Publications by authors named "Martin Meyer"

220 Publications

Disparities in accessibility to evidence-based breast cancer care facilities by rural and urban areas in Bavaria, Germany.

Cancer 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute of Clinical Epidemiology and Biometry, University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Breast cancer (BC), which is most common in elderly women, requires a multidisciplinary and continuous approach to care. With demographic changes, the number of patients with chronic diseases such as BC will increase. This trend will especially hit rural areas, where the majority of the elderly live, in terms of comprehensive health care.

Methods: Accessibility to several cancer facilities in Bavaria, Germany, was analyzed with a geographic information system. Facilities were identified from the national BC guideline and from 31 participants in a proof-of-concept study from the Breast Cancer Care for Patients With Metastatic Disease registry. The timeframe for accessibility was defined as 30 or 60 minutes for all population points. The collection of address information was performed with different sources (eg, a physician registry). Routine data from the German Census 2011 and the population-based Cancer Registry of Bavaria were linked at the district level.

Results: Females from urban areas (n = 2,938,991 [ie, total of females living in urban areas]) had a higher chance for predefined accessibility to the majority of analyzed facilities in comparison with females from rural areas (n = 3,385,813 [ie, total number of females living in rural areas]) with an odds ratio (OR) of 9.0 for cancer information counselling, an OR of 17.2 for a university hospital, and an OR of 7.2 for a psycho-oncologist. For (inpatient) rehabilitation centers (OR, 0.2) and genetic counselling (OR, 0.3), women from urban areas had lower odds of accessibility within 30 or 60 minutes.

Conclusions: Disparities in accessibility between rural and urban areas exist in Bavaria. The identification of underserved areas can help to inform policymakers about disparities in comprehensive health care. Future strategies are needed to deliver high-quality health care to all inhabitants, regardless of residence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33493DOI Listing
April 2021

Selective attention modulates neural envelope tracking of informationally masked speech in healthy older adults.

Hum Brain Mapp 2021 Mar 30. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Speech understanding in noisy situations is compromised in old age. This study investigated the energetic and informational masking components of multi-talker babble noise and their influence on neural tracking of the speech envelope in a sample of healthy older adults. Twenty-three older adults (age range 65-80 years) listened to an audiobook embedded in noise while their electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded. Energetic masking was manipulated by varying the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between target speech and background talkers and informational masking was manipulated by varying the number of background talkers. Neural envelope tracking was measured by calculating temporal response functions (TRFs) between speech envelope and EEG. Number of background talkers, but not SNR modulated the amplitude of an earlier (around 50 ms time lag) and a later (around 300 ms time lag) peak in the TRFs. Selective attention, but not working memory or peripheral hearing additionally modulated the amplitude of the later TRF peak. Finally, amplitude of the later TRF peak was positively related to accuracy in the comprehension task. The results suggest that stronger envelope tracking is beneficial for speech-in-noise understanding and that selective attention is an important ability supporting speech-in-noise understanding in multi-talker scenes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25415DOI Listing
March 2021

Treatment Effects of Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibodies for Modulating the Systemic Inflammatory Response After Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (The IMICA Trial): A Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Single-Center, Randomized Clinical Trial.

Circulation 2021 Mar 22. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who remain comatose after initial resuscitation are at high risk of morbidity and mortality due to the ensuing post cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS). Systemic inflammation constitutes a major component of PCAS, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are associated with PCAS severity. The IL-6 receptor antagonist tocilizumab could potentially dampen inflammation in PCAS. The objective of the present trial was to determine the efficacy of tocilizumab to reduce systemic inflammation after OHCA of presumed cardiac cause and thereby potentially mitigate organ injury. Eighty comatose OHCA patients were randomized 1:1 in a double-blinded placebo-controlled trial to a single infusion of tocilizumab or placebo in addition to standard of care including targeted temperature management. Blood samples were sequentially drawn during the initial 72h. Primary endpoint: reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP) response from baseline till 72h in patients treated with tocilizumab evaluated by mixed model analysis for a treatment-by-time interaction. Secondary endpoints (main): marker of inflammation: leukocytes, markers of myocardial injury: Creatine Kinase Myocardial Band (CKMB), Troponin T (TnT), and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); marker of brain injury: neuron-specific enolase (NSE); these secondary endpoints were analyzed by mixed model analysis. The primary endpoint of reducing the CRP response by tocilizumab was achieved as there was a significant treatment-by-time interaction, p<0.0001, and a profound effect on CRP levels. Systemic inflammation was reduced by treatment with tocilizumab as both CRP and leukocyte levels were markedly reduced, tocilizumab vs placebo at 24h: -84% [-90%;-76%] and -34% [-46%;-19%] respectively, both p<0.001. Myocardial injury was also reduced documented by reductions in CKMB and TnT; active vs. placebo at 12h: -36% [-54%;-11%] and -38% [-53%;-19%], respectively, both p<0.01. NT-proBNP was similarly reduced by active treatment; tocilizumab vs placebo at 48h: -65% [-80%;-41%], p<0.001. There were no differences in survival or neurological outcome. Treatment with tocilizumab resulted in a significant reduction in systemic inflammation and myocardial injury in comatose resuscitated OHCA patients. URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03863015.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.120.053318DOI Listing
March 2021

