Publications by authors named "Martin Sellbom"

200 Publications

Personality-based assessment of psychopathy: Comparison of the comprehensive assessment of psychopathic personality and the elemental psychopathy assessment.

Personal Disord 2021 Oct 7. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Psychology.

Psychopathic personality disorder (PPD) is a widely researched construct characterized by severe dysfunction in affective, interpersonal and behavioral domains. Inconsistencies across different theoretical formulations and operationalizations have major implications for research and practice. Two separate personality-based perspectives of psychopathy have been proposed, one anchored within the influential five factor model (FFM) of personality and the comprehensive assessment of psychopathic personality (CAPP) model, which was specifically designed as an inclusive concept map of PPD. The current study evaluated the empirical overlap between the CAPP and the FFM-based models of psychopathy to determine the convergences and divergences in providing a personality-based perspective on psychopathy. Participants were undergraduate students ( = 924) who completed the CAPP-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) and the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment-Short Form (EPA-SF). Results indicated significant convergent validity associations between CAPP-SR scales and conceptually relevant EPA-SF scales (range = .30-.74; median discriminant associations range = .10-.36). Furthermore, an exploratory factor analysis supported the conceptual overlap between the CAPP-SR and EPA-SF scales as representing personality-based models of psychopathy, yielding a 4-factor structure that reflected antagonism, disinhibition, emotional stability, and narcissism. Overall, the findings support the convergence of the CAPP and FFM-based PPD models, at both a basic trait and higher order level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000503DOI Listing
October 2021

Evaluation of the moderated-expression and differential configuration hypotheses in the context of "successful" or "noncriminal" psychopathy.

Personal Disord 2021 Aug 26. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Alabama.

The concept of "successful" psychopathy has intrigued the field, yet relatively little actual science exists to understand what makes those high in psychopathic traits more or less successful, or even what constitutes "success." In the current study, we examined the validity of the moderated expression hypothesis, including an elaborated version that considers differential configuration of psychopathy traits, as accounting for differences in criminal and noncriminal (the most common operationalization of "success") expressions of psychopathy. The latter was conceptualized from the perspective of the triarchic psychopathy model. We recruited a community sample (n = 212) that had been overweighted toward psychopathic personality traits. The triarchic psychopathy domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition were modeled as latent constructs based on scores from multiple psychopathy measures. We examined affective processing dysfunction, various executive cognitive deficits, substance misuse, and socioeconomic indicators (income, education) as potential moderators of associations between psychopathy and criminality. We estimated a series of latent regression models in which we tested interaction effects between hypothesized moderators and a latent criminality variable. We found that affective processing dysfunction, substance misuse, and the triarchic psychopathy domain of disinhibition all moderated the association between meanness and criminality, in that the latter association was stronger as these moderators increased in severity. Disinhibition was also moderated by substance misuse and boldness by both personal income and commission errors from a go/no-go task, though in the case of the latter domain, these moderators served as protective factors against criminality. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000498DOI Listing
August 2021

Construct Validity of the E-LSRP in a Correctional Sample.

Assessment 2021 Aug 11:10731911211038619. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Eastern Kentucky University, Richmond, KY, USA.

The Expanded-Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (E-LSRP) was developed by Christian and Sellbom to improve on the psychometric properties of scores on the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale. The current study investigated the construct validity of scores on the E-LSRP in 393 male inmates. Results provided support for the reliability and construct validity of E-LSRP scores. Specifically, confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated support for a three-factor model. Additionally, correlation and multiple regression results provided evidence supporting the convergent and discriminant validity of E-LSRP scores against scores on measures assessing psychopathy-related personality traits (e.g., antagonism, disinhibition) and symptoms of internalizing disorders, respectively. Overall, these findings extend those of previous research by establishing that E-LSRP scores demonstrate validity in assessing psychopathy in correctional settings and thus, may be a useful tool for the assessment of psychopathy in these settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211038619DOI Listing
August 2021

Dissociation and false memory: the moderating role of trauma and cognitive ability.

Memory 2021 Oct 9;29(9):1111-1125. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The term dissociation is often used to refer to a diverse range of psychological symptoms, including perceptual impairments, emotional detachment, and memory fragmentation. In the present study, we examined whether there was a relation between participants' self-reports of dissociative experiences and their memory performance in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm-a laboratory-based procedure that is frequently used to investigate false memory. University students (N = 298) completed the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES) and the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire (TLEQ). Participants were also administered a standardised intelligence test (Shipley-2), and they were tested in the DRM paradigm. Overall, experiencing trauma and dissociation, as well as lower levels of cognitive ability, were associated with higher false memory. These findings are discussed in the context of the activation monitoring theory of DRM false memory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09658211.2021.1963778DOI Listing
October 2021

Associations between MMPI-3 scale scores and the DSM-5 personality disorders.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Objective: The current study examined associations between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) scales and self-reported DSM-5 Section II personality disorder (PD) symptoms. A priori hypotheses were generated for which MMPI-3 scales would be most highly associated with each PD.

