Publications by authors named "Martine E Bol"

6 Publications

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Edema in critically ill patients leads to overestimation of skeletal muscle mass measurements using computed tomography scans.

Nutrition 2021 09 7;89:111238. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands; School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Objectives: Changes in muscle mass and quality are important targets for nutritional intervention in critical illness. Effects of such interventions may be assessed using sequential computed tomography (CT) scans. However, fluid and lipid infiltration potentially affects muscle area measurements. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in muscle mass and quality in critical illness with special emphasis on the influence of edema on this assessment.

Methods: Changes in skeletal muscle area index (SMI) and radiation attenuation (RA) at the level of vertebra L3 were analyzed using sequential CT scans of 77 patients with abdominal sepsis. Additionally, the relation between these changes and disease severity using the maximum Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and change in edema were studied.

Results: SMI declined on average 0.35%/d (±1.22%; P = 0.013). However, SMI increased in 41.6% of the study population. Increasing edema formation was significantly associated with increased SMI and with a higher SOFA score. Muscle RA decreased during critical illness, but was not significantly associated with changes in SMI or changes in edema.

Conclusion: In critically ill patients, edema affects skeletal muscle area measurements, which leads to an overestimation of skeletal muscle area. A higher SOFA score was associated with edema formation. Because both edema and fat infiltration may affect muscle RA, the separate effects of these on muscle quality are difficult to distinguish. When using abdominal CT scans to changes in muscle mass and quality in critically ill patients, researchers must be aware and careful with the interpretation of the results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2021.111238DOI Listing
September 2021

Decreased endothelial glycocalyx thickness is an early predictor of mortality in sepsis.

Anaesth Intensive Care 2020 May 2;48(3):221-228. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, the Netherlands.

Microcirculatory alterations play an important role in the early phase of sepsis. Shedding of the endothelial glycocalyx is regarded as a central pathophysiological mechanism causing microvascular dysfunction, contributing to multiple organ failure and death in sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether endothelial glycocalyx thickness at an early stage in septic patients relates to clinical outcome. We measured the perfused boundary region (PBR), which is inversely proportional to glycocalyx thickness, of sublingual microvessels (5-25 µm) using sidestream dark field imaging. The PBR in 21 patients with sepsis was measured within 24 h of admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). In addition, we determined plasma markers of microcirculatory dysfunction and studied their correlation with PBR and mortality. Endothelial glycocalyx thickness in sepsis was significantly lower for non-survivors as compared with survivors, indicated by a higher PBR of 1.97 [1.85, 2.19]µm compared with 1.76 [1.59, 1.97] µm, =0.03. Admission PBR was associated with hospital mortality with an area under the curve of 0.778 based on the receiver operating characteristic curve. Furthermore, PBR correlated positively with angiopoietin-2 (rho=0.532, =0.03), indicative of impaired barrier function. PBR did not correlate with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation IV (APACHE IV), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA score), lactate, syndecan-1, angiopoietin-1 or heparin-binding protein. An increased PBR within the first 24 h after ICU admission is associated with mortality in sepsis. Further research should be aimed at the pathophysiological importance of glycocalyx shedding in the development of multi-organ failure and at therapies attempting to preserve glycocalyx integrity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0310057X20916471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328096PMC
May 2020

Muscle wasting associated co-morbidities, rather than sarcopenia are risk factors for hospital mortality in critical illness.

J Crit Care 2020 04 26;56:31-36. Epub 2019 Nov 26.

Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands; School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism (NUTRIM), Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands; Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Background: Low skeletal muscle mass on intensive care unit admission is related to increased mortality. It is however unknown whether this association is influenced by co-morbidities that are associated with skeletal muscle loss. The aim of this study was to investigate whether sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for hospital mortality in critical illness in the presence of co-morbidities associated with muscle wasting.

Methods: Data of 155 patients with abdominal sepsis were retrospectively analyzed. Skeletal muscle area was assessed using CT-scans at the level of vertebra L3. Demographic and clinical data were retrieved from electronic patient files. Sarcopenia was defined as a muscle area index below the 5th percentile of the general population. Uni- and multivariable analyses were performed to assess the association between sarcopenia and hospital mortality, correcting for age and comorbidities.

Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients that did not survive until hospital discharge. However, it appeared that this relation was confounded by the presence of chronic renal insufficiency and cancer. These were independent risk factors for hospital mortality, whereas sarcopenia was not.

Conclusion: In critically ill patients with abdominal sepsis, muscle wasting associated co-morbidities rather than sarcopenia were risk factors for hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2019.11.016DOI Listing
April 2020

Variability of Microcirculatory Measurements in Critically Ill Patients.

Shock 2020 07;54(1):9-14

Department of Biochemistry, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands.