How a Depressive Medical Doctor Profited in the Long-Term from a New and Short Psychological Group-Treatment against Major Depressive Disorder.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 Feb 17;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Addictive Disorders, Psychiatric University Clinic Basel, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Individuals suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) often describe workplace-related stress as one of the main causes of their disorder. Here, we present the story of a 33 year old "Bob" (a pseudonym) who suffered from a moderate (Hamilton-21 = 18) major depressive episode. Workplace-related stress seemed to be the main stressor for Bob at the time. We were interested in long-lasting effects of a newly established group called "work-related interpersonal Psychotherapy, W-IPT". W-IPT consists of eight weekly 90 min sessions. The follow-ups were 12 weeks after the group-treatment and 18 months later. Bob was chosen because he agreed in advance to participate in a follow-up. We were interested if the group-treatment of W-IPT also has a persistent positive effect. We present the case of a 33-year-old man "Bob". He was included in our previous published pilot-study 2020 with diagnosed moderate MDD, and he attended the group treatment. This case report focuses on a follow-up period of 18 months. A structured clinical interview for DSM-IV was carried out in order to be included in the study, and no comorbid diagnoses were detected. However, the psychotherapeutic effects in this case seem enduring and prolonged. Of course, additional research to study the long-term effects of W-IPT is needed, and more patients need to be included.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18041925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922573PMC
February 2021

Daily Caffeine Intake Induces Concentration-Dependent Medial Temporal Plasticity in Humans: A Multimodal Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

Cereb Cortex 2021 Feb 15. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Centre for Chronobiology, University Psychiatric Clinics, University of Basel, 4002 Basel, Switzerland.

Caffeine is commonly used to combat high sleep pressure on a daily basis. However, interference with sleep-wake regulation could disturb neural homeostasis and insufficient sleep could lead to alterations in human gray matter. Hence, in this double-blind, randomized, cross-over study, we examined the impact of 10-day caffeine (3 × 150 mg/day) on human gray matter volumes (GMVs) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by fMRI MP-RAGE and arterial spin-labeling sequences in 20 habitual caffeine consumers, compared with 10-day placebo (3 × 150 mg/day). Sleep pressure was quantified by electroencephalographic slow-wave activity (SWA) in the previous nighttime sleep. Nonparametric voxel-based analyses revealed a significant reduction in GMV in the medial temporal lobe (mTL) after 10 days of caffeine intake compared with 10 days of placebo, voxel-wisely adjusted for CBF considering the decreased perfusion after caffeine intake compared with placebo. Larger GMV reductions were associated with higher individual concentrations of caffeine and paraxanthine. Sleep SWA was, however, neither different between conditions nor associated with caffeine-induced GMV reductions. Therefore, the data do not suggest a link between sleep depth during daily caffeine intake and changes in brain morphology. In conclusion, daily caffeine intake might induce neural plasticity in the mTL depending on individual metabolic processes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhab005DOI Listing
February 2021

Neural signatures of syntactic variation in speech planning.

PLoS Biol 2021 Jan 26;19(1):e3001038. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Comparative Language Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Planning to speak is a challenge for the brain, and the challenge varies between and within languages. Yet, little is known about how neural processes react to these variable challenges beyond the planning of individual words. Here, we examine how fundamental differences in syntax shape the time course of sentence planning. Most languages treat alike (i.e., align with each other) the 2 uses of a word like "gardener" in "the gardener crouched" and in "the gardener planted trees." A minority keeps these formally distinct by adding special marking in 1 case, and some languages display both aligned and nonaligned expressions. Exploiting such a contrast in Hindi, we used electroencephalography (EEG) and eye tracking to suggest that this difference is associated with distinct patterns of neural processing and gaze behavior during early planning stages, preceding phonological word form preparation. Planning sentences with aligned expressions induces larger synchronization in the theta frequency band, suggesting higher working memory engagement, and more visual attention to agents than planning nonaligned sentences, suggesting delayed commitment to the relational details of the event. Furthermore, plain, unmarked expressions are associated with larger desynchronization in the alpha band than expressions with special markers, suggesting more engagement in information processing to keep overlapping structures distinct during planning. Our findings contrast with the observation that the form of aligned expressions is simpler, and they suggest that the global preference for alignment is driven not by its neurophysiological effect on sentence planning but by other sources, possibly by aspects of production flexibility and fluency or by sentence comprehension. This challenges current theories on how production and comprehension may affect the evolution and distribution of syntactic variants in the world's languages.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7837500PMC
January 2021

Changing color and intensity of LED lighting across the day impacts on circadian melatonin rhythms and sleep in healthy men.

J Pineal Res 2021 Apr 18;70(3):e12714. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

We examined whether dynamically changing light across a scheduled 16-h waking day influences sleepiness, cognitive performance, visual comfort, melatonin secretion, and sleep under controlled laboratory conditions in healthy men. Fourteen participants underwent a 49-h laboratory protocol in a repeated-measures study design. They spent the first 5 hours in the evening under standard lighting, followed by an 8-h nocturnal sleep episode at habitual bedtimes. Thereafter, volunteers either woke up to static light or to a dynamic light that changed spectrum and intensity across the scheduled 16-h waking day. Following an 8-h nocturnal sleep episode, the volunteers spent another 11 hours either under static or dynamic light. Static light attenuated the evening rise in melatonin levels more compared to dynamic light as indexed by a significant reduction in the melatonin AUC prior to bedtime during static light only. Participants felt less vigilant in the evening during dynamic light. After dynamic light, sleep latency was significantly shorter in both the baseline and treatment night while sleep structure, sleep quality, cognitive performance, and visual comfort did not significantly differ. The study shows that dynamic changes in spectrum and intensity of light promote melatonin secretion and sleep initiation in healthy men.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12714DOI Listing
April 2021

Expert recommendation from the Swiss Amyloidosis Network (SAN) for systemic AL-amyloidosis.

