Publications by authors named "Martin G Bialer"

14 Publications

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CHD3 helicase domain mutations cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome with macrocephaly and impaired speech and language.

Nat Commun 2018 11 5;9(1):4619. Epub 2018 Nov 5.

AP-HP, Hôpital de la Pitié-Salpêtrière, Département de Génétique, Paris, 75013, France.

Chromatin remodeling is of crucial importance during brain development. Pathogenic alterations of several chromatin remodeling ATPases have been implicated in neurodevelopmental disorders. We describe an index case with a de novo missense mutation in CHD3, identified during whole genome sequencing of a cohort of children with rare speech disorders. To gain a comprehensive view of features associated with disruption of this gene, we use a genotype-driven approach, collecting and characterizing 35 individuals with de novo CHD3 mutations and overlapping phenotypes. Most mutations cluster within the ATPase/helicase domain of the encoded protein. Modeling their impact on the three-dimensional structure demonstrates disturbance of critical binding and interaction motifs. Experimental assays with six of the identified mutations show that a subset directly affects ATPase activity, and all but one yield alterations in chromatin remodeling. We implicate de novo CHD3 mutations in a syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, macrocephaly, and impaired speech and language.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06014-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6218476PMC
November 2018

Prenatal sonographic findings in a case of Wolman's disease.

J Clin Ultrasound 2018 Jan 4;46(1):66-68. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY.

No published case of Wolman's disease has described the prenatal sonographic findings. We present a case in which a third-trimester sonographic examination demonstrated fetal hepatomegaly and bilateral adrenal echogenicity suggestive of diffuse calcification. Wolman's disease, also known as lysosomal acid lipase (LIPA) deficiency, is a rare autosomal-recessive disorder characterized by complete absence of the LIPA enzyme. The diagnosis of Wolman's disease was made postnatally by biochemical testing, which indicated absence of LIPA enzyme activity and gene sequencing, which confirmed homozygosity for the G66V mutation within the LIPA gene. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 46:66-68, 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcu.22481DOI Listing
January 2018

High Incidence of Noonan Syndrome Features Including Short Stature and Pulmonic Stenosis in Patients carrying NF1 Missense Mutations Affecting p.Arg1809: Genotype-Phenotype Correlation.

Hum Mutat 2015 Nov 21;36(11):1052-63. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the most frequent genetic disorders, affecting 1:3,000 worldwide. Identification of genotype-phenotype correlations is challenging because of the wide range clinical variability, the progressive nature of the disorder, and extreme diversity of the mutational spectrum. We report 136 individuals with a distinct phenotype carrying one of five different NF1 missense mutations affecting p.Arg1809. Patients presented with multiple café-au-lait macules (CALM) with or without freckling and Lisch nodules, but no externally visible plexiform neurofibromas or clear cutaneous neurofibromas were found. About 25% of the individuals had Noonan-like features. Pulmonic stenosis and short stature were significantly more prevalent compared with classic cohorts (P < 0.0001). Developmental delays and/or learning disabilities were reported in over 50% of patients. Melanocytes cultured from a CALM in a segmental NF1-patient showed two different somatic NF1 mutations, p.Arg1809Cys and a multi-exon deletion, providing genetic evidence that p.Arg1809Cys is a loss-of-function mutation in the melanocytes and causes a pigmentary phenotype. Constitutional missense mutations at p.Arg1809 affect 1.23% of unrelated NF1 probands in the UAB cohort, therefore this specific NF1 genotype-phenotype correlation will affect counseling and management of a significant number of patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5049609PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22832DOI Listing
November 2015

PDE3A mutations cause autosomal dominant hypertension with brachydactyly.

Nat Genet 2015 Jun 11;47(6):647-53. Epub 2015 May 11.

Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), a joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine in the Helmholtz Association (MDC), Berlin, Germany.

Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death worldwide, and hypertension is the major risk factor. Mendelian hypertension elucidates mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. Here we report six missense mutations in PDE3A (encoding phosphodiesterase 3A) in six unrelated families with mendelian hypertension and brachydactyly type E (HTNB). The syndrome features brachydactyly type E (BDE), severe salt-independent but age-dependent hypertension, an increased fibroblast growth rate, neurovascular contact at the rostral-ventrolateral medulla, altered baroreflex blood pressure regulation and death from stroke before age 50 years when untreated. In vitro analyses of mesenchymal stem cell-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and chondrocytes provided insights into molecular pathogenesis. The mutations increased protein kinase A-mediated PDE3A phosphorylation and resulted in gain of function, with increased cAMP-hydrolytic activity and enhanced cell proliferation. Levels of phosphorylated VASP were diminished, and PTHrP levels were dysregulated. We suggest that the identified PDE3A mutations cause the syndrome. VSMC-expressed PDE3A deserves scrutiny as a therapeutic target for the treatment of hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3302DOI Listing
June 2015

Recurrent HERV-H-mediated 3q13.2-q13.31 deletions cause a syndrome of hypotonia and motor, language, and cognitive delays.

Hum Mutat 2013 Oct 13;34(10):1415-23. Epub 2013 Aug 13.

Signature Genomic Laboratories, PerkinElmer, Inc, Spokane, Washington.

We describe the molecular and clinical characterization of nine individuals with recurrent, 3.4-Mb, de novo deletions of 3q13.2-q13.31 detected by chromosomal microarray analysis. All individuals have hypotonia and language and motor delays; they variably express mild to moderate cognitive delays (8/9), abnormal behavior (7/9), and autism spectrum disorders (3/9). Common facial features include downslanting palpebral fissures with epicanthal folds, a slightly bulbous nose, and relative macrocephaly. Twenty-eight genes map to the deleted region, including four strong candidate genes, DRD3, ZBTB20, GAP43, and BOC, with important roles in neural and/or muscular development. Analysis of the breakpoint regions based on array data revealed directly oriented human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-H) elements of ~5 kb in size and of >95% DNA sequence identity flanking the deletion. Subsequent DNA sequencing revealed different deletion breakpoints and suggested nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) between HERV-H elements as a mechanism of deletion formation, analogous to HERV-I-flanked and NAHR-mediated AZFa deletions. We propose that similar HERV elements may also mediate other recurrent deletion and duplication events on a genome-wide scale. Observation of rare recurrent chromosomal events such as these deletions helps to further the understanding of mechanisms behind naturally occurring variation in the human genome and its contribution to genetic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.22384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4599348PMC
October 2013

Cholesteryl ester storage disease: review of the findings in 135 reported patients with an underdiagnosed disease.

J Hepatol 2013 Jun 26;58(6):1230-43. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Division of Medical Genetics, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, 1554 Northern Boulevard, Suite 204, Manhasset, NY 11030, United States.

Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is caused by deficient lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity, predominantly resulting in cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, particularly in the liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body. The disease is characterized by microvesicular steatosis leading to liver failure, accelerated atherosclerosis and premature demise. Although CESD is rare, it is likely that many patients are unrecognized or misdiagnosed. Here, the findings in 135 CESD patients described in the literature are reviewed. Diagnoses were based on liver biopsies, LAL deficiency and/or LAL gene (LIPA) mutations. Hepatomegaly was present in 99.3% of patients; 74% also had splenomegaly. When reported, most patients had elevated serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and transaminases (AST, ALT, or both), while HDL-cholesterol was decreased. All 112 liver biopsied patients had the characteristic pathology, which is progressive, and includes microvesicular steatosis, which leads to fibrosis, micronodular cirrhosis, and ultimately to liver failure. Pathognomonic birefringent CE crystals or their remnant clefts were observed in hepatic cells. Extrahepatic manifestations included portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Liver failure in 17 reported patients resulted in liver transplantation and/or death. Genotyping identified 31 LIPA mutations in 55 patients; 61% of mutations were the common exon 8 splice-junction mutation (E8SJM(-1G>A)), for which 18 patients were homozygous. Genotype/phenotype correlations were limited; however, E8SJM(-1G>A) homozygotes typically had early-onset, slowly progressive disease. Supportive treatment included cholestyramine, statins, and, ultimately, liver transplantation. Recombinant LAL replacement was shown to be effective in animal models, and recently, a phase I/II clinical trial demonstrated its safety and indicated its potential metabolic efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2013.02.014DOI Listing
June 2013

Mutations in KIF11 cause autosomal-dominant microcephaly variably associated with congenital lymphedema and chorioretinopathy.