Methods: We used a large sample (n = 489) of university students, who completed the MMPI-3 and two established self-report measures of personality disorders.

Results: The results were generally consistent with theoretical expectations and previous research utilizing the MMPI-2-RF. Specifically, most hypothesized MMPI-3 scales exhibited meaningful associations with relevant PD variables, although there were some notable exceptions. The regression models revealed significant predictors for each PD which were generally consistent with expectations and previous research.

Conclusions: Overall, the MMPI-3 appears well situated to cover a range of DSM-5 Section II PD-related psychopathology, and three of the new MMPI-3 scales appear to have added utility for assessing personality pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23230DOI Listing
August 2021

Mapping MMPI-3 scales onto the hierarchical taxonomy of psychopathology.

Psychol Assess 2021 Jul 29. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Psychology.

A major goal in the development of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), and subsequently, the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) was linking the instrument to contemporary models of psychopathology. The present study evaluated whether the higher order structure of MMPI-3 scales, and in particular, the 26 Specific Problems as well as RC6 and RC8 (markers of thought disorder) scales aligned with the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) model. For this purpose, a large diverse mental health sample ( = 1,537) and a male prison inmate sample ( = 452) were used to capture a diverse range of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analyses generally supported the six HiTOP spectra in both samples, albeit with some important qualifications. Associations between latent factor scores and conceptually relevant external criterion measures further supported the validity of this model. Furthermore, Goldberg's sequential hierarchical factoring approach was used to evaluate the structure of MMPI-3 SP and RC6/RC8 at descending levels of the hierarchy. Again, most of the HiTOP spectra were replicated. The structures for the mental health and prison samples were generally similar with substantive differences being linked to their respective contexts. Overall, the results indicate that the hierarchical organization of the MMPI-3 scales is generally consistent with the extant psychopathology literature, which constitutes good support for overall construct validity of the scales. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0001049DOI Listing
July 2021

Les progrès dans la réalisation de la classification quantitative de la psychopathologie.

Ann Med Psychol (Paris) 2021 Jan 8;179(1):95-106. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Psychology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, USA.

Shortcomings of approaches to classifying psychopathology based on expert consensus have given rise to contemporary efforts to classify psychopathology quantitatively. In this paper, we review progress in achieving a quantitative and empirical classification of psychopathology. A substantial empirical literature indicates that psychopathology is generally more dimensional than categorical. When the discreteness versus continuity of psychopathology is treated as a research question, as opposed to being decided as a matter of tradition, the evidence clearly supports the hypothesis of continuity. In addition, a related body of literature shows how psychopathology dimensions can be arranged in a hierarchy, ranging from very broad "spectrum level" dimensions, to specific and narrow clusters of symptoms. In this way, a quantitative approach solves the "problem of comorbidity" by explicitly modeling patterns of co-occurrence among signs and symptoms within a detailed and variegated hierarchy of dimensional concepts with direct clinical utility. Indeed, extensive evidence pertaining to the dimensional and hierarchical structure of psychopathology has led to the formation of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) Consortium. This is a group of 70 investigators working together to study empirical classification of psychopathology. In this paper, we describe the aims and current foci of the HiTOP Consortium. These aims pertain to continued research on the empirical organization of psychopathology; the connection between personality and psychopathology; the utility of empirically based psychopathology constructs in both research and the clinic; and the development of novel and comprehensive models and corresponding assessment instruments for psychopathology constructs derived from an empirical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amp.2020.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309948PMC
January 2021

HiTOP Assessment of the Somatoform Spectrum and Eating Disorders.

Assessment 2022 Jan 9;29(1):62-74. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

University of Mainz, Mainz, Germany.

We report on Phase 1 efforts of the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) measurement subgroup tasked with developing provisional scales for the somatoform spectrum and eating disorders. In Study 1, items were written to assess five somatoform spectrum constructs (bodily distress symptoms, conversion symptoms, health anxiety, disease conviction, and somatic preoccupation). Scale development analyses were conducted on 550 university students. The conversion symptom items were too infrequently endorsed and were set aside for Phase 2. Analyses of the other items yielded four scales corresponding closely to their hypothesized structure. In Study 2, we delineated 15 specific feeding and eating disorder constructs. A sample of 400 university students were administered candidate items and several eating disorder questionnaires for criterion validity. Analyses yielded six scales capturing previously described constructs, tapping content related to body image and weight concerns, restricting and purging, cognitive restraint, binging, excessive exercise, and muscle building. Two scales representing additional constructs deemed to be of high clinical import-negative attitude towards obesity and avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder-were retained for Phase 2, for a total of eight scales. Overall, we concluded that Phase 1 had been successful at generating a comprehensive set of provisional scales for inclusion in Phase 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211020825DOI Listing
January 2022

Factor structure of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) in community and offender samples.

