Publications by authors named "Martin Purpura"

39 Publications

Dose-Response of Paraxanthine on Cognitive Function: A Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 15;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Paraxanthine (PXN) is a metabolite of caffeine that has recently been reported to enhance cognition at a dose of 200 mg.

Objective: To determine the acute and short-term (7-day) effects of varying doses of PXN on cognitive function and side effects.

Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 12 healthy male and female volunteers (22.7 ± 4 years, 165 ± 7 cm, 66.5 ± 11 kg, 24.4 ± 3 kg/m) ingested 200 mg of a placebo (PLA), 50 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.) + 150 mg PLA, 100 mg PXN + 100 mg PLA, or 200 mg of PXN. With each treatment experiment, participants completed side effect questionnaires and donated a fasting blood sample. Participants then performed a series of tests assessing cognition, executive function, memory, and reaction time. Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatments. Participants then completed side effects and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h of treatment ingestion. Participants continued ingesting one dose of the assigned treatment daily for 6-days and returned to the lab on day 7 to donate a fasting blood sample, assess side effects, and perform cognitive function tests. Participants repeated the experiment while ingesting remaining treatments in a counterbalanced manner after at least a 7-day washout period until all treatments were assessed.

Results: The Sternberg Task Test (STT) 4-Letter Length Present Reaction Time tended to differ among groups ( = 0.06). Assessment of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed several significant differences among treatments in Berg-Wisconsin Card Sorting Correct Responses, Preservative Errors (PEBL), and Preservative Errors (PAR Rules). There was also evidence of significant differences among treatments in the Go/No-Go Task tests in Mean Accuracy as well as several time points of increasing complexity among STT variables. Finally, there was evidence from Psychomotor Vigilance Task Test assessment that response time improved over the series of 20 trials assessed as well as during the 6-h experiment in the PXN treatment. Acute and short-term benefits compared to PLA were seen with each dose studied but more consistent effects appeared to be at 100 mg and 200 mg doses. No significant differences were observed among treatments in clinical chemistry panels or the frequency or severity of reported side effects. Results provide evidence that acute ingestion of 100 mg and 200 mg of PXN may affect some measures of cognition, memory, reasoning, and response time as well as help sustain attention. Additionally, that acute and daily ingestion of PXN for 7 days is not associated with any clinically significant side effects.

Conclusions: PXN may serve as an effective nootropic agent at doses as low as 50 mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13124478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708375PMC
December 2021

Dose Response of Acute ATP Supplementation on Strength Training Performance.

Front Sports Act Living 2021 8;3:780459. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Immunometabolism of Skeletal Muscle and Exercise Research Group, Department of Physical Education and Postgraduate Program in Science and Health, Federal University of Piauí (UFPI), Teresina, Brazil.

Chronic oral ATP supplementation benefits cardiovascular health, muscular performance, body composition, and recovery while attenuating muscle breakdown and fatigue. A single 400 mg dose of oral ATP supplementation improved lower body resistance training performance and energy expenditure in recreational resistance trained males, however, the minimal effective dose is currently unknown. Twenty recreationally trained men (age 28.6 ± 1.0 years, body mass 81.2 ± 2.0 kg, height 175.2 ± 1.4 cm, 1RM 141.5 ± 5.0 kg) consumed a single dose of either 400 mg, 200 mg, or 100 mg ATP (PEAK ATP, TSI USA LLC, Missoula, MT, USA) or a placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled crossover design, separated by a one week wash out between treatments. After warm-up, participants performed 4 sets of half-squats using free-weights until movement failure separated by 2 mins of rest between sets. In comparison to placebo, 400 mg ATP significantly increased the number of set 1 repetitions (+13%, = 0.04), and numerically increased total repetitions (+7%, = 0.19) and total weight lifted (+6%, = 0.22). 200 mg ATP numerically increased set 1 repetitions (+4% = 0.47), while 100 mg ATP showed no improvements over placebo. 100 mg ATP (-4%, < 0.05) and 400 mg ATP (-4%, = 0.11) decreased the perceived rate of exertion compared to placebo. In this study, the effective minimal dose of acute oral ATP supplementation during resistance exercise to increase performance was determined to be 400 mg, while as little as 100 mg showed improvements in perceived exertion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2021.780459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8692774PMC
December 2021

Acute Paraxanthine Ingestion Improves Cognition and Short-Term Memory and Helps Sustain Attention in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 9;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Human Clinical Research Facility, Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

This study examined the effects of acute paraxanthine (PXN) ingestion on markers of cognition, executive function, and psychomotor vigilance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 13 healthy male and female participants were randomly assigned to consume a placebo (PLA) or 200 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.). Participants completed stimulant sensitivity and side effect questionnaires and then performed the Berg Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (BCST), the Go/No-Go test (GNG), the Sternberg task test (STT), and the psychomotor vigilance task test (PVTT). Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatment. Participants completed side effect and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after ingestion of the supplement. After 7 days, participants repeated the experiment while consuming the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using body mass as a covariate, and by assessing mean and percent changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed as means (LL, UL). PXN decreased BCST errors (PXN -4.7 [-0.2, -9.20], = 0.04; PXN -17.5% [-36.1, 1.0], = 0.06) and perseverative errors (PXN -2.2 [-4.2, -0.2], = 0.03; PXN -32.8% [-64.4, 1.2], = 0.04) at hour 6. GNG analysis revealed some evidence that PXN ingestion better maintained mean accuracy over time and Condition R Round 2 response time (e.g., PXN -25.1 [-52.2, 1.9] ms, = 0.07 faster than PLA at 1 h), suggesting better sustained attention. PXN ingestion improved STT two-letter length absent and present reaction times over time as well as improving six-letter length absent reaction time after 2 h (PXN -86.5 ms [-165, -7.2], = 0.03; PXN -9.0% [-18.1, 0.2], = 0.05), suggesting that PXN enhanced the ability to store and retrieve random information of increasing complexity from short-term memory. A moderate treatment x time effect size (η = 0.08) was observed in PVTT, where PXN sustained vigilance during Trial 2 after 2 h (PXN 840 ms [103, 1576], = 0.03) and 4 h (PXN 1466 ms [579, 2353], = 0.002) compared to PL. As testing progressed, the response time improved during the 20 trials and over the course of the 6 h experiment in the PXN treatment, whereas it significantly increased in the PL group. The results suggest that acute PXN ingestion (200 mg) may affect some measures of short-term memory, reasoning, and response time to cognitive challenges and help sustain attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622427PMC
November 2021

An assessment of mutagenicity, genotoxicity, acute-, subacute and subchronic oral toxicity of paraxanthine (1,7-dimethylxanthine).

