Publications by authors named "Martina Magni"

10 Publications

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T-cell immune response after mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is frequently detected also in the absence of seroconversion in patients with lymphoid malignancies.

Br J Haematol 2021 Oct 14. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

School of Medicine, University of Milano, Italy.

Patients affected by lymphoid malignancies (LM) are frequently immune-compromised, suffering increased mortality from COVID-19. This prospective study evaluated serological and T-cell responses after complete mRNA vaccination in 263 patients affected by chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, B- and T-cell lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Results were compared with those of 167 healthy subjects matched for age and sex. Overall, patient seroconversion rate was 64·6%: serological response was lower in those receiving anti-cancer treatments in the 12 months before vaccination: 55% vs 81·9% (P < 0·001). Anti-CD20 antibody plus chemotherapy treatment was associated with the lowest seroconversion rate: 17·6% vs. 71·2% (P < 0·001). In the multivariate analysis conducted in the subgroup of patients on active treatment, independent predictors for seroconversion were: anti-CD20 treatment (P < 0·001), aggressive B-cell lymphoma diagnosis (P = 0·002), and immunoglobulin M levels <40 mg/dl (P = 0·030). The T-cell response was evaluated in 99 patients and detected in 85 of them (86%). Of note, 74% of seronegative patients had a T-cell response, but both cellular and humoral responses were absent in 13·1% of cases. Our findings raise some concerns about the protection that patients with LM, particularly those receiving anti-CD20 antibodies, may gain from vaccination. These patients should strictly maintain all the protective measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17877DOI Listing
October 2021

CDKN2A deletion is a frequent event associated with poor outcome in patients with peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS).

Haematologica 2021 11 1;106(11):2918-2926. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Department of Oncology and Hemato-Oncology, University of Milan, Milan, Italy; Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan.

Nodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) remains a diagnosis encompassing a heterogenous group of PTCL cases not fitting criteria for more homogeneous subtypes. They are characterized by a poor clinical outcome when treated with anthracycline-containing regimens. A better understanding of their biology could improve prognostic stratification and foster the development of novel therapeutic approaches. Recent targeted and whole exome sequencing studies have shown recurrent copy number abnormalities (CNAs) with prognostic significance. Here, investigating 5 formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded cases of PTCL-NOS by whole genome sequencing (WGS), we found a high prevalence of structural variants and complex events, such as chromothripsis likely responsible for the observed CNAs. Among them, CDKN2A and PTEN deletions emerged as the most frequent aberration, as confirmed in a final cohort of 143 patients with nodal PTCL. The incidence of CDKN2A and PTEN deletions among PTCL-NOS was 46% and 26%, respectively. Furthermore, we found that co-occurrence of CDKN2A and PTEN deletions is an event associated with PTCL-NOS with absolute specificity. In contrast, these deletions were rare and never co-occurred in angioimmunoblastic and anaplastic lymphomas. CDKN2A deletion was associated with shorter overall survival in multivariate analysis corrected by age, IPI, transplant eligibility and GATA3 expression (adjusted HR =2.53; 95% CI 1.006-6.3; p=0.048). These data suggest that CDKN2A deletions may be relevant for refining the prognosis of PTCL-NOS and their significance should be evaluated in prospective trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.262659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8561277PMC
November 2021

Tyrosine kinase inhibition to improve anthracycline-based chemotherapy efficacy in T-cell lymphoma.

Br J Cancer 2019 10 2;121(7):567-577. Epub 2019 Sep 2.

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Anthracycline-containing regimens, namely cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) or CHOEP (CHOP + etoposide), represent the current standard of care for patients with newly diagnosed peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs), although responses are unsatisfactory. In this study, we investigated the pathways able to mitigate the sensitivity to CHOP-based regimens in preclinical models of T-cell lymphoma (TCL) to select agents for the development of CHOP-based drug combinations.

Methods: We performed gene expression profiling of malignant T-cell lines exposed to CHOEP; flow cytometry was employed to study the effects of drug combinations on cell viability, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane depolarisation. Western blot analyses were performed to study cell signalling downstream of the T-cell receptor and apoptosis. The in vivo effect of the drug combination was tested in xenograft models.

Results: We highlighted a modulation of tyrosine kinases belonging to the T-cell receptor pathway upon chemotherapy that provided the rationale for combining the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib with CHOEP. Dasatinib improves CHOEP activity and reduces viability in vitro. Furthermore, combination treatment results in tumour growth inhibition in in vivo xenograft mouse models.