Psychol Assess 2021 Oct 22;33(10):927-939. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Department of Psychology, University of Bergen.

The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) is a recent operationalization of the CAPP model, which conceptualizes psychopathy in terms of 33 symptoms that can be thematically organized according to six theoretical domains. The current study examined the higher order factor structure of the CAPP-SR symptom scales in community, university, and offender samples derived from three separate countries. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) indicated that a three-factor model (Antagonism/Meanness, Disinhibition, and Fearless Grandiosity) was optimal in a large population-representative U.S. community sample. EFA with targeted rotation confirmed this three-factor structure in New Zealand university and Lithuanian prison samples. Furthermore, construct validity analyses against other psychopathy measures and psychopathy-relevant criteria provided initial support for the three CAPP-SR latent factors. For instance, CAPP-SR Antagonism/Meanness was associated with other psychopathy scales reflective of antagonism, meanness, callous affect; CAPP-SR Disinhibition with other psychopathy scales reflective of behavioral psychopathy traits (e.g., impulsivity, irresponsibility), antisocial behavior, substance abuse; and CAPP-SR Fearless Grandiosity with narcissism, emotional stability, and boldness. These findings suggest that a three-factor structure provides for an alternative (to the traditional thematic domains) hierarchical interpretation of CAPP-SR scores. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0001029DOI Listing
October 2021

Sluggish Cognitive Tempo and Daytime Sleepiness Mediate Relationships Between Sleep and Academic Performance.

J Dev Behav Pediatr 2021 Oct-Nov 01;42(8):637-647

Departments of Psychology.

Objective: Sleep difficulties, daytime sleepiness, and sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) are associated with impairments in academic performance. SCT refers to symptoms of sluggishness, tiredness/lethargy, and slowed thinking/processing, but despite symptom overlap with sleepiness, research examining interrelations of SCT with sleep and daytime sleepiness is limited. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between SCT and daytime sleepiness and to examine pathways between sleep, daytime sleepiness, SCT, and academic performance.

Method: Participants were a community sample of 1628 parents/caregivers of children aged between 6 and 10 years who completed questionnaires about their child's behavior, sleep, and academic performance. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine whether SCT was distinct from daytime sleepiness. Then, structural equation modeling was used to examine direct and indirect pathways between sleep (sleep-disordered breathing [SDB] symptoms, sleep duration, and latency), daytime sleepiness, SCT, and academic performance in reading, writing, and math.

Results: SCT and daytime sleepiness were distinct but moderately correlated (r = 0.33, p ≤ 0.001). Sleep, in particular SDB symptoms, predicted increased SCT and daytime sleepiness. SCT was directly and negatively associated with all domains of academic performance, daytime sleepiness was associated with poorer reading performance, and longer sleep duration was directly associated with poorer math performance. SCT and, to a lesser extent, daytime sleepiness mediated effects of sleep on academic performance.

Conclusion: SCT symptoms are important for understanding how sleep difficulties affect academic performance in children. Sleep, daytime sleepiness, and SCT are interrelated but distinct factors that affect children's academic performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000948DOI Listing
November 2021

Development of Measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): A Collaborative Scale Development Project.

Assessment 2022 Jan 20;29(1):3-16. Epub 2021 May 20.

University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.

In this article, we describe the collaborative process that is underway to develop measures for the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP). The HiTOP model has generated much interest in the psychiatric literature in recent years, but research applications and clinical translation of the model require measures that are specifically keyed to the model. To that end, the Measures Development Workgroup of HiTOP has been engaged in a collaborative effort to develop both questionnaire and interview methods that (a) are specifically tied to the elements of the HiTOP structure, and (b) provide one means of testing that structure. The work has been divided among five subgroups that are focused on specific HiTOP spectra. Our scale development methods are rooted in the principles of construct valid scale development. This report describes Phase 1 of this project, summarizes the methods and results thus far, and discusses the interplay between measurement and HiTOP model revisions. Finally, we discuss future phases of the scale development and the steps we are taking to improve clinical utility of the final measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211015309DOI Listing
January 2022

Development and initial evaluation of the ICD-11 personality disorder severity scale: PDS-ICD-11.

Personal Ment Health 2021 08 17;15(3):223-236. Epub 2021 May 17.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Aim: No measure has formally been developed to assess the published ICD-11 model of Personality Disorder (PD) severity. We therefore set out to develop and evaluate the 14-item Personality Disorder Severity ICD-11 (PDS-ICD-11) scale.

Method: A representative U.S. community sample (N = 428; 50.9% women) and a New Zealand mental health sample (N = 87; 61.5% women) completed the PDS-ICD-11 scale along with a series of established PD and impairment measures.