Swiss Med Wkly 2020 Nov 5;150:w20364. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Division of Hematology, Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona, Switzerland.

Systemic amyloidosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases associated with protein misfolding into insoluble beta-sheet rich structures that deposit extracellularly in different organs, eventually compromising their function. There are more than 30 different proteins, known to be amyloidogenic with “light chain” (AL)-amyloidosis being the most common type, followed by transthyretin (ATTR)-, and amyloid protein A (AA)-amyloidosis. Systemic amyloidosis is a rare disease with an incidence of around 10 patients in 1 million inhabitants. Recently several new therapeutic options have been developed for subgroups of amyloidosis patients, and the introduction of novel therapies for plasma cell myeloma has led to an increase in the therapeutic armamentarium for plasma cell disorders, including AL amyloidosis. Among them, proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory agents (-imids), and monoclonal antibodies have been successfully introduced into clinical practice. Still, high-quality data from randomised controlled trials regarding the benefit of these cost-intensive drugs in AL amyloidosis are widely lacking, and due to the rarity of the disease many physicians will not gain routine experience in the management of these frail patients. The diagnosis of AL amyloidosis relies on a close collaboration between clinicians, pathologists, imaging experts, and sometimes geneticists. Diagnosis and treatment options in this complex disorder should be discussed in dedicated multidisciplinary boards. In January 2020, the first meeting of the Swiss Amyloidosis Network took place in Zurich, Switzerland. One aim of this meeting was to establish a consensus guideline regarding the diagnostic work-up and the treatment recommendations for systemic amyloidosis tailored to the Swiss health care system. Forty-five participants from different fields in medicine discussed many aspects of amyloidosis. These are the Swiss Amyloidosis Network recommendations which focus on diagnostic work-up and treatment of AL-amyloidosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2020.20364DOI Listing
November 2020

Extracorporeal life support as bridge to recovery in yew poisoning: case reports and literature review.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Feb 24;8(1):705-709. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Emergency Department, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Aims: This short communication aims to review the treatment of cardiogenic shock in patients with yew poisoning based on two case reports from our institution, focusing on the use of extracorporeal life support (ECLS).

Methods And Results: We report two cases of Taxus baccata poisoning treated with ECLS at our institution and review the literature based on a search in PubMed and Google Scholar on the topic of yew poisoning and ECLS. All cases were combined for analysis of demographics, ECLS therapy, and outcome. Case 1: A 35-year-old woman developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia followed by cardiovascular arrest 5 h after orally ingesting a handful of yew needles. Successful resuscitation required ECLS for 72 h due to ongoing cardiac arrhythmias and cardiogenic shock. The patient left the hospital without neurological sequelae after 10 days. Case 2: A 30-year-old woman developed refractory cardiac arrhythmias and circulatory arrest. Resuscitation included ECLS for 71 h. T. baccata needles found by gastroscopy confirmed the diagnosis. The patient had no neurologic deficits and was transferred to psychiatry after 11 days.

Review Of The Literature: Nine case reports were found and analysed along with our two cases. Five out of the 11 (45%) patients were female. Median (range) age was 28 (19-46) years. T. baccata needles were ingested with a suicidal intention in all patients. Median (range) duration of ECLS was 70 h (24-120 h). Eight (73%) patients had full neurological recovery.

Conclusions: Yew poisoning is a differential diagnosis in young psychiatric patients presenting with polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and cardiogenic shock. A characteristic cardiac contraction pattern in echocardiography may present a diagnostic clue. The early use of ECLS is a valuable bridge to recovery in most of these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12828DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835583PMC
February 2021

Individual Differences in Peripheral Hearing and Cognition Reveal Sentence Processing Differences in Healthy Older Adults.

Front Neurosci 2020 16;14:573513. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

Cognitive and Systems Neuroscience Research Hub, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, Australia.

When viewed cross-sectionally, aging seems to negatively affect speech comprehension. However, aging is a heterogeneous process, and variability among older adults is typically large. In this study, we investigated language comprehension as a function of individual differences in older adults. Specifically, we tested whether hearing thresholds, working memory, inhibition, and individual alpha frequency would predict event-related potential amplitudes in response to classic psycholinguistic manipulations at the sentence level. Twenty-nine healthy older adults (age range 61-76 years) listened to English sentences containing reduced relative clauses and object-relative clauses while their electroencephalogram was recorded. We found that hearing thresholds and working memory predicted P600 amplitudes early during reduced relative clause processing, while individual alpha frequency predicted P600 amplitudes at a later point in time. The results suggest that participants with better hearing and larger working memory capacity simultaneously activated both the preferred and the dispreferred interpretation of reduced relative clauses, while participants with worse hearing and smaller working memory capacity only activated the preferred interpretation. They also suggest that participants with a higher individual alpha frequency had a higher likelihood of successfully reanalysing the sentence toward the reduced relative clause reading than participants with a lower individual alpha frequency. By contrast, we found no relationship between object-relative clause processing and working memory or hearing thresholds. Taken together, the results support the view that older adults employ different strategies during auditory sentence processing dependent on their hearing and cognitive abilities and that there is no single ability that uniformly predicts sentence processing outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2020.573513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596743PMC
October 2020

Combined high-throughput library screening and next generation RNA sequencing uncover microRNAs controlling human cardiac fibroblast biology.

J Mol Cell Cardiol 2021 01 28;150:91-100. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Institute of Molecular and Translational Therapeutic Strategies (IMTTS), Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; REBIRTH Excellence Cluster, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Myocardial fibrosis is a hallmark of the failing heart, contributing to the most common causes of deaths worldwide. Several microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) controlling cardiac fibrosis were identified in recent years; however, a more global approach to identify miRNAs involved in fibrosis is missing.