Food Chem Toxicol 2021 Dec 28;158:112579. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

LSRO Solutions, LLC, 2286 Dunster Lane, Rockviell, MD, 20845, USA.

Paraxanthine or 1,7-dimethylxanthine is a natural dietary component and the main metabolite of caffeine in humans. A battery of toxicological studies was conducted in accordance with international guidelines to investigate mutagenicity, genotoxicity and acute and repeated-dose oral toxicity in rats of synthetic paraxanthine (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P., >99% purity). There was no evidence of mutagenicity in a bacterial reverse mutation as well as in an in vitro mammalian chromosomal aberration test. There was no evidence of genotoxicity in an in vivo mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test as well as in an in vitro mammalian cell gene mutation test. An acute oral toxicity test resulted in a LD value of 1601 mg/kg bw/d. Paraxanthine did not cause mortality or toxic effects in a subacute 28-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study at daily doses of 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg bw/d (each group n = 10 per sex), administered by gavage. Paraxanthine also did not cause mortality or toxic effects in a subchronic 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicity study at daily doses of 75, 150, or 300 mg/kg bw/d (each group n = 10 per sex), administered by gavage. The no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) determined from the 90-day study was greater than or equal to 300 mg/kg bw/d, the highest dose tested, for both male and female Wistar rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2021.112579DOI Listing
December 2021

Dileucine ingestion is more effective than leucine in stimulating muscle protein turnover in young males: a double blind randomized controlled trial.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2021 09 29;131(3):1111-1122. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.

Leucine is regarded as an anabolic trigger for the mTORC1 pathway and the stimulation muscle protein synthesis rates. More recently, there has been an interest in underpinning the relevance of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-containing dipeptides and their intact absorption into circulation to regulate muscle anabolic responses. We investigated the effects of dileucine and leucine ingestion on postprandial muscle protein turnover. Ten healthy young men (age: 23 ± 3 yr) consumed either 2 g of leucine (LEU) or 2 g of dileucine (DILEU) in a randomized crossover design. The participants underwent repeated blood and muscle biopsy sampling during primed continuous infusions of l-[-C]phenylalanine and l-[N]phenylalanine to determine myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) and mixed muscle protein breakdown rates (MPB), respectively. LEU and DILEU similarly increased plasma leucine net area under the curve (AUC; = 0.396). DILEU increased plasma dileucine AUC to a greater extent than LEU ( = 0.013). Phosphorylation of Akt ( = 0.002), rpS6 ( < 0.001), and p70S6K ( < 0.001) increased over time under both LEU and DILEU conditions. Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 ( = 0.229) and eEF2 ( = 0.999) did not change over time irrespective of condition. Cumulative (0-180 min) MPS increased in DILEU (0.075 ± 0.032%·h), but not in LEU (0.047 ± 0.029%·h; = 0.023). MPB did not differ between LEU (0.043 ± 0.030%·h) and DILEU conditions (0.051 ± 0.027%·h; = 0.659). Our results showed that dileucine ingestion elevated plasma dileucine concentrations and muscle protein turnover by stimulating MPS in young men. The role of dipeptides as anabolic agents remains unresolved in humans. We show that the ingestion of 2 g dileucine increased plasma dileucine concentrations and resulted in an enhancement of muscle protein turnover by stimulating an increase in muscle protein synthesis rates in healthy young males. The ingestion of 2 g leucine, however, did not stimulate an increase in muscle protein turnover. Our work provides the first insights into the effects of dipeptides on human protein metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00295.2021DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of Glucosamine Supplementation on Gut Health.

Nutrients 2021 Jun 24;13(7). Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA.

Glucosamine (GLU) is a natural compound found in cartilage, and supplementation with glucosamine has been shown to improve joint heath and has been linked to reduced mortality rates. GLU is poorly absorbed and may exhibit functional properties in the gut. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of glucosamine on gastrointestinal function as well as changes in fecal microbiota and metabolome. Healthy males ( = 6) and females ( = 5) (33.4 ± 7.7 years, 174.1 ± 12.0 cm, 76.5 ± 12.9 kg, 25.2 ± 3.1 kg/m, = 11) completed two supplementation protocols that each spanned three weeks separated by a washout period that lasted two weeks. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion, participants ingested a daily dose of GLU hydrochloride (3000 mg GlucosaGreen, TSI Group Ltd., Missoula, MT, USA) or maltodextrin placebo. Study participants completed bowel habit and gastrointestinal symptoms questionnaires in addition to providing a stool sample that was analyzed for fecal microbiota and metabolome at baseline and after the completion of each supplementation period. GLU significantly reduced stomach bloating and showed a trend towards reducing constipation and hard stools. Phylogenetic diversity (Faith's PD) and proportions of , , and were significantly reduced following GLU consumption. GLU supplementation significantly reduced individual, total branched-chain, and total amino acid excretion, with no glucosamine being detected in any of the fecal samples. GLU had no effect on fecal short-chain fatty acids levels. GLU supplementation provided functional gut health benefits and induced fecal microbiota and metabolome changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13072180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8308242PMC
June 2021

Effects of daily 24-gram doses of rice or whey protein on resistance training adaptations in trained males.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Dec 1;17(1):60. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, 209 S. Kingshighway, St. Charles, MO, 63301, USA.

Background: Large (48-g), isonitrogenous doses of rice and whey protein have previously been shown to stimulate similar adaptations to resistance training, but the impact of consuming smaller doses has yet to be compared. We evaluated the ability of 24-g doses of rice or whey protein concentrate to augment adaptations following 8 weeks of resistance training.

Methods: Healthy resistance-trained males (n = 24, 32.8 ± 6.7 years, 179.3 ± 8.5 cm, 87.4 ± 8.5 kg, 27.2 ± 1.9 kg/m, 27.8 ± 6.0% fat) were randomly assigned and matched according to fat-free mass to consume 24-g doses of rice (n = 12, Growing Naturals, LLC) or whey (n = 12, NutraBio Labs, Inc.) protein concentrate for 8 weeks while completing a standardized resistance training program. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (one-repetition maximum [1RM]) and endurance (repetitions to fatigue [RTF] at 80% 1RM) using bench press (BP) and leg press (LP) exercises along with anaerobic capacity (Wingate) were assessed before and after the intervention. Subjects were asked to maintain regular dietary habits and record dietary intake every 2 weeks. Outcomes were assessed using 2 × 2 mixed (group x time) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures on time and independent samples t-tests using the change scores from baseline. A p-value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals on the changes between groups were used to determine outcomes.