Results: Item response theory supported the unidimensionality of PDS-ICD-11 (median item loading of 0.68) and indicated that a PDS-ICD-11 score of 17.5 may serve as a benchmark for pronounced dysfunction. Correlation and regression analyses supported both criterion validity and incremental validity in predicting impairment and PD symptoms. The PDS-ICD-11 was particularly associated with measures of Level of Personality Functioning Scale (LPFS), Global PD severity, and Borderline PD symptom score. A comparison between clinical individuals diagnosed with an ICD-11 PD vs. no PD supported diagnostic validity.

Conclusion: This initial construction study suggests that the PDS-ICD-11 constitutes a promising instrument that provides a quick impression of the severity of personality dysfunction according to the official ICD-11 PD guidelines. Clearly, more research is needed to corroborate its validity and utility. The PDS-ICD-11 scale is provided as online supporting information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1510DOI Listing
August 2021

Validity and utility of Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP): II. Externalizing superspectrum.

World Psychiatry 2021 Jun;20(2):171-193

Department of Psychiatry, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA.

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirical effort to address limitations of traditional mental disorder diagnoses. These include arbitrary boundaries between disorder and normality, disorder co-occurrence in the modal case, heterogeneity of presentation within dis-orders, and instability of diagnosis within patients. This paper reviews the evidence on the validity and utility of the disinhibited externalizing and antagonistic externalizing spectra of HiTOP, which together constitute a broad externalizing superspectrum. These spectra are composed of elements subsumed within a variety of mental disorders described in recent DSM nosologies, including most notably substance use disorders and "Cluster B" personality disorders. The externalizing superspectrum ranges from normative levels of impulse control and self-assertion, to maladaptive disinhibition and antagonism, to extensive polysubstance involvement and personality psychopathology. A rich literature supports the validity of the externalizing superspectrum, and the disinhibited and antagonistic spectra. This evidence encompasses common genetic influences, environmental risk factors, childhood antecedents, cognitive abnormalities, neural alterations, and treatment response. The structure of these validators mirrors the structure of the phenotypic externalizing superspectrum, with some correlates more specific to disinhibited or antagonistic spectra, and others relevant to the entire externalizing superspectrum, underlining the hierarchical structure of the domain. Compared with traditional diagnostic categories, the externalizing superspectrum conceptualization shows improved utility, reliability, explanatory capacity, and clinical applicability. The externalizing superspectrum is one aspect of the general approach to psychopathology offered by HiTOP and can make diagnostic classification more useful in both research and the clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/wps.20844DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129870PMC
June 2021

Criterion and Incremental Validity of the MMPI-3 Eating Concerns Scale in a University Sample.

J Clin Psychol Med Settings 2021 Mar 29. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the validity of scores on the Eating Concerns (EAT) scale on the recently released Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3), which aims to assess for problematic eating behaviours. It was hypothesised that the EAT scale scores would be correlated with binge eating, purging, restrictive eating, weight and body shape concerns. Participants were 396 university students, who completed a series of well-validated eating disorder measures. The EAT scale scores evidenced moderate to large correlations with many symptom dimensions of EDs, including binge eating, purging, restrictive eating and weight and shape concern, thus, supporting the hypotheses and showing evidence for criterion validity. Hierarchical regression analyses also revealed incremental validity for the EAT scale above and beyond other MMPI-3 Specific Problems scale scores. Overall, scores on the new MMPI-3 EAT scale were associated with positive support for validity in a university population and seem promising as a good screening measure for eating pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10880-021-09772-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Operationalizing the triarchic model of psychopathy in adolescents using the MMPI-A-RF (Restructured Form).

Psychol Assess 2021 Apr 28;33(4):311-325. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago.

The triarchic model is an increasingly influential multidimensional model of psychopathy that focuses on three distinct phenotypic domains of boldness, meanness, and disinhibition. Although originally operationalized through the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), the triarchic model has also been operationalized through items of existing psychopathy and personality measures that provide sufficient content coverage of the triarchic dimensions. The current study aimed to provide a means for enhancing understanding of psychopathic features in adolescents through the development and validation of triarchic scales using items from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF). The MMPI-A-RF normative sample and a large sample of juveniles undergoing court-ordered evaluations were used for formal scale development and the juvenile-court sample was also used for validation analyses. The MMPI-A-RF triarchic scales demonstrated adequate internal consistency in both the normative and juvenile offender samples, and were largely related to criterion variables, including measures of personality, psychopathology, interpersonal functioning, and adolescent concerns as predicted based on the triarchic model. Canonical correlation analyses revealed unexpected and novel findings of (variable-centered) patterns of associations between our predictor triarchic scales and criterion variables that resemble "primary" and "secondary" psychopathy variants or subtypes. Overall, findings suggest that the triarchic model as indexed by the MMPI-A-RF scales can be useful for understanding how psychopathy may manifest in youth and for identifying youth at risk for severe and persistent antisocial behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000985DOI Listing
April 2021

Narrative identity in borderline personality disorder.