Methods And Results: Functional miRNA mimic library screens were applied in human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs) to identify annotated miRNAs inducing proliferation. In parallel, miRNA deep sequencing was performed after subjecting HCFs to proliferating and resting stimuli, additionally enabling discovery of novel miRNAs. In-depth in vitro analysis confirmed the pro-fibrotic nature of selected, highly conserved miRNAs miR-20a-5p and miR-132-3p. To determine downstream cellular pathways and their role in the fibrotic response, targets of the annotated miRNA candidates were modulated by synthetic siRNA. We here provide evidence that repression of autophagy and detoxification of reactive oxygen species by miR-20a-5p and miR-132-3p explain some of their pro-fibrotic nature on a mechanistic level.

Conclusion: We here identified both miR-20a-5p and miR-132-3p as crucial regulators of fibrotic pathways in an in vitro model of human cardiac fibroblast biology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yjmcc.2020.10.008DOI Listing
January 2021

An Alcohol Dehydrogenase 3 (ADH3) from Is Involved in the Detoxification of Toxic Aldehydes.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 19;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

Recently, a putative alcohol dehydrogenase 3, termed EhADH3B of the isolate HM-1:IMSS was identified, which is expressed at higher levels in non-pathogenic than in pathogenic amoebae and whose overexpression reduces the virulence of pathogenic amoebae. In an analysis performed in this study, we assigned EhADH3B to a four-member ADH3 family, with present as a duplicate (/). In long-term laboratory cultures a mutation was identified at position 496 of , which codes for a stop codon, which was not the case for amoebae isolated from human stool samples. When using transfectants that overexpress or silence , we found no or little effect on growth, size, erythrophagocytosis, motility, hemolytic or cysteine peptidase activity. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant EhADH3B revealed that this protein forms a dimer containing Ni or Zn as a co-factor and that the enzyme converts acetaldehyde and formaldehyde in the presence of NADPH. A catalytic activity based on alcohols as substrates was not detected. Based on the results, we postulate that EhADH3B can reduce free acetaldehyde released by hydrolysis from bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase-bound thiohemiacetal and that it is involved in detoxification of toxic aldehydes produced by the host or the gut microbiota.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594077PMC
October 2020

Interleukin-6 Receptor Antibodies for Modulating the Systemic Inflammatory Response after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (IMICA): study protocol for a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, single-center, randomized clinical trial.

Trials 2020 Oct 20;21(1):868. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital - Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients who remain comatose at admission are at high risk of morbidity and mortality. This has been attributed to the post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) which encompasses multiple interacting components, including systemic inflammation. Elevated levels of circulating interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is associated with worse outcomes in OHCA patients, including higher vasopressor requirements and higher mortality rates. In this study, we aim to reduce systemic inflammation after OHCA by administering a single infusion of tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor antibody approved for use for other indications.

Methods: Investigator-initiated, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, single-center, randomized clinical trial in comatose OHCA patients admitted to an intensive cardiac care unit. Brief inclusion criteria: OHCA of presumed cardiac cause, persistent unconsciousness, age ≥ 18 years.

Intervention: 80 patients will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to a single 1-h intravenous infusion of either tocilizumab or placebo (NaCl). During the study period, patients will receive standard of care, including sedation and targeted temperature management of 36 ° for at least 24 h, vasopressors and/or inotropes as/if needed, prophylactic antibiotics, and any additional treatment at the discretion of the treating physician. Blood samples are drawn for measurements of biomarkers included in the primary and secondary endpoints during the initial 72 h. Primary endpoint: reduction in C-reactive protein (CRP). Secondary endpoints (abbreviated): cytokine levels, markers of brain, cardiac, kidney and liver damage, hemodynamic and hemostatic function, adverse events, and follow-up assessment of cerebral function and mortality.

Discussion: We hypothesize that reducing the effect of circulating IL-6 by administering an IL-6 receptor antibody will mitigate the systemic inflammatory response and thereby modify the severity of PCAS, in turn leading to lessened vasopressor use, more normal hemodynamics, and better organ function. This will be assessed by primarily focusing on hemodynamics and biomarkers of organ damage during the initial 72 h. In addition, pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines will be measured to assess if cytokine patterns are modulated by IL-6 receptor blockage.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03863015 ; submitted February 22, 2019, first posted March 5, 2019. EudraCT: 2018-002686-19; date study was authorized to proceed: November 7, 2018.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04783-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574300PMC
October 2020

Wide awake at bedtime? Effects of caffeine on sleep and circadian timing in male adolescents - A randomized crossover trial.

Biochem Pharmacol 2020 Oct 15:114283. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Transfaculty Research Platform Molecular and Cognitive Neurosciences, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Adolescents often suffer from short and mistimed sleep. To counteract the resulting daytime sleepiness they frequently consume caffeine. However, caffeine intake may exaggerate sleep problems by disturbing sleep and circadian timing. In a 28-hour double-blind randomized crossover study, we investigated to what extent caffeine disturbs slow-wave sleep (SWS) and delays circadian timing in teenagers. Following a 6-day ambulatory phase of caffeine abstinence and fixed sleep-wake cycles, 18 male teenagers (14-17 years old) ingested 80 mg caffeine vs. placebo in the laboratory four hours prior to an electro-encephalographically (EEG) recorded nighttime sleep episode. Data were analyzed using both frequentist and Bayesian statistics. The analyses suggest that subjective sleepiness is reduced after caffeine compared to placebo. However, we did not observe a strong caffeine-induced reduction in subjective sleep quality or SWS, but rather a high inter-individual variability in caffeine-induced SWS changes. Exploratory analyses suggest that particularly those individuals with a higher level of SWS during placebo reduced SWS in response to caffeine. Regarding salivary melatonin onsets, caffeine-induced delays were not evident at group level, and only observed in participants exposed to a higher caffeine dose relative to individual bodyweight (i.e., a dose > 1.3 mg/kg). Together, the results suggest that 80 mg caffeine are sufficient to induce alertness at a subjective level. However, particularly teenagers with a strong need for deep sleep might pay for these subjective benefits by a loss of SWS during the night. Thus, caffeine-induced sleep-disruptions might change along with the maturation of sleep need.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2020.114283DOI Listing
October 2020