Conclusions: Our data provide the rationale for clinical testing of the dasatinib-CHOEP combination in patients with T-cell lymphoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0557-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6889385PMC
October 2019

Formation of by-products during chemical interesterification of lipids. Detection and characterization of dialkyl ketones by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr A 2018 Dec 3;1581-1582:63-70. Epub 2018 Nov 3.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, Italy. Electronic address:

A new class of foreign substances present in the unsaponifiable fraction of vegetable oils undergone to chemical interesterification was systematically investigated. Their chemical structure, corresponding to dialkyl ketones (DAK) molecules, was elucidated both by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). An analytical protocol aimed to qualitative and quantitative detection of DAK molecules in vegetable oils of confectionery industry interest was developed. Being the range of concentration levels to be evaluated dependent on the technological task of interesterification process, the quantitation step was thoroughly examined. All the validation parameters were satisfactory and particularly the concentration determinations were made more reliable by the contemporary use of several quantitation standards. GC-MS and LC-HRMS analytical techniques exhibited comparable performances even if the second one shown better detection sensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2018.11.001DOI Listing
December 2018

TSPYL2 is a novel regulator of SIRT1 and p300 activity in response to DNA damage.

Cell Death Differ 2019 05 26;26(5):918-931. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Protein acetylation and deacetylation events are finely regulated by lysine-acetyl-transferases and lysine-deacetylases and constitute an important tool for the activation or inhibition of specific cellular pathways. One of the most important lysine-acetyl-transferases is p300, which is involved in the regulation of gene expression, cell growth, DNA repair, differentiation, apoptosis, and tumorigenesis. A well-known target of p300 is constituted by the tumor suppressor protein p53, which plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic stability and whose activity is known to be controlled by post-translational modifications, among which acetylation. p300 activity toward p53 is negatively regulated by the NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1, which deacetylates p53 preventing its transcriptional activation and the induction of p53-dependent apoptosis. However, the mechanisms responsible for p53 regulation by p300 and SIRT1 are still poorly understood. Here we identify the nucleosome assembly protein TSPY-Like 2 (TSPYL2, also known as TSPX, DENTT, and CDA1) as a novel regulator of SIRT1 and p300 function. We demonstrate that, upon DNA damage, TSPYL2 inhibits SIRT1, disrupting its association with target proteins, and promotes p300 acetylation and activation, finally stimulating p53 acetylation and p53-dependent cell death. Indeed, in response to DNA damage, cells silenced for TSPYL2 were found to be defective in p53 activation and apoptosis induction and these events were shown to be dependent on SIRT1 and p300 function. Collectively, our results shed new light on the regulation of p53 acetylation and activation and reveal a novel TSPYL2 function with important implications in cancerogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-018-0168-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6461906PMC
May 2019

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 at the interface between DNA damage response and cell physiology.

Mutat Res Rev Mutat Res 2018 Apr - Jun;776:1-9. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IGM-CNR), via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Electronic address:

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 (CCAR2 or DBC1) is a human protein recently emerged as a novel and important player of the DNA damage response (DDR). Indeed, upon genotoxic stress, CCAR2, phosphorylated by the apical DDR kinases ATM and ATR, increases its binding to the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase SIRT1 and inhibits SIRT1 activity. This event promotes the acetylation and activation of p53, a SIRT1 target, and the subsequent induction of p53 dependent apoptosis. In addition, CCAR2 influences DNA repair pathway choice and promotes the chromatin relaxation necessary for the repair of heterochromatic DNA lesions. However, besides DDR, CCAR2 is involved in several other cellular functions. Indeed, through the interaction with transcription factors, nuclear receptors, epigenetic modifiers and RNA polymerase II, CCAR2 regulates transcription and transcript elongation. Moreover, promoting Rev-erbα protein stability and repressing BMAL1 and CLOCK expression, it was reported to modulate the circadian rhythm. Through SIRT1 inhibition, CCAR2 is also involved in metabolism control and, suppressing RelB and p65 activities in the NFkB pathway, it restricts B cell proliferation and immunoglobulin production. Notably, CCAR2 expression is deregulated in several tumors and, compared to the non-neoplastic counterpart, it may be up- or down-regulated. Since its up-regulation in cancer patients is usually associated with poor prognosis and its depletion reduces cancer cell growth in vitro, CCAR2 was suggested to act as a tumor promoter. However, there is also evidence that CCAR2 functions as a tumor suppressor and therefore its role in cancer formation and progression is still unclear. In this review we discuss CCAR2 functions in the DDR and its multiple biological activities in unstressed cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2018.03.004DOI Listing
November 2018

Characterization and Determination of Interesterification Markers (Triacylglycerol Regioisomers) in Confectionery Oils by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

Foods 2018 Feb 16;7(2). Epub 2018 Feb 16.

Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences,University of Turin, Turin 10124, Italy.