Personal Disord 2021 Jan 7. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Psychology.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe psychiatric condition that is associated with functional impairment and pathological traits. It has been argued that identity impairment is one of the core features of BPD, which can be manifested in different ways, including fragmented autobiographical narratives. Here, we considered both the traditional and modern conceptualizations of BPD to examine the relation between identity impairment, as operationalized through autobiographical memory, and features of BPD. We hypothesized that BPD features would be associated with higher levels of fragmentation in narrative identity, narrative intimacy, and narrative coherence in participants' autobiographical memory. To test this hypothesis, we recruited 298 university students who were administered a series of self-report measures of BPD and were asked to describe an autobiographical memory about a turning point in their lives. Narrative identity, but not narrative intimacy nor coherence, was the dominant predictor of BPD features. We discuss our findings in terms of how individuals with features of BPD struggle with many aspects of a distorted sense of self. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000476DOI Listing
January 2021

Validation of the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory in a Mental Health Sample.

Assessment 2021 06 17;28(4):1147-1158. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI) is a recently developed measure of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) based on an established dimensional model of general personality, the five-factor model. The present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity of the FFOCI by examining its associations with both traditional and dimensional diagnostic models of OCPD. This study used an archival data set of mental health patients that employed a multimethod design. A total of 214 individuals (and their nominated informants) completed various personality inventories indexing the traditional and Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) diagnostic criteria for OCPD, as well as other individual AMPD personality traits deemed conceptually relevant to the FFOCI. The results were generally quite supportive of construct validity. They showed that FFOCI scale scores converged with traditional measures of OCPD and AMPD-OCPD traits and impairment in a conceptually expected manner, with a few exceptions. Overall, it was clear from these findings that the FFOCI takes a broader and more comprehensive approach to the assessment of obsessive-compulsive than traditional and AMPD operationalizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120976860DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessing ICD-11 personality trait domain qualifiers with the MMPI-2-RF.

J Clin Psychol 2021 04 15;77(4):1090-1105. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

Objective: The current study examined the utility of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) in assessing ICD-11 personality psychopathology trait domain qualifiers.

Method: Using a community sample (N = 217) weighted for externalizing dysfunction, this study evaluated the convergence between ICD-11 trait domains as measured by the personality inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) with hypothesized MMPI-2-RF scales. Particular emphasis was placed on evaluating the convergence between the ICD-11 trait domain qualifiers and the MMPI-2-RF personality psychopathology-5 (PSY-5) scales, as the latter are meant to represent broadband domains of personality pathology.

Results: Correlation and regression analyses demonstrated expected associations between ICD-11 domains and conceptually expected MMPI-2-RF scales, with some minor exceptions. Notably, the Anankastia domain showed associations with scales assessing negative affect, but did not show expected negative associations with scales related to disinhibition.

Conclusions: The findings generally supported the use of the MMPI-2-RF in assessing individual expressions of personality dysfunction from the ICD-11 trait domain qualifier perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23099DOI Listing
April 2021

Longitudinal Validation of the Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) Scale in a High-Risk Dutch Community Sample.

Assessment 2020 Dec 3:1073191120975130. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy (LSRP) scale is a self-report measure that can be used to assess psychopathic traits in community samples, and recent research suggested that its three-factor model (Egocentricity, Callousness, and Antisocial) has promising psychometric properties. However, no study to date has validated the LSRP in a longitudinal framework. The present study sought to validate the LSRP scale in a longitudinal design using a sample of Dutch emerging adults (s = 970 and 693 at time points 1 and 2, respectively). We assessed longitudinal measurement invariance and the stability of psychopathic traits over an 18-month time period, from age 20 to age 21.6. Furthermore, we replicated and extended findings on the factor structure, reliability, and construct validity of the Dutch LSRP scale. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the three-factor model fit the data well. Evidence of partial longitudinal measurement invariance was observed, which means that the Dutch translation of the LSRP scale is measuring an equivalent construct (and overall latent factor structure) over time. Psychopathic traits were relatively stable over time. The three LSRP subscales showed largely acceptable levels of internal consistency at both time points and showed conceptually expected patterns of construct validity and predictive validity, with a few notable exceptions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120975130DOI Listing
December 2020

Examining the criterion and incremental validity of the MMPI-3 Self-Importance scale.

Authors:
Martin Sellbom

Psychol Assess 2021 Apr 12;33(4):363-368. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago.