Learning steers the ontogeny of an efficient hunting sequence in zebrafish larvae.

Elife 2020 08 10;9. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, MRC Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

Goal-directed behaviors may be poorly coordinated in young animals but, with age and experience, behavior progressively adapts to efficiently exploit the animal's ecological niche. How experience impinges on the developing neural circuits of behavior is an open question. We have conducted a detailed study of the effects of experience on the ontogeny of hunting behavior in larval zebrafish. We report that larvae with prior experience of live prey consume considerably more prey than naive larvae. This is mainly due to increased capture success and a modest increase in hunt rate. We demonstrate that the initial turn to prey and the final capture manoeuvre of the hunting sequence were jointly modified by experience and that modification of these components predicted capture success. Our findings establish an ethologically relevant paradigm in zebrafish for studying how the brain is shaped by experience to drive the ontogeny of efficient behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561354PMC
August 2020

Combining neurofeedback with source estimation: Evaluation of an sLORETA neurofeedback protocol for chronic tinnitus treatment.

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2020 ;38(4):283-299

Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Alpha/delta neurofeedback has been shown to be a potential treatment option for chronic subjective tinnitus. Traditional neurofeedback approaches working with a handful of surface electrodes have been criticized, however, due to their low spatial specificity.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate an innovative tomographic neurofeedback protocol that combines neural activity measured across the whole scalp with sLORETA source estimation.

Methods: Forty-eight tinnitus patients participated in 15 neurofeedback training sessions as well as extensive pre, post, and follow-up testing. Patients were randomly assigned to either a tomographic (TONF) or a traditional electrode-based neurofeedback (NTNF) group. Main outcome measures of this study were defined as tinnitus-related distress measured with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), tinnitus loudness, and resting-state EEG activity in trained frequency bands.

Results: For both groups a significant reduction of tinnitus-related distress and tinnitus loudness was found. While distress changes remained persistent irrespective of group, loudness levels returned to baseline in the follow-up period. No significant between-group differences between the 2 neurofeedback applications (TONF vs. NTNF) were found, which suggests a similar contribution to symptom improvement. The trained alpha/delta ratio increased significantly over the course of the training and remained stable in the follow-up period. This effect was found irrespective of group on both surface and source levels with no meaningful differences between the 2 groups.

Conclusions: Our study shows that a tomographic alpha/delta protocol should be considered a promising addition to tinnitus treatment but that more individually specific neurofeedback protocols should be developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-200992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592665PMC
January 2020

Point-of-care testing system for digital single cell detection of MRSA directly from nasal swabs.

Lab Chip 2020 07;20(14):2549-2561

Hahn-Schickard, Georges-Koehler-Allee 103, 79110 Freiburg, Germany.

We present an automated point-of-care testing (POCT) system for rapid detection of species- and resistance markers in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at the level of single cells, directly from nasal swab samples. Our novel system allows clear differentiation between MRSA, methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS), which is not the case for currently used real-time quantitative PCR based systems. On top, the novel approach outcompetes the culture-based methods in terms of its short time-to-result (1 h vs. up to 60 h) and reduces manual labor. The walk-away test is fully automated on the centrifugal microfluidic LabDisk platform. The LabDisk cartridge comprises the unit operations swab-uptake, reagent pre-storage, distribution of the sample into 20 000 droplets, specific enzymatic lysis of Staphylococcus spp. and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) of species (vicK) - and resistance (mecA) -markers. LabDisk actuation, incubation and multi-channel fluorescence detection is demonstrated with a clinical isolate and spiked nasal swab samples down to a limit of detection (LOD) of 3 ± 0.3 CFU μl-1 for MRSA. The novel approach of the digital single cell detection is suggested to improve hospital admission screening, timely decision making, and goal-oriented antibiotic therapy. The implementation of a higher degree of multiplexing is required to translate the results into clinical practice.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00294aDOI Listing
July 2020

Accounting for Heterogeneity: Mixed-Effects Models in Resting-State EEG Data in a Sample of Tinnitus Sufferers.

Brain Topogr 2020 07 23;33(4):413-424. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Chair of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Binzmühlestr. 14/25, 8050, Zurich, Switzerland.