Results: No baseline differences (p > 0.05) were found for key body composition and performance outcomes. No changes (p > 0.05) in dietary status occurred within or between groups (34 ± 4 kcal/kg/day, 3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day, 1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, 1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) throughout the study for daily relative energy (34 ± 4 kcals/kg/day), carbohydrate (3.7 ± 0.77 g/kg/day), fat (1.31 ± 0.28 g/kg/day), and protein (1.87 ± 0.23 g/kg/day) intake. Significant main effects for time were revealed for body mass (p = 0.02), total body water (p = 0.01), lean mass (p = 0.008), fat-free mass (p = 0.007), BP 1RM (p = 0.02), BP volume (p = 0.04), and LP 1RM (p = 0.01). Changes between groups were similar for body mass (- 0.88, 2.03 kg, p = 0.42), fat-free mass (- 0.68, 1.99 kg, p = 0.32), lean mass (- 0.73, 1.91 kg, p = 0.37), fat mass (- 0.48, 1.02 kg, p = 0.46), and % fat (- 0.63, 0.71%, p = 0.90). No significant between group differences were seen for BP 1RM (- 13.8, 7.1 kg, p = 0.51), LP 1RM (- 38.8, 49.6 kg, p = 0.80), BP RTF (- 2.02, 0.35 reps, p = 0.16), LP RTF (- 1.7, 3.3 reps, p = 0.50), and Wingate peak power (- 72.5, 53.4 watts, p = 0.76) following the eight-week supplementation period.

Conclusions: Eight weeks of daily isonitrogenous 24-g doses of rice or whey protein in combination with an eight-week resistance training program led to similar changes in body composition and performance outcomes. Retroactively registered on as NCT04411173 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-020-00394-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7706190PMC
December 2020

GBI-30, 6086 improves amino acid absorption from milk protein.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2020 23;17:93. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, School of Health Sciences, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301 USA.

Background: Probiotic GBI-30, 6086 (BC30) has been shown to increase protein digestion in an in vitro model of the stomach and small intestine. Once active in the small intestine after germination, BC30 aids the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. The extent to which BC30 administration may impact protein digestion and amino acid appearance in humans after protein ingestion is currently unknown. This study examined the impact of adding BC30 to a 25-g dose of milk protein concentrate on post-prandial changes in blood amino acids concentrations.

Methods: 14 males and 16 females (n = 30, 26.4 ± 6.5 years; 172.3 ± 10.8 cm; 78.2 ± 14.8 kg; 22.6 ± 7.2% fat) completed two supplementation protocols that each spanned two weeks separated by a washout period that lasted three weeks. Participants were instructed to track their dietary intake and ingest a daily 25-g dose of milk protein concentrate with (MPCBC30) or without (MPC) the addition of BC30. Body composition and demographics were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory. Upon ingestion of their final assigned supplemental dose, blood samples were taken at 0 (baseline), 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 min post-consumption and analyzed for amino acid concentrations.

Results: Arginine ( = 0.03) and Isoleucine ( = 0.05) revealed greater area-under-the curve (AUC) in MPCBC30 group compared to MPC. In addition, Arginine ( = 0.02), Serine ( = 0.01), Ornithine ( = 0.02), Methionine ( = 0.04), Glutamic Acid ( = 0.01), Phenylalanine ( = 0.05), Isoleucine ( = 0.04), Tyrosine ( = 0.02), Essential Amino Acids ( = 0.02), and Total Amino Acids ( < 0.01) all revealed significantly greater concentration maximum (C) in MPCBC30 compared to MPC. Finally, time to reach C (T) was significantly faster for Glutamine ( < 0.01), Citrulline ( < 0.01), Threonine ( = 0.04), Alanine ( = 0.02) in MPCBC30 when compared to MPC. Greater mean differences between groups for AUC and C in women when compared to the mean differences in men were found for several amino acids.

Conclusion: In concert with previous in vitro evidence of improved protein digestion and amino acid appearance, these results reveal that adding BC30 to protein sources such as milk protein concentrate can improve AUC, C, and faster T. Follow-up research should examine differences between gender and explore how aging can impact these outcomes. Retrospectively registered on June 11, 2020 at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04427020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12986-020-00515-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585191PMC
October 2020

Subchronic (90-Day) repeated dose toxicity study of disodium adenosine-5'-triphosphate in rats.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Oct 6;116:104760. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Metabolic Technologies, LLC, 135 W Main St, Suite B, Missoula, MT, 59802, USA. Electronic address:

Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) is the primary source of energy for cells and oral supplementation with ATP offers numerous different health benefits, including the regulation of blood flow and muscle contraction. In this study, ATP, disodium salt, was administered by gavage to rats for 90 consecutive days at doses of 0 (control), 500, 1000, and 2000 mg kg BW·d (n = 10 per sex/group). Subchronic administration of ATP was well tolerated at all dose levels. Body weights and feed consumption body weight gains were similar between ATP-treated and control rats. Minor differences were seen in hematology and blood chemistry; however, these changes were not dose related and therefore not of biological or toxicological significance. Only one difference was observed in absolute organ weights, females of the high dose had increased kidney and increased relative kidney and liver weights; however, these differences were not seen in males nor appeared to be dose related. No biological or toxicological significant differences were observed in thyroid function or urine analysis. The incidence of histopathological lesions was low and similar between treated and control groups. Based upon these findings, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was determined to be ≥ 2000 mg kg BW·d, which was the highest dose tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2020.104760DOI Listing
October 2020

The athletic gut microbiota.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 May 12;17(1):24. Epub 2020 May 12.

Exercise and Sport Science, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL, USA.

The microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract play a significant role in nutrient uptake, vitamin synthesis, energy harvest, inflammatory modulation, and host immune response, collectively contributing to human health. Important factors such as age, birth method, antibiotic use, and diet have been established as formative factors that shape the gut microbiota. Yet, less described is the role that exercise plays, particularly how associated factors and stressors, such as sport/exercise-specific diet, environment, and their interactions, may influence the gut microbiota. In particular, high-level athletes offer remarkable physiology and metabolism (including muscular strength/power, aerobic capacity, energy expenditure, and heat production) compared to sedentary individuals, and provide unique insight in gut microbiota research. In addition, the gut microbiota with its ability to harvest energy, modulate the immune system, and influence gastrointestinal health, likely plays an important role in athlete health, wellbeing, and sports performance. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms in which the gut microbiota could play in the role of influencing athletic performance is of considerable interest to athletes who work to improve their results in competition as well as reduce recovery time during training. Ultimately this research is expected to extend beyond athletics as understanding optimal fitness has applications for overall health and wellness in larger communities. Therefore, the purpose of this narrative review is to summarize current knowledge of the athletic gut microbiota and the factors that shape it. Exercise, associated dietary factors, and the athletic classification promote a more "health-associated" gut microbiota. Such features include a higher abundance of health-promoting bacterial species, increased microbial diversity, functional metabolic capacity, and microbial-associated metabolites, stimulation of bacterial abundance that can modulate mucosal immunity, and improved gastrointestinal barrier function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-020-00353-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7218537PMC
May 2020

Probiotic Administration Increases Amino Acid Absorption from Plant Protein: a Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter, Crossover Study.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2020 12;12(4):1330-1339

Human Performance Laboratory, School of Exercise & Sport Science, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX, USA.

The fate of dietary protein in the gut is determined by microbial and host digestion and utilization. Fermentation of proteins generates bioactive molecules that have wide-ranging health effects on the host. The type of protein can affect amino acid absorption, with animal proteins generally being more efficiently absorbed compared with plant proteins. In contrast to animal proteins, most plant proteins, such as pea protein, are incomplete proteins. Pea protein is low in methionine and contains lower amounts of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which play a crucial role in muscle health. We hypothesized that probiotic supplementation results in favorable changes in the gut microbiota, aiding the absorption of amino acids from plant proteins by the host. Fifteen physically active men (24.2 ± 5.0 years; 85.3 ± 12.9 kg; 178.0 ± 7.6 cm; 16.7 ± 5.8% body fat) co-ingested 20 g of pea protein with either AminoAlta™, a multi-strain probiotic (5 billion CFU L. paracasei LP-DG® (CNCM I-1572) plus 5 billion CFU L. paracasei LPC-S01 (DSM 26760), SOFAR S.p.A., Italy) or a placebo for 2 weeks in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, separated by a 4-week washout period. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 30-, 60-, 120-, and 180-min post-ingestion and analyzed for amino acid content. Probiotic administration significantly increased methionine, histidine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine, total BCAA, and total EAA maximum concentrations (Cmax) and AUC without significantly changing the time to reach maximum concentrations. Probiotic supplementation can be an important nutritional strategy to improve post-prandial changes in blood amino acids and to overcome compositional shortcomings of plant proteins. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRCTN38903788.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09656-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641926PMC
December 2020

International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Probiotics.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2019 Dec 21;16(1):62. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Exercise and Sport Science, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL, USA.

Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1)Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host (FAO/WHO).2)Probiotic administration has been linked to a multitude of health benefits, with gut and immune health being the most researched applications.3)Despite the existence of shared, core mechanisms for probiotic function, health benefits of probiotics are strain- and dose-dependent.4)Athletes have varying gut microbiota compositions that appear to reflect the activity level of the host in comparison to sedentary people, with the differences linked primarily to the volume of exercise and amount of protein consumption. Whether differences in gut microbiota composition affect probiotic efficacy is unknown.5)The main function of the gut is to digest food and absorb nutrients. In athletic populations, certain probiotics strains can increase absorption of key nutrients such as amino acids from protein, and affect the pharmacology and physiological properties of multiple food components.6)Immune depression in athletes worsens with excessive training load, psychological stress, disturbed sleep, and environmental extremes, all of which can contribute to an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. In certain situations, including exposure to crowds, foreign travel and poor hygiene at home, and training or competition venues, athletes' exposure to pathogens may be elevated leading to increased rates of infections. Approximately 70% of the immune system is located in the gut and probiotic supplementation has been shown to promote a healthy immune response. In an athletic population, specific probiotic strains can reduce the number of episodes, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract infections.7)Intense, prolonged exercise, especially in the heat, has been shown to increase gut permeability which potentially can result in systemic toxemia. Specific probiotic strains can improve the integrity of the gut-barrier function in athletes.8)Administration of selected anti-inflammatory probiotic strains have been linked to improved recovery from muscle-damaging exercise.9)The minimal effective dose and method of administration (potency per serving, single vs. split dose, delivery form) of a specific probiotic strain depends on validation studies for this particular strain. Products that contain probiotics must include the genus, species, and strain of each live microorganism on its label as well as the total estimated quantity of each probiotic strain at the end of the product's shelf life, as measured by colony forming units (CFU) or live cells.10)Preclinical and early human research has shown potential probiotic benefits relevant to an athletic population that include improved body composition and lean body mass, normalizing age-related declines in testosterone levels, reductions in cortisol levels indicating improved responses to a physical or mental stressor, reduction of exercise-induced lactate, and increased neurotransmitter synthesis, cognition and mood. However, these potential benefits require validation in more rigorous human studies and in an athletic population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-019-0329-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6925426PMC
December 2019

Eight Weeks of a High Dose of Curcumin Supplementation May Attenuate Performance Decrements Following Muscle-Damaging Exercise.

Nutrients 2019 Jul 23;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 23.

Exercise and Performance Nutrition Laboratory, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO 63301, USA.

Background: It is known that unaccustomed exercise-especially when it has an eccentric component-causes muscle damage and subsequent performance decrements. Attenuating muscle damage may improve performance and recovery, allowing for improved training quality and adaptations. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the effect of two doses of curcumin supplementation on performance decrements following downhill running.

Methods: Sixty-three physically active men and women (21 ± 2 y; 70.0 ± 13.7 kg; 169.3 ± 15.2 cm; 25.6 ± 14.3 body mass index (BMI), 32 women, 31 men) were randomly assigned to ingest 250 mg of CurcuWIN® (50 mg of curcuminoids), 1000 mg of CurcuWIN® (200 mg of curcuminoids), or a corn starch placebo (PLA) for eight weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design. At the end of the supplementation period, subjects completed a downhill running protocol intended to induce muscle damage. Muscle function using isokinetic dynamometry and perceived soreness was assessed prior to and at 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h post-downhill run.