Interesterification is an industrial transformation process aiming to change the physico-chemical properties of vegetable oils by redistributing fatty acid position within the original constituent of the triglycerides. In the confectionery industry, controlling formation degree of positional isomers is important in order to obtain fats with the desired properties. Silver ion HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) is the analytical technique usually adopted to separate triglycerides (TAGs) having different unsaturation degrees. However, separation of TAG positional isomers is a challenge when the number of double bonds is the same and the only difference is in their position within the triglyceride molecule. The TAG positional isomers involved in the present work have a structural specificity that require a separation method tailored to the needs of confectionery industry. The aim of this work was to obtain a chromatographic resolution that might allow reliable qualitative and quantitative evaluation of TAG positional isomers within reasonably rapid retention times and robust in respect of repeatability and reproducibility. The resulting analytical procedure was applied both to confectionery raw materials and final products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods7020023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5848127PMC
February 2018

A novel crosstalk between CCAR2 and AKT pathway in the regulation of cancer cell proliferation.

Cell Death Dis 2016 11 3;7(11):e2453. Epub 2016 Nov 3.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Via Amadeo 42, Milan 20133, Italy.

Human CCAR2 has recently emerged as having a pivotal role in the DNA damage response, promoting apoptosis and repair of heterochromatic DNA breaks. However, less is known about the function of CCAR2 in tumor formation and cancer progression. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that CCAR2 loss inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells, but preserves the growth of normal cells. Investigating the mechanisms responsible for this differential effect, we found that CCAR2 depletion specifically impairs the activation of AKT pathway in cancer cells, but not in normal cells, by reducing AKT phosphorylation on Ser473. This effect is achieved through the transcriptional upregulation of TRB3 gene and accumulation of TRB3 protein, which then binds to and inhibits the phosphorylation and activation of AKT. The defective activation of AKT finally results in reduced GSK3β phosphorylation, prevention of G1/S transition and inhibition of cancer cell growth. These results establish an important role for CCAR2 in cancer cells proliferation and could shed new light on novel therapeutic strategies against cancer, devoid of detrimental side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/cddis.2016.359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5260903PMC
November 2016

CCAR2/DBC1 is required for Chk2-dependent KAP1 phosphorylation and repair of DNA damage.

Oncotarget 2015 Jul;6(19):17817-31

Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 2 (CCAR2, formerly known as DBC1) is a nuclear protein largely involved in DNA damage response, apoptosis, metabolism, chromatin structure and transcription regulation. Upon DNA lesions, CCAR2 is phosphorylated by the apical kinases ATM/ATR and this phosphorylation enhances CCAR2 binding to SIRT1, leading to SIRT1 inhibition, p53 acetylation and p53-dependent apoptosis. Recently, we found that also the checkpoint kinase Chk2 and the proteasome activator REGγ are required for efficient CCAR2-mediated inhibition of SIRT1 and induction of p53-dependent apoptosis.Here, we report that CCAR2 is required for the repair of heterochromatic DNA lesions, as cells knock-out for CCAR2 retain, at late time-points after genotoxic treatment, abnormal levels of DNA damage-associated nuclear foci, whose timely resolution is reinstated by HP1β depletion. Conversely, repair of DNA damages in euchromatin are not affected by CCAR2 absence.We also report that the impairment in heterochromatic DNA repair is caused by defective Chk2 activation, detectable in CCAR2 ablated cells, which finally impacts on the phosphorylation of the Chk2 substrate KAP1 that is required for the induction of heterochromatin relaxation and DNA repair.These studies further extend and confirm the role of CCAR2 in the DNA damage response and DNA repair and illustrate a new mechanism of Chk2 activity regulation. Moreover, the involvement of CCAR2 in the repair of heterochromatic DNA breaks suggests a new role for this protein in the maintenance of chromosomal stability, which is necessary to prevent cancer formation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627348PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.4417DOI Listing
July 2015

Chk2 and REGγ-dependent DBC1 regulation in DNA damage induced apoptosis.

Nucleic Acids Res 2014 Dec 31;42(21):13150-60. Epub 2014 Oct 31.

Department of Experimental Oncology, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, 20133 Milan, Italy

Human DBC1 (Deleted in Breast Cancer 1; KIAA1967; CCAR2) is a protein implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, transcription and histone modifications. Upon DNA damage, DBC1 is phosphorylated by ATM/ATR on Thr454 and this modification increases its inhibitory interaction with SIRT1, leading to p53 acetylation and p53-dependent apoptosis. Here, we report that the inhibition of SIRT1 by DBC1 in the DNA damage response (DDR) also depends on Chk2, the transducer kinase that is activated by ATM upon DNA lesions and contributes to the spreading of DNA damage signal. Indeed we found that inactivation of Chk2 reduces DBC1-SIRT1 binding, thus preventing p53 acetylation and DBC1-induced apoptosis. These events are mediated by Chk2 phosphorylation of the 11S proteasome activator REGγ on Ser247, which increases REGγ-DBC1 interaction and SIRT1 inhibition. Overall our results clarify the mechanisms underlying the DBC1-dependent SIRT1 inhibition and link, for the first time, Chk2 and REGγ to the ATM-DBC1-SIRT1 axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gku1065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4245943PMC
December 2014
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