In neuroscience, neural oscillations and other features of brain activity recorded by electroencephalography (EEG) are typically statistically assessed on the basis of the study's population mean to identify possible blueprints for healthy subjects, or subjects with diagnosable neurological or psychiatric disorders. Despite some inter-individual similarities, there is reason to believe that a discernible portion of the individual brain activity is subject-specific. In order to encompass the potential individual source of variance in EEG data and psychometric parameters, we introduce an innovative application of linear mixed-effects models (LMM) as an alternative procedure for the analysis of resting-state EEG data. Using LMM, individual differences can be modelled through the assumptions of idiosyncrasy of all responses and dependency among data points (e.g., from the same subject within and across units of time) via random effects parameters. This report provides an example of how LMM can be used for the statistical analysis of resting-state EEG data in a heterogeneous group of subjects; namely, people who suffer from tinnitus (ringing in the ear/s). Results from 49 participants (38 male, mean age of 46.69 ± 12.65 years) revealed that EEG signals were not only associated with specific recording sites, but exhibited regional specific oscillations in conjunction to symptom severity. Tinnitus distress targeted the frequency bands beta3 (23.5-35 Hz) and gamma (35.5-45 Hz) in right frontal regions, whereas delta (0.5-4 Hz) exhibited significant changes in temporal-parietal sources. Further, 57.8% of the total variance in EEG power was subject-specific and acknowledged by the LMM framework and its prediction. Thus, a deeper understanding of both the underlying statistical and physiological patterns of EEG data was gained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10548-020-00772-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7293675PMC
July 2020

Development and proof-of-concept of a multicenter, patient-centered cancer registry for breast cancer patients with metastatic disease-the "Breast cancer care for patients with metastatic disease" (BRE-4-MED) registry.

Pilot Feasibility Stud 2020 4;6:11. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.

Background: Patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) are treated with a palliative approach with focus on controlling for disease symptoms and maintaining high quality of life. Information on individual needs of patients and their relatives as well as on treatment patterns in clinical routine care for this specific patient group are lacking or are not routinely documented in established Cancer Registries. Thus, we developed a registry concept specifically adapted for these incurable patients comprising primary and secondary data as well as mobile-health (m-health) data.

Methods: The concept for patient-centered "Breast cancer care for patients with metastatic disease" (BRE-4-MED) registry was developed and piloted exemplarily in the region of Main-Franconia, a mainly rural region in Germany comprising about 1.3 M inhabitants. The registry concept includes data on diagnosis, therapy, progression, patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs), and needs of family members from several sources of information including routine data from established Cancer Registries in different federal states, treating physicians in hospital as well as in outpatient settings, patients with metastatic breast cancer and their family members. Linkage with routine cancer registry data was performed to collect secondary data on diagnosis, therapy, and progression. Paper and online-based questionnaires were used to assess PROMs. A dedicated mobile application software (APP) was developed to monitor needs, progression, and therapy change of individual patients. Patient's acceptance and feasibility of data collection in clinical routine was assessed within a proof-of-concept study.

Results: The concept for the BRE-4-MED registry was developed and piloted between September 2017 and May 2018. In total = 31 patients were included in the pilot study, = 22 patients were followed up after 1 month. Record linkage with the Cancer Registries of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg demonstrated to be feasible. The voluntary APP/online questionnaire was used by = 7 participants. The feasibility of the registry concept in clinical routine was positively evaluated by the participating hospitals.

Conclusion: The concept of the BRE-4-MED registry provides evidence that combinatorial evaluation of PROMs, needs of family members, and raising clinical parameters from primary and secondary data sources as well as m-health applications are feasible and accepted in an incurable cancer collective.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40814-019-0541-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7001276PMC
February 2020

Primary cardiac lymphoma.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 07;21(7):816

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center, University Hospital Zurich, University of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeaa014DOI Listing
July 2020

Ecological Momentary Assessment based Differences between Android and iOS Users of the TrackYourHearing mHealth Crowdsensing Platform.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2019 Jul;2019:3951-3955

mHealth technologies are increasingly utilized in various medical contexts. Mobile crowdsensing is such a technology, which is often used for data collection scenarios related to questions on chronic disorders. One prominent reason for the latter setting is based on the fact that powerful Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) can be performed. Notably, when mobile crowdsensing solutions are used to integrate EMA measurements, many new challenges arise. For example, the measurements must be provided in the same way on different mobile operating systems. However, the newly given possibilities can surpass the challenges. For example, if different mobile operating systems must be technically provided, one direction could be to investigate whether users of different mobile operating systems pose a different behaviour when performing EMA measurements. In a previous work, we investigated differences between iOS and Android users from the TrackYourTinnitus mHealth crowdsensing platform, which has the goal to reveal insights on the daily fluctuations of tinnitus patients. In this work, we investigated differences between iOS and Android users from the TrackYourHearing mHealth crowdsensing platform, which aims at insights on the daily fluctuations of patients with hearing loss. We analyzed 3767 EMA measurements based on a daily applied questionnaire of 84 patients. Statistical analyses have been conducted to see whether these 84 patients differ with respect to the used mobile operating system and their given answers to the EMA measurements. We present the obtained results and compare them to the previous mentioned study. Our insights show the differences in the two studies and that the overall results are worth being investigated in a more in-depth manner. Particularly, it must be investigated whether the used mobile operating system constitutes a confounder when gathering EMA-based data through a crowdsensing platform.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2019.8857854DOI Listing
July 2019

A stochastic framework of neurogenesis underlies the assembly of neocortical cytoarchitecture.

Elife 2019 11 18;8. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Centre for Developmental Neurobiology, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, United Kingdom.

The cerebral cortex contains multiple areas with distinctive cytoarchitectonic patterns, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the emergence of this diversity remain unclear. Here, we have investigated the neuronal output of individual progenitor cells in the developing mouse neocortex using a combination of methods that together circumvent the biases and limitations of individual approaches. Our experimental results indicate that progenitor cells generate pyramidal cell lineages with a wide range of sizes and laminar configurations. Mathematical modeling indicates that these outcomes are compatible with a stochastic model of cortical neurogenesis in which progenitor cells undergo a series of probabilistic decisions that lead to the specification of very heterogeneous progenies. Our findings support a mechanism for cortical neurogenesis whose flexibility would make it capable to generate the diverse cytoarchitectures that characterize distinct neocortical areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.51381DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968929PMC
November 2019

Toxicological diagnosis by echocardiography.

