification using clinical models will likely be more accurate when based on predicted 5-year risk compared with risks based on predicted lifetime and remaining lifetime, particularly for women aged 20-39 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa178DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8168075PMC
June 2021

Common Childhood Viruses and Pubertal Timing: The LEGACY Girls Study.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 05;190(5):766-778

Earlier pubertal development is only partially explained by childhood body mass index; the role of other factors, such as childhood infections, is less understood. Using data from the LEGACY Girls Study (North America, 2011-2016), we prospectively examined the associations between childhood viral infections (cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1, HSV2) and pubertal timing. We measured exposures based on seropositivity in premenarcheal girls (n = 490). Breast and pubic hair development were classified based on mother-reported Tanner Stage (TS) (TS2+ compared with TS1), adjusting for age, body mass index, and sociodemographic factors. The average age at first blood draw was 9.8 years (standard deviation, 1.9 years). The prevalences were 31% CMV+, 37% EBV+, 14% HSV1+, 0.4% HSV2+, and 16% for both CMV+/EBV+ coinfection. CMV+ infection without coinfection was associated with developing breasts an average of 7 months earlier (hazard ratio (HR) = 2.12, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32, 3.40). CMV infection without coinfection and HSV1 and/or HSV2 infection were associated with developing pubic hair 9 months later (HR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.71, and HR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.81, respectively). Infection was not associated with menarche. If replicated in larger cohorts with blood collection prior to any breast development, this study supports the hypothesis that childhood infections might play a role in altering pubertal timing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096486PMC
May 2021

Prepubertal Internalizing Symptoms and Timing of Puberty Onset in Girls.

Am J Epidemiol 2021 02;190(3):431-438

Stressful environments have been associated with earlier menarche. We hypothesized that anxiety, and possibly other internalizing symptoms, are also associated with earlier puberty in girls. The Lessons in Epidemiology and Genetics of Adult Cancer From Youth (LEGACY) Girls Study (2011-2016) included 1,040 girls aged 6-13 years at recruitment whose growth and development were assessed every 6 months. Prepubertal maternal reports of daughter's internalizing symptoms were available for breast onset (n = 447), pubic hair onset (n = 456), and menarche (n = 681). Using Cox proportional hazard regression, we estimated prospective hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the relationship between 1 standard deviation of the percentiles of prepubertal anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms and the timing of each pubertal outcome. Multivariable models included age, race/ethnicity, study center, maternal education, body mass index percentile, and family history of breast cancer. Additional models included maternal self-reported anxiety. A 1-standard deviation increase in maternally reported anxiety in girls at baseline was associated with earlier subsequent onset of breast (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.22, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09, 1.36) and pubic hair (HR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.30) development, but not menarche (HR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.07). The association of anxiety with earlier breast development persisted after adjustment for maternal anxiety. Increased anxiety in young girls may indicate risk for earlier pubertal onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwaa223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086416PMC
February 2021
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