Results: Isokinetic peak extension torque did not change in the 200-mg dose, while significant reductions occurred in the PLA and 50-mg groups through the first 24 h of recovery. Isokinetic peak flexion torque and power both decreased in the 50-mg group, while no change was observed in the PLA or 200-mg groups. All the groups experienced no changes in isokinetic extension power and isometric average peak torque. Soreness was significantly increased in all the groups compared to the baseline. Non-significant improvements in total soreness were observed for the 200-mg group, but these changes failed to reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: When compared to changes observed against PLA, a 200-mg dose of curcumin attenuated reductions in some but not all observed changes in performance and soreness after completion of a downhill running bout. Additionally, a 50-mg dose appears to offer no advantage to changes observed in the PLA and 200-mg groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11071692DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6683062PMC
July 2019

Capsaicinoids supplementation decreases percent body fat and fat mass: adjustment using covariates in a post hoc analysis.

BMC Obes 2018 13;5:22. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

4OmniActive Health Technologies Inc., 67 East Park Place, Suite 500, Morristown, NJ 07950 USA.

Background: Capsaicinoids (CAPs) found in chili peppers and pepper extracts, are responsible for enhanced metabolism. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of CAPs on body fat and fat mass while considering interactions with body habitus, diet and metabolic propensity.

Methods: Seventy-five ( = 75) volunteer (male and female, age: 18 and 56 years) healthy subjects were recruited. This is a parallel group, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled exploratory study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, 2 mg CAPs or 4 mg CAPs dosing for 12 weeks. After initial screening, subjects were evaluated with respect to fat mass and percent body fat at baseline and immediately following a 12-week treatment period. The current study evaluates two measures of fat loss while considering six baseline variables related to fat loss. Baseline measurements of importance in this paper are those used to evaluate body habitus, diet, and metabolic propensity. Lean mass and fat mass (body habitus); protein intake, fat intake and carbohydrate intake; and total serum cholesterol level (metabolic propensity) were assessed. Body fat and fat mass were respectively re-expressed as percent change in body fat and change in fat mass by application of formula outcome = (12-week value - baseline value) / baseline value) × 100. Thus, percent change in body fat and change in fat mass served as dependent variables in the evaluation of CAPs. Inferential statistical tests were derived from the model to compare low dose CAPs to placebo and high dose CAPs to placebo.

Results: Percent change in body fat after 12 weeks of treatment was 5.91 percentage units lower in CAPs 4 mg subjects than placebo subjects after adjustment for covariates ( = 0.0402). Percent change in fat mass after 12 weeks of treatment was 6.68 percentage units lower in Caps 4 mg subjects than placebo subjects after adjustment for covariates ( = 0.0487).

Conclusion: These results suggest potential benefits of Capsaicinoids (CAPs) on body fat and fat mass in post hoc analysis. Further studies are required to explore pharmacological, physiological, and metabolic benefits of both chronic and acute Capsaicinoids consumption.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN10458693 'retrospectively registered'.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40608-018-0197-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088424PMC
August 2018

The Effects of Krill Oil on mTOR Signaling and Resistance Exercise: A Pilot Study.

J Nutr Metab 2018 26;2018:7625981. Epub 2018 Apr 26.

Increnovo LLC, 2138 E. Lafayette Pl, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA.

Introduction: Krill oil supplementation has been shown to improve postexercise immune function; however, its effect on muscle hypertrophy is currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of present study was to investigate the ability of krill oil to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.

Methods: CC myoblasts cells were stimulated with krill oil or soy-derived phosphatidylcholine (S-PC), and then, the ratio of P-p70-389 to total p70 was used as readout for mTOR signaling. In double-blind, placebo-controlled study, resistance trained subjects consumed either 3 g krill oil daily or placebo, and each took part in an 8-week periodized resistance training program. Body composition, maximal strength, peak power, and rate of perceived recovery were assessed collectively at the end of weeks 0 and 8. In addition, safety parameters (comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP), complete blood count (CBC), and urine analysis (UA)) and cognitive performance were measured pre- and posttesting.

Results: Krill oil significantly stimulated mTOR signaling in comparison to S-PC and control. No differences for markers on the CMP, CBC, or UA were observed. Krill oil significantly increased lean body mass from baseline (=0.021, 1.4 kg, +2.1%); however, there were no statistically significant differences between groups for any measures taken.

Conclusion: Krill oil activates mTOR signaling. Krill oil supplementation in athletes is safe, and its effect on resistance exercise deserves further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/7625981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5944280PMC
April 2018

Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 Improves Protein Absorption and Utilization.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2018 12;10(4):611-615

Ganeden Probiotics, 5800 Landerbrook Dr, Suite 300, Mayfield Heights, OH, 44124, USA.

Probiotics offer numerous health benefits, including digestive and immune health. Improved digestive health is linked to a more efficient absorption of important nutrients from our diet. This review focused on the rationale of using the probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 to aid protein absorption and utilization. B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 can withstand the acidic environment of the stomach to reach the intestine where it germinates. Once active in the small intestine after germination, it has been shown to aid the digestion of carbohydrates and proteins. Co-administration of B. coagulans GBI-30, 6086 with protein has been shown to increase protein absorption and to maximize the health benefits associated with protein supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-017-9354-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208742PMC
December 2018

International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: protein and exercise.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2017 20;14:20. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Health and Human Performance, Nova Southeastern University, Davie, FL USA.

The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review related to the intake of protein for healthy, exercising individuals. Based on the current available literature, the position of the Society is as follows:An acute exercise stimulus, particularly resistance exercise, and protein ingestion both stimulate muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and are synergistic when protein consumption occurs before or after resistance exercise.For building muscle mass and for maintaining muscle mass through a positive muscle protein balance, an overall daily protein intake in the range of 1.4-2.0 g protein/kg body weight/day (g/kg/d) is sufficient for most exercising individuals, a value that falls in line within the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range published by the Institute of Medicine for protein.Higher protein intakes (2.3-3.1 g/kg/d) may be needed to maximize the retention of lean body mass in resistance-trained subjects during hypocaloric periods.There is novel evidence that suggests higher protein intakes (>3.0 g/kg/d) may have positive effects on body composition in resistance-trained individuals (i.e., promote loss of fat mass).Recommendations regarding the optimal protein intake per serving for athletes to maximize MPS are mixed and are dependent upon age and recent resistance exercise stimuli. General recommendations are 0.25 g of a high-quality protein per kg of body weight, or an absolute dose of 20-40 g.Acute protein doses should strive to contain 700-3000 mg of leucine and/or a higher relative leucine content, in addition to a balanced array of the essential amino acids (EAAs).These protein doses should ideally be evenly distributed, every 3-4 h, across the day.The optimal time period during which to ingest protein is likely a matter of individual tolerance, since benefits are derived from pre- or post-workout ingestion; however, the anabolic effect of exercise is long-lasting (at least 24 h), but likely diminishes with increasing time post-exercise.While it is possible for physically active individuals to obtain their daily protein requirements through the consumption of whole foods, supplementation is a practical way of ensuring intake of adequate protein quality and quantity, while minimizing caloric intake, particularly for athletes who typically complete high volumes of training. Rapidly digested proteins that contain high proportions of essential amino acids (EAAs) and adequate leucine, are most effective in stimulating MPS. Different types and quality of protein can affect amino acid bioavailability following protein supplementation. Athletes should consider focusing on whole food sources of protein that contain all of the EAAs (i.e., it is the EAAs that are required to stimulate MPS). Endurance athletes should focus on achieving adequate carbohydrate intake to promote optimal performance; the addition of protein may help to offset muscle damage and promote recovery. Pre-sleep casein protein intake (30-40 g) provides increases in overnight MPS and metabolic rate without influencing lipolysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-017-0177-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477153PMC
November 2017