Eur Heart J 2020 03;41(11):1215

Department of Cardiology, University Heart Centre, University Hospital Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, CH-8091 Zürich, Switzerland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehz790DOI Listing
March 2020

"Endothelial Dysfunction in Resuscitated Cardiac Arrest (ENDO-RCA): Safety and efficacy of low-dose Iloprost, a prostacyclin analogue, in addition to standard therapy, as compared to standard therapy alone, in post-cardiac-arrest-syndrome patients."

Am Heart J 2020 01 21;219:9-20. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Section for Transfusion Medicine, Blood Bank, Rigshospitalet, 2034, Blegdamsvej 9, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark. Electronic address:

Objective: An increasingly recognized prognostic factor for out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest (OHCA) patients is the ischemia-reperfusion injury after restored blood circulation. Endothelial injury is common in patients resuscitated from cardiac arrest and is associated with poor outcome. This study was designed to investigate if iloprost infusion, a prostacyclin analogue, reduces endothelial damage in OHCA patients.

Methods: 50 patients were randomized in a placebo controlled double-blinded trial and allocated 1:2 to 48-hours iloprost infusion, (1 ng/kg/min) or placebo (saline infusion). Endothelial biomarkers (soluble thrombomodulin (sTM), sE-selectin, syndecan-1, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (sVEGF), vascular endothelial cadherine (VEcad), nucleosomes) and sympathoadrenal activation (epinephrine/norepinephrine) from baseline to 48 and 96-hours were evaluated.

Results: Iloprost infusion did not influence endothelial biomarkers by the 48-hour endpoint. A rebound effect was observed with higher biomarker plasma values in the iloprost group (sTM p=0.02; Syndecan p=0.004; nucleosomes p<0.001; VEcad p<0.03) after 96-hours. There was a significant difference in 180-day mortality in favor of placebo. There was no difference regarding total adverse events between groups (p=0.73). Two patients were withdrawn in the iloprost group due to hypotension.

Conclusions: The administration of low-dose iloprost (1ng/kg/min) to OHCA patients did not significantly influence endothelial biomarkers as measured by the 48- hour endpoint. A rebound effect was however observed in the 96-hour statistical model, with increasing endothelial biomarker levels after cessation of the iloprost-infusion.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.10.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Cortical thickness of left Heschl's gyrus correlates with hearing acuity in adults - A surface-based morphometry study.

Hear Res 2019 12 18;384:107823. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

University of Zurich, Neuropsychology Division, Department of Psychology, Zurich, Switzerland; Tinnituszentrum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin, Berlin, Germany.

To date, research examining the relationship between brain structure and hearing acuity is sparse, especially given the context of a broad age range. To investigate this relationship, we applied an automated surface-based morphometry (SBM) approach (FreeSurfer) in this study to re-examine a sample of normal-hearing (n = 17) and hearing-impaired (n = 17) age- and education-matched adults, aged between 20 and 63 years (Alfandari et al., 2018). The SBM approach allows the disentanglement of cortical surface area (CSA) from cortical thickness (CT), the 2 independent constituents of cortical volume (CV). We extend the findings of Alfandari and colleagues by showing several clusters in auditory-related areas as well as in the left and right angular gyrus that showed reduced CT, CSA and CV in hearing-impaired compared to normal-hearing listeners. Nevertheless, none of the clusters found correlated significantly with hearing acuity, measured by pure-tone thresholds, in the 2 groups. An additional vertex-wise correlation analysis between hearing acuity and morphometric parameters over all participants revealed a single significant cluster encompassing the left Heschl's gyrus. Higher hearing thresholds were associated with a thinner cortex within this cluster. Our results imply that hearing impairment is associated with reduced thickness in primary and secondary auditory cortex regions, those regions especially involved in perceiving and processing relevant speech cues. This decrease was observed not only in older but also in younger and middle-aged adults, independent of age-related decline in the cognitive domain and age-dependent whole-brain atrophy. Further, the results show the value added when considering CV, CT and CSA separately, relative to previous studies which have solely relied on voxel-based morphometry to investigate brain structure and hearing acuity across the lifespan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heares.2019.107823DOI Listing
December 2019

Bayesian inference of neuronal assemblies.

PLoS Comput Biol 2019 10 31;15(10):e1007481. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Center for Developmental Neurobiology & MRC Center for Neurodevelopmental Disorders, King's College London, Guy's Hospital Campus, London, United Kingdom.

In many areas of the brain, both spontaneous and stimulus-evoked activity can manifest as synchronous activation of neuronal assemblies. The characterization of assembly structure and dynamics provides important insights into how brain computations are distributed across neural networks. The proliferation of experimental techniques for recording the activity of neuronal assemblies calls for a comprehensive statistical method to describe, analyze and characterize these high dimensional datasets. The performance of existing methods for defining assemblies is sensitive to noise and stochasticity in neuronal firing patterns and assembly heterogeneity. To address these problems, we introduce a generative hierarchical model of synchronous activity to describe the organization of neurons into assemblies. Unlike existing methods, our analysis provides a simultaneous estimation of assembly composition, dynamics and within-assembly statistical features, such as the levels of activity, noise and assembly synchrony. We have used our method to characterize population activity throughout the tectum of larval zebrafish, allowing us to make statistical inference on the spatiotemporal organization of tectal assemblies, their composition and the logic of their interactions. We have also applied our method to functional imaging and neuropixels recordings from the mouse, allowing us to relate the activity of identified assemblies to specific behaviours such as running or changes in pupil diameter.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1007481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6850560PMC
October 2019

Targeted knockout of GABA-A receptor gamma 2 subunit provokes transient light-induced reflex seizures in zebrafish larvae.