The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) is the most recent installment in the MMPI family of instruments. It contains a new scale, Self-Importance (SFI), which was designed to assess grandiosity. Although initial data in the MMPI-3 Technical Manual have been supportive of its construct validity, no published research studies have evaluated this scale to date. The current study examined the internal structure, criterion validity, and incremental validity of the SFI scale in a large sample (n = 645) of university students. The 10 SFI items loaded on one latent factor in a well-fitting model, and item response theory parameters indicated good information coverage across a broad range of the underlying construct. SFI scale scores correlated with several measures of narcissistic personality disorder and grandiose narcissism, but were weakly associated with vulnerable narcissism scales. The SFI scale scores also accounted for incremental variance in a range of criterion measures above and beyond scores of other MMPI-3 Specific Problems scales and the MMPI-3 Personality Psychopathology Five scales. The current finding supported the SFI scale as a distinct and complementary measure of grandiosity for the MMPI-3. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/pas0000975DOI Listing
April 2021

Latent variable modeling of item-based factor scales: Comment on Triarchic or septarchic?-Uncovering the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure's (TriPM) Structure, by Roy et al.

Personal Disord 2021 01 1;12(1):16-23. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Psychology.

We critique Roy et al.'s (2020; this issue) approach to characterizing the item-level factor structure of the three scales of the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM), in light of the manner in which the TriPM scales were developed, the purposes they were designed to serve, and the growing body of evidence supporting their construct validity. We focus on three major points: (1) The TriPM scales are item-based factor scales - i.e., item sets designed to index broad factors of larger multi-scale (parent) inventories; (2) item-level structural analysis can be useful for representing broad dimensions tapped by such scales, but it cannot be expected to provide an accurate picture of narrower subdimensions (facets) assessed by their parent inventories; and (3) it is critical to consider the nomological networks of the TriPM scales (and other triarchic scale measures) in appraising their effectiveness as operationalizations of the triarchic model constructs. We illustrate the first and second of these points by applying Roy et al.'s analytic approach to the trait scales of the NEO-FFI, which were developed to index broad personality dimensions of the multi-scale NEO-PI-R. We address the third point with reference to the growing body of literature supporting the construct validity of the TriPM scales and demonstrating their utility for advancing an integrative understanding of psychopathy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000424DOI Listing
January 2021

The distinction between symptoms and traits in the Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP).

J Pers 2020 Sep 26. Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Department of Psychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology (HiTOP) is an empirically and quantitatively derived dimensional classification system designed to describe the features of psychopathology and, ultimately, to replace categorical nosologies. Among the constructs that HiTOP organizes are "symptom components" and "maladaptive traits," but past HiTOP publications have not fully explicated the distinction between symptoms and traits. We propose working definitions of symptoms and traits and explore challenges, exceptions, and remaining questions. Specifically, we propose that the only systematic difference between symptoms and traits in HiTOP is one of time frame. Maladaptive traits are dispositional constructs that describe persistent tendencies to manifest features of psychopathology, whereas symptoms are features of psychopathology as they are manifest during any specific time period (from moments to days to months). This has the consequence that almost every HiTOP dimension, at any level of the hierarchy, can be assessed as either a trait or a symptom dimension, by adjusting the framing of the assessment. We discuss the implications of these definitions for causal models of the relations between symptoms and traits and for distinctions between psychopathology, normal personality variation, and dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12593DOI Listing
September 2020

Developing and validating a Chinese version of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Self-Report.

Personal Disord 2021 05 30;12(3):261-274. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Psychology.

Studies have shown that previous psychopathy models may only address limited aspects of interpersonal and emotional deficits when being applied to the Chinese cultural context. Understanding cultural differences in the manifestation of the psychopathic personality requires a more comprehensive conceptual map that allows for examination of more detailed or nuanced aspects of psychopathy. The present study aimed to apply the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) framework to the Chinese cultural context and developed a Chinese version of the Self-Report Inventory of CAPP (CAPP-SR). An initial pool of 231 items was developed in Study 1, and then was tested and validated in 2 large community-based samples reported in Study 2 ( = 478) and Study 3 ( = 450). The Chinese version of the CAPP-SR was developed based on item response theory and content evaluation, with the aim of maximizing the psychometric quality, comprehensiveness, and similarity of scales with the standard CAPP-SR that was developed in English-speaking samples. The Chinese version of the CAPP-SR showed promising psychometric properties, with convergent validity that was similar to that demonstrated in English-speaking samples. The results also highlighted that the CAPP-SR can address the aforementioned issue in earlier psychopathy measures by covering various symptoms of emotional and interpersonal deficits. Furthermore, the results revealed that the associations among the various interpersonal and emotional deficits may differ between Chinese and Western populations. The CAPP-SR allows for future research that will deepen our understanding of the links among characteristics of psychopathy for Chinese populations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/per0000446DOI Listing
May 2021

Examining the "traditional background hypothesis" for the MMPI-2-RF L-r scores in a Muslim faith-based sample.

