Publications by authors named "Marton Bartos"

4 Publications

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Complicated Postoperative Flat Back Deformity Correction With the Aid of Virtual and 3D Printed Anatomical Models: Case Report.

Front Surg 2021 28;8:662919. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Industrial Engineering, Alma Mater Studiorum, Universita di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

The number of patients with iatrogenic spinal deformities is increasing due to the increase in instrumented spinal surgeries globally. Correcting a deformity could be challenging due to the complex anatomical and geometrical irregularities caused by previous surgeries and spine degeneration. Virtual and 3D printed models have the potential to illuminate the unique and complex anatomical-geometrical problems found in these patients. We present a case report with 6-months follow-up (FU) of a 71 year old female patient with severe sagittal and coronal malalignment due to repetitive discectomy, decompression, laminectomy, and stabilization surgeries over the last 39 years. The patient suffered from severe low back pain (VAS = 9, ODI = 80). Deformity correction by performing asymmetric 3-column pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) and stabilization were decided as the required surgical treatment. To better understand the complex anatomical condition, a patient-specific virtual geometry was defined by segmentation based on the preoperative CT. The geometrical accuracy was tested using the Dice Similarity Index (DSI). A complex 3D virtual plan was created for the surgery from the segmented geometry in addition to a 3D printed model. The segmentation process provided a highly accurate geometry (L1 to S2) with a DSI value of 0.92. The virtual model was shared in the internal clinical database in 3DPDF format. The printed physical model was used in the preoperative planning phase, patient education/communication and during the surgery. The surgery was performed successfully, and no complications were registered. The measured change in the sagittal vertical axis was 7 cm, in the coronal plane the distance between the C7 plumb line and the central sacral vertical line was reduced by 4 cm. A 30° correction was achieved for the lumbar lordosis due to the PSO at the L4 vertebra. The patient ODI was reduced to 20 points at the 6-months FU. The printed physical model was considered advantageous by the surgical team in the pre-surgical phase and during the surgery as well. The model was able to simplify the geometrical problems and potentially improve the outcome of the surgery by preventing complications and reducing surgical time.
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May 2021

Development of a Computer-Aided Design and Finite Element Analysis Combined Method for Affordable Spine Surgical Navigation With 3D-Printed Customized Template.

Front Surg 2020 25;7:583386. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

National Center for Spinal Disorders, Buda Health Center, Budapest, Hungary.

Revision surgery of a previous lumbosacral non-union is highly challenging, especially in case of complications, such as a broken screw at the first sacral level (S1). Here, we propose the implementation of a new method based on the CT scan of a clinical case using 3D reconstruction, combined with finite element analysis (FEA), computer-assisted design (CAD), and 3D-printing technology to provide accurate surgical navigation to aid the surgeon in performing the optimal surgical technique by inserting a pedicle screw at the S1 level. A step-by-step approach was developed and performed as follows: (1) Quantitative CT based patient-specific FE model of the sacrum was created. (2) The CAD model of the pedicle screw was inserted into the sacrum model in a bicortical convergent and a monocortical divergent position, by overcoming the geometrical difficulty caused by the broken screw. (3) Static FEAs (Abaqus, Dassault Systemes) were performed using 500 N tensile load applied to the screw head. (4) A template with two screw guiding structures for the sacrum was designed and manufactured using CAD design and 3D-printing technologies, and investment casting. (5) The proposed surgical technique was performed on the patient-specific physical model created with the FDM printing technology. The patient-specific model was CT scanned and a comparison with the virtual plan was performed to evaluate the template accuracy FEA results proved that the modified bicortical convergent insertion is stiffer (6,617.23 N/mm) compared to monocortical divergent placement (2,989.07 N/mm). The final template was created via investment casting from cobalt-chrome. The template design concept was shown to be accurate (grade A, Gertzbein-Robbins scale) based on the comparison of the simulated surgery using the patient-specific physical model and the 3D virtual surgical plan. Compared to the conventional surgical navigation techniques, the presented method allows the consideration of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters; is more affordable, and the intraoperative X-ray exposure can be reduced. This new patient- and condition-specific approach may be widely used in revision spine surgeries or in challenging primary cases after its further clinical validation.
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January 2021

Geometrical accuracy evaluation of an affordable 3D printing technology for spine physical models.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Feb 3;72:438-446. Epub 2020 Jan 3.

National Center for Spinal Disorders, Királyhágó u. 1-3, H-1126 Budapest, Hungary.

Objective: The aim of the study is to develop a workflow to establish geometrical quality criteria for 3D printed anatomical models as a guidance for selecting the most suitable 3D printing technologies available in a clinical environment.

Methods: We defined the 3D geometry of a 25-year-old male patient's L4 vertebra and the geometry was then printed using two technologies, which differ in printing resolution and affordability: Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) and Digital Light Processing (DLP). In order to measure geometrical accuracy, the 3D scans of two physical models were compared to the virtual input model. To compare surface qualities of these printing technologies we determined surface roughness for two regions of interest. Finally, we present our experience in the clinical application of a physical model in a congenital deformity case.

Results: The analysis of the distribution of the modified Hausdorff distance values along the vertebral surface meshes (99% of values <1 mm) of the 3D printed models provides evidence for high printing accuracy in both printing techniques. Our results demonstrate that the surface qualities, measured by roughness are adequate (~99% of values <0.1 mm) for both physical models. Finally, we implemented the FDM physical model for surgical planning.

Conclusion: We present a workflow capable of determining the quality of 3D printed models and the application of a high quality and affordable 3D printed spine physical model in the pre operative planning. As a result of the visual guidance provided by the physical model, we were able to define the optimal trajectory of the screw insertion during surgery.
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February 2020

Attitude of spine surgeons towards the application of 3D technologies - a survey of AOSpine members.

Ideggyogy Sz 2019 Jul;72(7-8):227-235

National Center for Spinal Disorders, Budapest.

Background And Purpose: 3D technologies (3D virtual and physical model, 3D printing, computer aided engineering, finite element analysis based simulations) play an important role in personalized spine surgery. Objective - In collaboration with AOSpine a global, online survey-based study was performed in order to determine the acceptance rate and the factors which stand against the wider spread of 3D technologies.

Methods: A survey containing 21 questions was developed and divided into five pages, every page corresponding to one chapter. Our analysis is based on the responses of 282 spine surgeons from 57 countries. To interpret our results in a global context, we used the Human Development Index of the respondent's countries in comparisons.

Results: Significant difference between the AOSpine regions (p ≤ 0.05) was found, with the highest acceptance in Asia-Pacific region. There was no significant difference in acceptance score according to the field of spine surgery, or the surgical experience in years (p=0.77, and p=0.19). In the case of public practice, we found significantly higher acceptance compared to private and mixed (public and private) surgical practice (p ≤ 0.05). The acceptance of the technology varied based on the respondent's resident country's Human Development Index and was significantly different between "Medium" vs "Very high" (p = 0.0005) and "High" vs "Very high" (p=0.019) category. Significant positive correlation was found between the acceptance score and the HDI score (Spearman test, ρ = 0.37, p = 0.007). The main limitation factor was identified as the lack of information.

Conclusion: There is high interest among spine surgeons towards the incorporation of 3D technologies into the clinical practice. Education, the healthcare system, and the economic environment plays a major role in acceptance. Our results provide the basis of a strategy to promote the application of 3D technologies.
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July 2019