Introduction: Monitoring the microcirculation may be helpful in guiding resuscitation in patients with circulatory shock. Sublingual side-stream dark field imaging cameras allow for noninvasive, bedside evaluation of the microcirculation, although their use in clinical practice has not yet been validated. The GlycoCheck system automatically analyzes images to determine glycocalyx thickness, red blood cell filling percentage, and vessel density. Although GlycoCheck has been used to study microcirculation in critically ill patients, little is known about the reproducibility of measurements in this population.

Materials And Methods: A total of 60 critically ill patients were studied. Three consecutive microcirculation measurements were performed with the GlycoCheck system in 40 of these patients by one of two experienced observers. Twenty patients were assessed by both observers. Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).

Results: ICCs of single measurements were poor for glycocalyx thickness and good for filling percentage and vessel density. Reproducibility could be substantially increased for all parameters when three consecutive measurements were performed and averaged.

Discussion: GlycoCheck can be used to study microcirculation. However, to obtain reliable results three consecutive measurements should be performed and averaged. The variation of the measurements currently hampers the clinical application in individual patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001470DOI Listing
July 2020

Early initiation of extracorporeal life support in refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: Design and rationale of the INCEPTION trial.

Am Heart J 2019 04 14;210:58-68. Epub 2018 Dec 14.

Department of Intensive Care, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; NUTRIM, School for Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Return of spontaneous circulation occurs in less than 10% of patients with cardiac arrest undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for more than 15 minutes. Studies suggest that extracorporeal life support during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) improves survival rate in these patients. These studies, however, are hampered by their non-randomized, observational design and are mostly single-center. A multicenter, randomized controlled trial is urgently warranted to evaluate the effectiveness of ECPR.

Hypothesis: We hypothesize that early initiation of ECPR in refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves the survival rate with favorable neurological status.

Study Design: The INCEPTION trial is an investigator-initiated, prospective, multicenter trial that will randomly allocate 110 patients to either continued CPR or ECPR in a 1:1 ratio. Patients eligible for inclusion are adults (≤ 70 years) with witnessed OHCA presenting with an initial rhythm of ventricular fibrillation (VF) or ventricular tachycardia (VT), who received bystander basic life support and who fail to achieve sustained return of spontaneous circulation within 15 minutes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation by emergency medical services. The primary endpoint of the study is 30-day survival rate with favorable neurological status, defined as 1 or 2 on the Cerebral Performance Category score. The secondary endpoints include 3, 6 and 12-month survival rate with favorable neurological status and the cost-effectiveness of ECPR compared to CCPR.

Summary: The INCEPTION trial aims to determine the clinical benefit for the use of ECPR in patients with refractory OHCA presenting with VF/VT. Additionally, the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of ECPR will be evaluated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2018.12.008DOI Listing
April 2019

Occupational Radiation Exposure During Endovascular Aortic Repair.

Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2015 Aug 5;38(4):827-32. Epub 2014 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC), P. Debyelaan 25, 6229 HX, Maastricht, The Netherlands,

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the radiation exposure to operating room personnel and to assess determinants for high personal doses during endovascular aortic repair.

Materials And Methods: Occupational radiation exposure was prospectively evaluated during 22 infra-renal aortic repair procedures (EVAR), 11 thoracic aortic repair procedures (TEVAR), and 11 fenestrated or branched aortic repair procedures (FEVAR). Real-time over-lead dosimeters attached to the left breast pocket measured personal doses for the first operators (FO) and second operators (SO), radiology technicians (RT), scrub nurses (SN), anesthesiologists (AN), and non-sterile nurses (NSN). Besides protective apron and thyroid collar, no additional radiation shielding was used. Procedural dose area product (DAP), iodinated contrast volume, fluoroscopy time, patient's body weight, and C-arm angulation were documented.

Results: Average procedural FO dose was significantly higher during FEVAR (0.34 ± 0.28 mSv) compared to EVAR (0.11 ± 0.21 mSv) and TEVAR (0.06 ± 0.05 mSv; p = 0.003). Average personnel doses were 0.17 ± 0.21 mSv (FO), 0.042 ± 0.045 mSv (SO), 0.019 ± 0.042 mSv (RT), 0.017 ± 0.031 mSv (SN), 0.006 ± 0.007 mSv (AN), and 0.004 ± 0.009 mSv (NSN). SO and AN doses were strongly correlated with FO dose (p = 0.003 and p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between FO dose and procedural DAP (R = 0.69, p < 0.001), iodinated contrast volume (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and left-anterior C-arm projections >60° (p = 0.02), and a weak correlation with fluoroscopy time (R = 0.40, p = 0.049).

Conclusion: Average FO dose was a factor four higher than SO dose. Predictors for high personal doses are procedural DAP, iodinated contrast volume, and left-anterior C-arm projections greater than 60°.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00270-014-1025-8DOI Listing
August 2015
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