Am J Hum Genet 2012 Feb 26;90(2):356-62. Epub 2012 Jan 26.

Medical Genetics Unit, Biomedical Sciences, St. George's University of London, UK.

We have identified KIF11 mutations in individuals with syndromic autosomal-dominant microcephaly associated with lymphedema and/or chorioretinopathy. Initial whole-exome sequencing revealed heterozygous KIF11 mutations in three individuals with a combination of microcephaly and lymphedema from a microcephaly-lymphedema-chorioretinal-dysplasia cohort. Subsequent Sanger sequencing of KIF11 in a further 15 unrelated microcephalic probands with lymphedema and/or chorioretinopathy identified additional heterozygous mutations in 12 of them. KIF11 encodes EG5, a homotetramer kinesin motor. The variety of mutations we have found (two nonsense, two splice site, four missense, and six indels causing frameshifts) are all predicted to have an impact on protein function. EG5 has previously been shown to play a role in spindle assembly and function, and these findings highlight the critical role of proteins necessary for spindle formation in CNS development. Moreover, identification of KIF11 mutations in patients with chorioretinopathy and lymphedema suggests that EG5 is involved in the development and maintenance of retinal and lymphatic structures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2011.12.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3276660PMC
February 2012

Duane syndrome in association with 48,XXYY karyotype.

J AAPOS 2011 Jun 15;15(3):295-6. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Department of Ophthalmology, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY, USA.

Duane syndrome is an ocular motility disorder consisting of deficient horizontal eye movements, eyelid retraction, palpebral fissure narrowing, and abnormal vertical eye movements. It occurs in 1%-5% of patients with strabismus and has also been reported in several syndromes and chromosome abnormalities. Although most cases are sporadic, autosomal-dominant inheritance is seen in up to 10% of cases. Recently, Duane syndrome has been reported to occur in the setting of chromosomal duplication. The 48,XXYY syndrome is a rare syndrome involving duplication of the sex chromosomes. Ocular abnormalities are not typical of this condition. We report the first case of Duane syndrome presenting in an 8-month-old boy with XXYY syndrome. This case lends further support to the association of chromosomal duplication and Duane syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2011.03.007DOI Listing
June 2011

Pompe disease: dramatic improvement in gastrointestinal function following enzyme replacement therapy. A report of three later-onset patients.

Mol Genet Metab 2010 Oct-Nov;101(2-3):130-3. Epub 2010 Jun 22.

Division of Medical Genetics, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, 1554 Northern Boulevard, Suite 204, Manhasset, NY 11030, United States.

Pompe disease is a lysosomal storage disease due to deficient acid α-glucosidase (GAA) activity. Infants with the classic infantile-onset subtype present with severe hypotonia and cardiomegaly, and most expire in the first year of life, whereas the severity of the muscle-based manifestations in patients with the late infantile/juvenile and adult-onset subtypes depends on the level of GAA residual enzymatic activity. The clinical features of later-onset Pompe disease are still emerging, and even the natural history and progression of muscle weakness and respiratory failure, hallmarks of the later-onset subtypes, are not well documented. For example, we report here three later-onset patients who had chronic diarrhea, postprandial bloating and abdominal pain, previously unrecognized manifestations of later-onset Pompe disease. Two patients had intestinal incontinence and one reported synchronous vomiting and diarrhea on a daily basis. These symptoms significantly interfered with their quality of life, often limiting their ability to leave home. All gastrointestinal symptoms resolved within the first six months of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with recombinant human alglucosidase alpha (rhGAA). All three patients gained weight and remain symptom free, two for over four years. Thus, gastrointestinal symptoms occur in later-onset patients with Pompe disease and are resolved with ERT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2010.06.003DOI Listing
January 2011

Hypophosphatasia: molecular testing of 19 prenatal cases and discussion about genetic counseling.