Effects of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on body composition, appetite and self-reported caloric intake in overweight individuals.

Appetite 2017 06 21;113:264-273. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Human Performance Laboratory, University of Mary Hardin-Baylor, Belton, TX 76513, United States. Electronic address:

We examined if 12 weeks of capsaicinoid (CAP) supplementation affected appetite, body composition and metabolic health markers. Seventy seven healthy male and female volunteers (30 ± 1 y, 171.2 ± 9.8 cm, 81.0 ± 2.2 kg, 27.5 ± 0.6 kg/m) were randomly assigned to ingest either low-dose CAP (2 mg/d; L-CAP, n = 27), high-dose CAP (4 mg/d; H-CAP, n = 22) from Capsimax or placebo (corn starch; PLA, n = 28) for 12 weeks. At baseline (0 WK), 6 weeks (6 WK) and 12 weeks (12 WK) waist: hip ratio, body composition via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA, 0 WK and 12 WK only), self-reported Calorie intakes, appetite levels via Council on Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ) and serum metabolic health markers (0 WK and 12 WK only) were analyzed. Moreover, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was administered at 0 WK and 12 WK, and serum glucose and insulin responses were examined 30-120 min post test-drink consumption. Waist: hip ratio significantly decreased in L-CAP from 0 WK to 6 WK (p < 0.05), although supplementation did not significantly affect body composition. H-CAP consumed less kcal/d compared to PLA at 12 WK (difference = 257 kcal/d, p < 0.05) and L-CAP participants at 12 WK (difference = 247, p < 0.05). Twenty-three percent (9/39) of the originally-enrolled H-CAP participants reported GI distress, although no participants in the L-CAP group reported such adverse events. Interestingly, H-CAP participants presented significant increases in serum insulin as well as significant decreases in serum HDL cholesterol levels from WK0 to WK12. However, supplementation did not affect the insulin response to the administered OGTT and/or other indices of insulin sensitivity. These data suggest that H-CAP supplementation reduces self-reported energy intake after 12 weeks of supplementation, and L-CAP supplementation also reduces waist: hip ratio. Longer-term effects of capsaicinoid supplementation on basal insulin and cholesterol levels warrant further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2017.02.025DOI Listing
June 2017

Analysis of different innovative formulations of curcumin for improved relative oral bioavailability in human subjects.

Eur J Nutr 2018 Apr 16;57(3):929-938. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

National Institute of Complementary Medicine, Western Sydney University, Campbelltown, NSW, 2560, Australia.

Purpose: The optimal health benefits of curcumin are limited by its low solubility in water and corresponding poor intestinal absorption. Cyclodextrins (CD) can form inclusion complexes on a molecular basis with lipophilic compounds, thereby improving aqueous solubility, dispersibility, and absorption. In this study, we investigated the bioavailability of a new γ-cyclodextrin curcumin formulation (CW8). This formulation was compared to a standardized unformulated curcumin extract (StdC) and two commercially available formulations with purported increased bioavailability: a curcumin phytosome formulation (CSL) and a formulation of curcumin with essential oils of turmeric extracted from the rhizome (CEO).

Methods: Twelve healthy human volunteers participated in a double-blinded, cross-over study. The plasma concentrations of the individual curcuminoids that are present in turmeric (namely curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were determined at baseline and at various intervals after oral administration over a 12-h period.

Results: CW8 showed the highest plasma concentrations of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and total curcuminoids, whereas CSL administration resulted in the highest levels of bisdemethoxycurcumin. CW8 (39-fold) showed significantly increased relative bioavailability of total curcuminoids (AUC) in comparison with the unformulated StdC.

Conclusion: The data presented suggest that γ-cyclodextrin curcumin formulation (CW8) significantly improves the absorption of curcuminoids in healthy humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-016-1376-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861163PMC
April 2018

Oral Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Repeated Sprint Bout.

J Am Coll Nutr 2017 Mar-Apr;36(3):177-183. Epub 2017 Jan 12.

a Increnovo LLC , Milwaukee , Wisconsin , USA.

Objective: Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration has failed to increase plasma ATP levels; however, chronic supplementation with ATP has shown to increase power, strength, lean body mass, and blood flow in trained athletes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ATP supplementation on postexercise ATP levels and on muscle activation and excitability and power following a repeated sprint bout.

Methods: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design, 42 healthy male individuals were given either 400 mg of ATP as disodium salt or placebo for 2 weeks prior to an exercise bout. During the exercise bout, muscle activation and excitability (ME, ratio of power output to muscle activation) and Wingate test peak power were measured during all sprints. ATP and metabolites were measured at baseline, after supplementation, and immediately following exercise.

Results: Oral ATP supplementation prevented a drop in ATP, adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) levels postexercise (p < 0.05). No group by time interaction was observed for muscle activation. Following the supplementation period, muscle excitability significantly decreased in later bouts 8, 9, and 10 in the placebo group (-30.5, -28.3, and -27.9%, respectively; p < 0.02), whereas ATP supplementation prevented the decline in later bouts. ATP significantly increased Wingate peak power in later bouts compared to baseline (bout 8: +18.3%, bout 10: +16.3%).

Conclusions: Oral ATP administration prevents exercise-induced declines in ATP and its metabolite and enhances peak power and muscular excitability, which may be beneficial for sports requiring repeated high-intensity sprinting bouts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2016.1246989DOI Listing
February 2018

Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise.