Dis Model Mech 2019 11 11;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Research Center of the University of Montreal Hospital Center (CRCHUM), Department of Neurosciences, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H2X 0A9, Canada

Epilepsy is a common primary neurological disorder characterized by the chronic tendency of a patient to experience epileptic seizures, which are abnormal body movements or cognitive states that result from excessive, hypersynchronous brain activity. Epilepsy has been found to have numerous etiologies and, although about two-thirds of epilepsies were classically considered idiopathic, the majority of those are now believed to be of genetic origin. Mutations in genes involved in gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory neurotransmission have been associated with a broad range of epilepsy syndromes. Mutations in the GABA-A receptor gamma 2 subunit gene (), for example, have been associated with absence epilepsy and febrile seizures in humans. Several rodent models of loss of function depict clinical features of the disease; however, alternative genetic models more amenable for the study of ictogenesis and for high-throughput screening purposes are still needed. In this context, we generated a knockout (KO) zebrafish model (which we called R23X) that displayed light/dark-induced reflex seizures. Through high-resolution calcium imaging of the brain, we showed that this phenotype is associated with widespread increases in neuronal activity that can be effectively alleviated by the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid. Moreover, these seizures only occur at the larval stages but disappear after 1 week of age. Interestingly, our whole-transcriptome analysis showed that KO does not alter the expression of genes in the larval brain. As a result, the zebrafish is a novel genetic model of early epilepsies that opens new doors to investigate ictogenesis and for further drug-screening assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.040782DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6899022PMC
November 2019

Bridging the brain structure-brain function gap in prosodic speech processing in older adults.

Neurobiol Aging 2019 08 3;80:116-126. Epub 2019 May 3.

Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, Psychological Institute, Zürich, Switzerland; Tinnitus-Centre, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Age-related decline in speech perception may result in difficulties partaking in spoken conversation and potentially lead to social isolation and cognitive decline in older adults. It is therefore important to better understand how age-related differences in neurostructural factors such as cortical thickness (CT) and cortical surface area (CSA) are related to neurophysiological sensitivity to speech cues in younger and older adults. Age-related differences in CT and CSA of bilateral auditory-related areas were extracted using FreeSurfer in younger and older adults with normal peripheral hearing. Behavioral and neurophysiological sensitivity to prosodic speech cues (word stress and fundamental frequency of oscillation) was evaluated using discrimination tasks and a passive oddball paradigm, while EEG was recorded, to quantify mismatch negativity responses. Results revealed (a) higher neural sensitivity (i.e., larger mismatch negativity responses) to word stress in older adults compared to younger adults, suggesting a higher importance of prosodic speech cues in the speech processing of older adults, and (b) lower CT in auditory-related regions in older compared to younger individuals, suggesting neuronal loss associated with aging. Within the older age group, less neuronal loss (i.e., higher CT) in a right auditory-related area (i.e., the supratemporal sulcus) was related to better performance in fundamental frequency discrimination, while higher CSA in left auditory-related areas was associated with higher neural sensitivity toward prosodic speech cues as evident in the mismatch negativity patterns. Overall, our results offer evidence for neurostructural changes in aging that are associated with differences in the extent to which left and right auditory-related areas are involved in speech processing in older adults. We argue that exploring age-related differences in brain structure and function associated with decline in speech perception in older adults may help develop much needed rehabilitation strategies for older adults with central age-related hearing loss.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.04.017DOI Listing
August 2019

Investigating the Efficacy of an Individualized Alpha/Delta Neurofeedback Protocol in the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus.

Neural Plast 2019 26;2019:3540898. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Division of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

First attempts have demonstrated that the application of alpha/delta neurofeedback in the treatment of chronic tinnitus leads to a reduction of symptoms at the group level. However, recent research also suggests that chronic tinnitus is a decidedly heterogeneous phenomenon, one that requires treatment of distinct subgroups or even on an individual level. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate an individually adjusted alpha/delta neurofeedback protocol. Following previous studies, the delta band fixed between 3 and 4 Hz was chosen as the frequency for inhibition. However, unlike the previous studies, the frequency range for the rewarded alpha band was not fixed between 8 and 12 Hz but rather individually determined according to each patient's specific alpha peak frequency (IAF). Twenty-six chronic tinnitus patients participated in 15 weekly neurofeedback training sessions and extensive pre- and post-tests, as well as follow-up testing 3 and 6 months after training. The main outcome measures were tinnitus-related distress measured with the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ), tinnitus loudness, and pre- and post-training resting-state EEG activity in trained frequency bands. In Results, the neurofeedback protocol led to a significant reduction of tinnitus-related distress and tinnitus loudness. While distress remained on a low level even 6 months after the completion of training, loudness returned to baseline levels in the follow-up period. In addition, resting-state EEG activity showed an increase in the trained alpha/delta ratio over the course of the training. This ratio increase was related to training-induced changes of tinnitus-related distress as measured with TQ, mainly due to increases in the alpha frequency range. In sum, this study confirms the alpha/delta neurofeedback as a suitable option for the treatment of chronic tinnitus and represents a first step towards the development of individual neurofeedback protocols. This clinical trial was registered online at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02383147) and kofam.ch (SNCTP000001313).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3540898DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6458878PMC
December 2019