Prenat Diagn 2008 Nov;28(11):993-8

Laboratoire SESEP, Centre Hospitalier de Versailles, Le Chesnay, France.

Objective: We studied hypophosphatasia (HP) mutations in 19 cases prenatally detected by ultrasonography without familial history of HP. We correlated the mutations with the reported ultrasound signs, and discussed genetic counseling with regard to the particular dominantly inherited prenatal benign form of HP.

Method: The coding sequence of the tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene was analyzed by DNA sequencing, and 3D modeling was used to locate the mutated amino acids with regard to the functional domains of TNSALP.

Results: Although reported ultrasound signs were heterogeneous, two mutated alleles were found in 18 of the 19 cases studied, indicating recessive transmission of the disease. Functional domains of TNSALP were affected by 74% of missense mutations. In all the cases, including one with only a heterozygous mutation, molecular, biological, and familial data do not corroborate the hypothesis of prenatal benign HP. The mutation c.1133A>T observed in the prenatal benign form of HP and common in USA was not found in this series.

Conclusion: The results point out the prenatally detectable allelic heterogeneity of HP. The nature of the detected mutations and the evidence of recessive inheritance do not support these cases being affected with prenatal benign HP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pd.2088DOI Listing
November 2008

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and the monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) gene.

Am J Hum Genet 2005 Jul 11;77(1):41-53. Epub 2005 May 11.

JC Self Research Institute of Human Genetics, Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, SC 29646, USA.

Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome was among the first of the X-linked mental retardation syndromes to be described (in 1944) and among the first to be regionally mapped on the X chromosome (in 1990). Six large families with the syndrome have been identified, and linkage studies have placed the gene locus in Xq13.2. Mutations in the monocarboxylate transporter 8 gene (MCT8) have been found in each of the six families. One essential function of the protein encoded by this gene appears to be the transport of triiodothyronine into neurons. Abnormal transporter function is reflected in elevated free triiodothyronine and lowered free thyroxine levels in the blood. Infancy and childhood in the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome are marked by hypotonia, weakness, reduced muscle mass, and delay of developmental milestones. Facial manifestations are not distinctive, but the face tends to be elongated with bifrontal narrowing, and the ears are often simply formed or cupped. Some patients have myopathic facies. Generalized weakness is manifested by excessive drooling, forward positioning of the head and neck, failure to ambulate independently, or ataxia in those who do ambulate. Speech is dysarthric or absent altogether. Hypotonia gives way in adult life to spasticity. The hands exhibit dystonic and athetoid posturing and fisting. Cognitive development is severely impaired. No major malformations occur, intrauterine growth is not impaired, and head circumference and genital development are usually normal. Behavior tends to be passive, with little evidence of aggressive or disruptive behavior. Although clinical signs of thyroid dysfunction are usually absent in affected males, the disturbances in blood levels of thyroid hormones suggest the possibility of systematic detection through screening of high-risk populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/431313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1226193PMC
July 2005

Mutations in the gene encoding filamin B disrupt vertebral segmentation, joint formation and skeletogenesis.

Nat Genet 2004 Apr 29;36(4):405-10. Epub 2004 Feb 29.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute, and David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

The filamins are cytoplasmic proteins that regulate the structure and activity of the cytoskeleton by cross-linking actin into three-dimensional networks, linking the cell membrane to the cytoskeleton and serving as scaffolds on which intracellular signaling and protein trafficking pathways are organized (reviewed in refs. 1,2). We identified mutations in the gene encoding filamin B in four human skeletal disorders. We found homozygosity or compound heterozygosity with respect to stop-codon mutations in autosomal recessive spondylocarpotarsal syndrome (SCT, OMIM 272460) and missense mutations in individuals with autosomal dominant Larsen syndrome (OMIM 150250) and the perinatal lethal atelosteogenesis I and III phenotypes (AOI, OMIM 108720; AOIII, OMIM 108721). We found that filamin B is expressed in human growth plate chondrocytes and in the developing vertebral bodies in the mouse. These data indicate an unexpected role in vertebral segmentation, joint formation and endochondral ossification for this ubiquitously expressed cytoskeletal protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng1319DOI Listing
April 2004