Nutrients 2016 Oct 14;8(10). Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Exercise & Sport Performance Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, Texas Christian University, P.O. Box 297730, Fort Worth, TX 76129, USA.

Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic () FP4 and () BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains FP4 and BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu8100642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5084029PMC
October 2016

Novel Form of Curcumin Improves Endothelial Function in Young, Healthy Individuals: A Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Study.

J Nutr Metab 2016 17;2016:1089653. Epub 2016 Aug 17.

Increnovo LLC, 2138 E. Lafayette Place, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA.

Curcumin, a turmeric extract, may protect against cardiovascular diseases by enhancing endothelial function. In this randomized controlled double-blind parallel prospective study, fifty-nine healthy adults were assigned to placebo, 50 mg (50 mg), or 200 mg (200 mg) curcumin, for 8 weeks. The higher curcumin (200 mg) supplementation produced a dose-mediated improvement in endothelial function measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD). The outcome was a clinically substantial 3.0% increase (90% CI 0.7 to 5.3%, p = 0.032; benefit : harm odds ratio 546 : 1) with the 200 mg dose, relative to placebo. The 50 mg dose also increased FMD relative to placebo by 1.7% (-0.6 to 4.0%, p = 0.23; 25 : 1), but the outcome was not clinically decisive. In apparently healthy adults, 8 weeks of 200 mg oral curcumin supplementation resulted in a clinically meaningful improvement in endothelial function as measured by FMD. Oral curcumin supplementation may present a simple lifestyle strategy for decreasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. This trial was registered at ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN90184217).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1089653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5005531PMC
September 2016

Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery.

PeerJ 2016 21;4:e2276. Epub 2016 Jul 21.

Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, University of Tampa, Tampa, FL, United States of America; Research Division, Applied Science and Performance Institute, Tampa, FL, United States of America.

Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (-39.8 watts, -5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery, and maintains physical performance subsequent to damaging exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2276DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4963221PMC
August 2016

Oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) administration increases blood flow following exercise in animals and humans.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2014 13;11:28. Epub 2014 Jun 13.

Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, 318 N Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

Introduction: Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulates vasodilation by binding to endothelial ATP-selective P2Y2 receptors; a phenomenon, which is posited to be accelerated during exercise. Herein, we used a rat model to examine how different dosages of acute oral ATP administration affected the femoral blood flow response prior to, during, and after an exercise bout. In addition, we performed a single dose chronic administration pilot study in resistance trained athletes.

Methods:

Animal Study: Male Wistar rats were gavage-fed the body surface area, species adjusted human equivalent dose (HED) of either 100 mg (n=4), 400 mg (n=4), 1,000 mg (n=5) or 1,600 mg (n=5) of oral ATP as a disodium salt (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT). Rats that were not gavage-fed were used as controls (CTL, n=5). Blood flow was monitored continuously: a) 60 min prior to, b) during and c) 90 min following an electrically-evoked leg-kicking exercise. Human Study: In a pilot study, 12 college-aged resistance-trained subjects were given 400 mg of ATP (Peak ATP®, TSI, Missoula, MT) daily for 12 weeks, and prior to an acute arm exercise bout at weeks 1, 4, 8, and 12. Ultrasonography-determined volumetric blood flow and vessel dilation in the brachial artery was measured at rest, at rest 30 minutes after supplementation, and then at 0, 3, and 6 minutes after the exercise.

Results:

Animal Study: Rats fed 1,000 mg HED demonstrated significantly greater recovery blood flow (p < 0.01) and total blood flow AUC values (p < 0.05) compared to CTL rats. Specifically, blood flow was elevated in rats fed 1,000 mg HED versus CTL rats at 20 to 90 min post exercise when examining 10-min blood flow intervals (p < 0.05). When examining within-group differences relative to baseline values, rats fed the 1,000 mg and 1,600 mg HED exhibited the most robust increases in blood flow during exercise and into the recovery period. Human study: At weeks 1, 8, and 12, ATP supplementation significantly increased blood flow, along with significant elevations in brachial dilation.

Conclusions: Oral ATP administration can increase post-exercise blood flow, and may be particularly effective during exercise recovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-28DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4086998PMC
July 2014

Phosphatidic acid enhances mTOR signaling and resistance exercise induced hypertrophy.

Nutr Metab (Lond) 2014 16;11:29. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, 401 W. Kennedy Blvd., Box 30 F, Tampa, FL 33606, USA.

Introduction: The lipid messenger phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a critical role in the stimulation of mTOR signaling. However, the mechanism by which PA stimulates mTOR is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of various PA precursors and phospholipids on their ability to stimulate mTOR signaling and its ability to augment resistance training-induced changes in body composition and performance.

Methods: In phase one, C2C12 myoblasts cells were stimulated with different phospholipids and phospholipid precursors derived from soy and egg sources. The ratio of phosphorylated p70 (P-p70-389) to total p70 was then used as readout for mTOR signaling. In phase two, resistance trained subjects (n = 28, 21 ± 3 years, 77 ± 4 kg, 176 ± 9 cm) consumed either 750 mg PA daily or placebo and each took part in an 8 week periodized resistance training program.

Results: In phase one, soy-phosphatidylserine, soy-Lyso-PA, egg-PA, and soy-PA stimulated mTOR signaling, and the effects of soy-PA (+636%) were significantly greater than egg-PA (+221%). In phase two, PA significantly increased lean body mass (+2.4 kg), cross sectional area (+1.0 cm), and leg press strength (+51.9 kg) over placebo.

Conclusion: PA significantly activates mTOR and significantly improved responses in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, lean body mass, and maximal strength to resistance exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-11-29DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4066292PMC
June 2014

Interaction of Beta-Hydroxy-Beta-Methylbutyrate Free Acid and Adenosine Triphosphate on Muscle Mass, Strength, and Power in Resistance Trained Individuals.

J Strength Cond Res 2016 Jul;30(7):1843-54

1Department of Health Sciences and Human Performance, The University of Tampa, Tampa, Florida; 2Metabolic Technologies, Inc., Iowa State University Research Park, Ames, Iowa; 3Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; 4Department of Statistics, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa; 5Increnovo LLC, 2138 E Lafayette Pl, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and 6Department of Nutrition, IMG Academy, Bradenton, Florida.