Psychol Assess 2020 Oct 27;32(10):991-995. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago.

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 32(10) of (see record 2020-72093-001). In the article "Examining the 'Traditional Background Hypothesis' for the MMPI-2-RF L-r Scores in a Muslim Faith-Based Sample," by R. Michael Bagby, Karin A. Onno, Ardeshir Mortezaei, and Martin Sellbom (Psychological Assessment, 2020, Vol. 32, No. 10, pp. 991-995, http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1037/pas0000941), the word "not" was missing in the abstract from the text "(b) direct assessments of strength of faith or positive impression management were not included or measured independently." The correct sentence should have read as follows: "(b) direct assessments of strength of faith or positive impression management were not included or measured independently." All versions of this article have been corrected.] The traditional background hypothesis (TBH) is a long-standing belief associated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) L scale; a validity scale, which appears on every version of the family of MMPI instruments including the soon-to-be released MMPI-3. The L scale was originally designed to assess whether test respondents presented themselves in an unrealistically favorable light. Both researchers and clinicians noted, however, that those from traditional Christian faith-based groups produced elevated L-scale scores. A recent meta-analysis supported this observation, reporting an average L-scale elevation 0.50 SD greater than the MMPI-2 normative sample compared to samples of those with presumptively strong Christian-Judeo faith. Some limitations of this meta-analysis are that (a) the samples used in it included those undergoing an evaluative assessment, which could elevate L-scale scores independent of strength of faith belief, and (b) direct assessments of strength of faith or positive impression management were included or measured independently. Our primary goal in this study was to examine the TBH addressing these limitations with a sample of those who self-identified as believers in the Muslim faith (N = 267), the examination of which expands the scope beyond those of the Christian-Judeo faith. Consistent with previous results, the mean L-r (MMPI/MMPI-2 L scale counterpart on the MMPI-2-Restructured Form) was 56.41 T. Higher L-r scale scores were associated with increasing strength in the Muslim faith, and although increasing L-r scores were primarily associated with impression management, increasing Muslim-based faith values had a nontrivial influence on L-r scores and especially in the moderate score range of this scale. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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October 2020

Further Validation of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment - Short Form (EPA-SF) in a Large University Sample.

J Pers Assess 2021 May-Jun;103(3):289-299. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago.

The purpose of the current study was to provide further validation of the short form of the Elemental Psychopathy Assessment (EPA-SF), which was developed on the basis of a general personality model, the Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality. This study evaluated the internal structure of the EPA-SF trait scales, and examined the EPA-SF scales against two other psychopathy measures, the Triarchic Psychopathy Measure (TriPM) and the Expanded Leveson Self-Report Psychopathy Scales (E-LSRP), as well as a general FFM measure, in a sample of 924 university students. Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling generally supported internal structure for EPA-SF scales, in that the 18 EPA-SF traits generally loaded onto their four respective domain scales: Antagonism, Emotional Stability, Inhibition and Narcissism. Tucker's congruence coefficients (.95-.99) indicated excellent replicability of the original structure. The EPA-SF total and domain scale scores also showed moderate to large correlations with TriPM, E-LSRP and FFM domain scales in a manner mostly consistent with conceptual expectations. Finally, EPA-SF trait scales were also mostly associated with their corresponding FFM trait scale counterparts. Overall, the EPA-SF scale scores showed evidence for good convergent and discriminant validity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2020.1779734DOI Listing
June 2021

International Assessment of DSM-5 and ICD-11 Personality Disorder Traits: Toward a Common Nosology in DSM-5.1.

Psychopathology 2020 5;53(3-4):179-188. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Psychology, University of Kassel, Kassel, Germany.

Introduction: The DSM-5 Alternative Model of Personality Disorders (AMPD) and the ICD-11 classification of personality disorders (PD) are largely commensurate and, when combined, they delineate 6 trait domains: negative affectivity, detachment, antagonism/dissociality, disinhibition, anankastia, and psychoticism.

Objective: The present study evaluated the international validity of a brief 36-item patient-report measure that portrays all 6 domains simultaneously including 18 primary subfacets.

Methods: We developed and employed a modified version of the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 - Brief Form Plus (PID5BF+). A total of 16,327 individuals were included, 2,347 of whom were patients. The expected 6-factor structure of facets was initially investigated in samples from Denmark (n = 584), Germany (n = 1,271), and the USA (n = 605) and subsequently replicated in both patient- and community samples from Italy, France, Switzerland, Belgium, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Poland, Czech Republic, the USA, and Brazil. Associations with interview-rated DSM-5 PD categories were also investigated.

Results: Findings generally supported the empirical soundness and international robustness of the 6 domains including meaningful associations with familiar interview-rated PD types.