Lowery, RP, Joy, JM, Rathmacher, JA, Baier, SM, Fuller, JC Jr, Shelley, MC II, Jäger, R, Purpura, M, Wilson, SMC, and Wilson, JM. Interaction of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate free acid and adenosine triphosphate on muscle mass, strength, and power in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1843-1854, 2016-Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation helps maintain performance under high fatiguing contractions and with greater fatigue recovery demands also increase. Current evidence suggests that the free acid form of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB-FA) acts by speeding regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle after high-intensity or prolonged exercise. Therefore, we investigated the effects of 12 weeks of HMB-FA (3 g) and ATP (400 mg) administration on lean body mass (LBM), strength, and power in trained individuals. A 3-phase double-blind, placebo-, and diet-controlled study was conducted. Phases consisted of an 8-week periodized resistance training program (phase 1), followed by a 2-week overreaching cycle (phase 2), and a 2-week taper (phase 3). Lean body mass was increased by a combination of HMB-FA/ATP by 12.7% (p < 0.001). In a similar fashion, strength gains after training were increased in HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented subjects by 23.5% (p < 0.001). Vertical jump and Wingate power were increased in the HMB-FA/ATP-supplemented group compared with the placebo-supplemented group, and the 12-week increases were 21.5 and 23.7%, respectively. During the overreaching cycle, strength and power declined in the placebo group (4.3-5.7%), whereas supplementation with HMB-FA/ATP resulted in continued strength gains (1.3%). In conclusion, HMB-FA and ATP in combination with resistance exercise training enhanced LBM, power, and strength. In addition, HMB-FA plus ATP blunted the typical response to overreaching, resulting in a further increase in strength during that period. It seems that the combination of HMB-FA/ATP could benefit those who continuously train at high levels such as elite athletes or military personnel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000482DOI Listing
July 2016

Effects of short-term ingestion of Russian Tarragon prior to creatine monohydrate supplementation on whole body and muscle creatine retention and anaerobic sprint capacity: a preliminary investigation.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2014 Feb 26;11(1). Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Health and Kinesiology, Exercise and Sport Nutrition Lab, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-4243, USA.

Background: Extracts of Russian Tarragon (RT) have been reported to produce anti-hyperglycemic effects and influence plasma creatine (Cr) levels while supplementing with creatine monohydrate (CrM). The purpose of this preliminary study was to determine if short-term, low-dose aqueous RT extract ingestion prior to CrM supplementation influences whole body Cr retention, muscle Cr or measures of anaerobic sprint performance.

Methods: In a double-blind, randomized, and crossover manner; 10 recreationally trained males (20 ± 2 yrs; 179 ± 9 cm; 91.3 ± 34 kg) ingested 500 mg of aqueous RT extract (Finzelberg, Andernach, Germany) or 500 mg placebo 30-minutes prior to ingesting 5 g of CrM (Creapure®, AlzChem AG, Germany) twice per day for 5-days then repeated after a 6-week wash-out period. Urine was collected at baseline and during each of the 5-days of supplementation to determine urine Cr content. Whole body Cr retention was estimated from urine samples. Muscle biopsies were obtained for determination of muscle free Cr content. Participants also performed two 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests prior to and following supplementation for determination of peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and total work (TW). Data were analysed by repeated measures MANOVA.

Results: Whole body daily Cr retention increased in both groups following supplementation (0.0 ± 0.0; 8.2 ± 1.4, 6.5 ± 2.4, 5.6 ± 3.2, 6.1 ± 2.6, 4.8 ± 3.2 g · d-1; p = 0.001) with no differences observed between groups (p = 0.59). After 3 and 5-days of supplementation, respectively, both supplementation protocols demonstrated a significant increase in muscle free Cr content from baseline (4.8 ± 16.7, 15.5 ± 23.6 mmol · kg-1 DW, p = 0.01) with no significant differences observed between groups (p = 0.34). Absolute change in MP (9 ± 57, 35 ± 57 W; p = 0.031), percent change in MP (2.5 ± 10.5, 6.7 ± 10.4%; p = 0.026), absolute change in TW (275 ± 1,700, 1,031 ± 1,721 J; p = 0.032), and percent change in TW (2.5 ± 10.5, 6.6 ± 10.4%; p = 0.027) increased over time in both groups with no differences observed between groups.

Conclusions: Short-term CrM supplementation (10 g · d-1 for 5-days) significantly increased whole body Cr retention and muscle free Cr content. However, ingesting 500 mg of RT 30-min prior to CrM supplementation did not affect whole body Cr retention, muscle free Cr content, or anaerobic sprint capacity in comparison to ingesting CrM with a placebo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-11-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3975968PMC
February 2014

Comparative absorption of curcumin formulations.

Nutr J 2014 Jan 24;13:11. Epub 2014 Jan 24.

Increnovo LLC, 2138 E Lafayette Pl, Milwaukee, WI 53202, USA.

Background: The potential health benefits of curcumin are limited by its poor solubility, low absorption from the gut, rapid metabolism and rapid systemic elimination. The purpose of this study was the comparative measurement of the increases in levels of curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin) and the metabolite tetrahydrocurcumin after oral administration of three different curcumin formulations in comparison to unformulated standard.

Methods: The relative absorption of a curcumin phytosome formulation (CP), a formulation with volatile oils of turmeric rhizome (CTR) and a formulation of curcumin with a combination of hydrophilic carrier, cellulosic derivatives and natural antioxidants (CHC) in comparison to a standardized curcumin mixture (CS) was investigated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover human study in healthy volunteers. Samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS.

Results: Total curcuminoids appearance in the blood was 1.3-fold higher for CTR and 7.9-fold higher for CP in comparison to unformulated CS. CHC showed a 45.9-fold higher absorption over CS and significantly improved absorption over CP (5.8-fold) and CTR (34.9-fold, all p < 0.001).

Conclusion: A formulation of curcumin with a combination of hydrophilic carrier, cellulosic derivatives and natural antioxidants significantly increases curcuminoid appearance in the blood in comparison to unformulated standard curcumin CS, CTR and CP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-13-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3918227PMC
January 2014

The effects of 8 weeks of whey or rice protein supplementation on body composition and exercise performance.

Nutr J 2013 Jun 20;12:86. Epub 2013 Jun 20.

Consumption of moderate amounts of animal-derived protein has been shown to differently influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy during resistance training when compared with nitrogenous and isoenergetic amounts of plant-based protein administered in small to moderate doses. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to determine if the post-exercise consumption of rice protein isolate could increase recovery and elicit adequate changes in body composition compared to equally dosed whey protein isolate if given in large, isocaloric doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-12-86DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698202PMC
June 2013
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