Conclusions: The modified PID5BF+ may be employed internationally by clinicians and researchers for brief and reliable assessment of the 6 combined DSM-5 and ICD-11 domains, including 18 primary subfacets. This 6-domain framework may inform a future nosology for DSM-5.1 that is more reasonably aligned with the authoritative ICD-11 codes than the current DSM-5 AMPD model. The 36-item modified PID5BF+ scoring key is provided in online supplementary Appendix A see www.karger.com/doi/10.1159/000507589 (for all online suppl. material).
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November 2020

Further Validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality-Self-Report (CAPP-SR) in Lithuanian Offender and Nonoffender Samples.

Assessment 2021 03 21;28(2):472-484. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Vilnius University, Vilnius, Lithuania.

The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) is an emerging integrative model that makes use of 33 symptoms to characterize psychopathic personality disorder, but operationalizations of this model have not endured extensive validation to date. The current study sought to validate the recently published CAPP-Self-Report (CAPP-SR). Participants derived from two Lithuanian offender ( = 231) and nonoffender ( = 312) samples. They were administered the CAPP-SR, Triarchic Psychopathy Measure, Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, and a subsample of offenders also had Offender Assessment System risk assessment scores available. The results showed that CAPP-SR total, domain, and symptom scores were associated with TriPM and Aggression Questionnaire scores in a manner consistent with conceptual expectations. CAPP-SR symptoms specifically reflective of aggression, anger, and antagonism were most strongly associated with Offender Assessment System risk scores. The findings provide support for construct validity of CAPP-SR scores as well as have implications for the CAPP model more broadly, which are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120914403DOI Listing
March 2021

Construct validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form scale scores in correctional settings.

Personal Ment Health 2020 11 24;14(4):319-335. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand.

Limited research has examined the link between Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scales and contemporary personality and psychopathology models within correctional settings. This study focused on establishing construct validity of the MMPI-2-RF in offender samples from a broad personality framework. Two samples of incarcerated men and women completed a battery of broadband personality measures and narrowband measures that capture conceptually related constructs. To examine how MMPI-2-RF scale scores and criterion measures converged in a conjoint latent structure, we conducted a series of exploratory structural equation modelling analyses, which revealed factors similar to those of extant hierarchical personality models. At the broadband level, four factors (Positive Activation, Negative Affectivity, Inhibition and Agreeableness) were observed, whereas narrowband criteria yielded five factors (Behavioural Approach System, Disinhibition/Externalizing, Danger/Thrill Seeking, Self-Assurance/Boldness, and Unemotionality/Coldheartedness). MMPI-2-RF scale scores converged with the personality/psychopathology models in a theoretically expected manner. Limitations and directions for future research are discussed. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1482DOI Listing
November 2020

Elucidating the relationship between borderline personality disorder and intimate partner violence.

Personal Ment Health 2020 08 11;14(3):284-303. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

This study examined the established association between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and intimate partner violence (IPV). More specifically, it compared the DSM-5 traditional categorical personality disorder (PD) model with the DSM-5 Alternative Model of PD (AMPD) operationalizations of BPD in their relative associations with IPV. The effects of gender, as well as the associations between BPD and different forms of IPV were also considered. Additionally, we investigated the specific BPD-relevant AMPD personality traits that influence the BPD-IPV association. The study sample were 250 community-dwelling men and women recruited through an established crowdsourcing platform. Results revealed that both the 'traditional' and AMPD operationalizations of BPD were approximately equally associated with IPV perpetration, although the traditional BPD operationalization demonstrated some minor advantages in this regard. The AMPD trait facets of hostility (negative affectivity), suspiciousness (negative affectivity) and risk taking (disinhibition) were most strongly associated with IPV perpetration for the total sample, and additional negative affectivity trait facets were also associated with IPV for men only. Implications for these findings are discussed. © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmh.1480DOI Listing
August 2020

An Examination of the Reliability and Validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF).

Assessment 2021 07 3;28(5):1345-1357. Epub 2020 Mar 3.

Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX, USA.

The current study examined the reliability and validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Traits Relevant to Personality Disorder-Static Form (CAT-PD-SF), a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Specifically, we used exploratory factor analysis to determine the best higher order structure for the CAT-PD-SF traits. Results suggested a five-factor structure, albeit with marginal model fit. Second, we used correlation analyses to compare the CAT-PD-SF with two additional dimensional measures of personality, the Personality Inventory for -Brief Form and the Five-Factor Model Rating Form. The results demonstrated the CAT-PD-SF scale scores were associated with domain and facet scores from these two models in a conceptually expected manner. Finally, we explored the association between the CAT-PD-SF scores and functional impairment and found moderate associations between CAT-PD-SF trait and functional impairment scores (as measured by the Measure of Disordered Personality Functioning Scale). Overall, findings add support to the structure of the CAT-PD model, and the use of the CAT-PD-SF in measuring dimensional personality psychopathology and impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1073191120907957DOI Listing
July 2021
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