Publications by authors named "Martin B Scharf"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Effects of Milnacipran on Sleep Disturbance in Fibromyalgia: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Two-Way Crossover Study.

J Clin Sleep Med 2016 Jan;12(1):79-86

Cleveland Sleep Research Center, Middleburg Heights, OH.

Objective: This study examined the effects of milnacipran on polysomnographic (PSG) measures of sleep and subjective complaints in patients with fibromyalgia and disturbed sleep.

Methods: This was a single-site, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover PSG study. Eligible subjects (aged 28-72 y) were randomized (1:1) to milnacipran (100 mg/d) or placebo for crossover period 1, and vice versa for period 2. Each crossover period comprised a dose-escalation and dose-maintenance phase, with a 2-w taper/washout between periods. In-laboratory PSGs were collected at baseline, and at the end of each treatment period. The primary endpoints were the difference in PSG-recorded wake after sleep onset (WASO), number of awakenings after sleep onset (NAASO), and sleep efficiency (SE) between 4 w of maintenance treatment with milnacipran and placebo. Other PSG measures, subject-rated sleep, fatigue, physical functioning, and pain were assessed. Post hoc analysis was performed in subjects showing at least 25% reduction in pain from baseline in the Brief Pain Inventory Score (responders).

Results: Of 19 subjects randomized, 15 completed both periods. Subjects treated with milnacipran showed no significant improvements in WASO and NAASO, but showed reduced SE (p = 0.049). Milnacipran did not show significant improvement in other PSG parameters or subjective endpoints. Two thirds of completers met responder criteria and additionally showed a significant improvement in daily effect of pain (p = 0.043) and subjective sleep quality (p = 0.040).

Conclusion: The data suggest that milnacipran is not sedating in most patients with fibromyalgia and improvements in sleep are likely a result of pain improvement.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01234675.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.5400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4702190PMC
January 2016

Low-dose sublingual zolpidem tartrate is associated with dose-related improvement in sleep onset and duration in insomnia characterized by middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakenings.

Sleep 2008 Sep;31(9):1277-84

Henry Ford Hospital Sleep Disorders and Research, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Study Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose, sublingual zolpidem tartrate when taken during a scheduled middle-of-the-night (MOTN) awakening in subjects with insomnia characterized by difficulty returning to sleep following MOTN awakenings.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-way crossover study.

Methods: Each treatment period consisted of 2 consecutive nights of dosing separated by a washout of 5 to 12 days. Subjects were awakened 4 h after lights out, dosed with sublingual zolpidem tartrate (3.5 mg or 1.75 mg) or placebo, kept awake for 30 min, and then returned to bed for an additional 4 h. Sleep parameters were assessed by polysomnography (PSG) and post-sleep questionnaires.

Setting: Five sleep laboratories.

Participants: Adults (24 males, 58 females, mean age 45.9 y) with a diagnosis of DSM-IV primary insomnia and a history of prolonged MOTN awakenings. Baseline difficulties with MOTN awakenings were confirmed by a 10-day screening sleep diary and PSG screening.

Results: Low-dose sublingual zolpidem tartrate demonstrated significant dose-related decreases in latency to persistent sleep and total sleep time (P < 0.001) compared to placebo after MOTN dosing. All subject reports paralleled PSG observations. Neither dose showed next-morning impairment on the DSST or ratings of sleepiness. The 3.5-mg dose produced improvements in reports of sleep quality (P < 0.001), ability to function, and level of refreshed sleep (P < 0.05 for both dosages) compared to placebo. Sublingual zolpidem tartrate lozenges were generally safe and well tolerated.

Conclusions: Low-dose sublingual zolpidem tartrate may be suitable for treatment of patients who have difficulty resuming sleep after MOTN awakenings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2542968PMC
September 2008

Efficacy and safety of as-needed, post bedtime dosing with indiplon in insomnia patients with chronic difficulty maintaining sleep.

Sleep 2007 Dec;30(12):1731-8

Sleep Disorders and Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences Henry Ford Hospital, 2799 West Grand Blvd, CEP-3, Detroit, MI 48202, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of immediate release indiplon capsules in patients with chronic insomnia using an "as-needed" dosing strategy in response to difficulty falling back to sleep following a middle of the night, nocturnal awakening.

Methods: Adult outpatients (N=264; 71% female; age, 46 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia, with average total sleep time (TST) < 6.5 hours and >8 nights in the past month with nocturnal awakenings, were randomized to 4 weeks of double-blind treatment with 10 mg or 20 mg indiplon capsules, or placebo. The primary endpoint was latency to sleep onset post-dosing after a middle of the night awakening (LSOpd). Secondary endpoints included patients' subjective assessment of total sleep time (sTSTpd). Next day residual effects were evaluated by a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS) rating of sleepiness.

Results: Both doses of indiplon significantly reduced LSOpd at all time-points. Compared to placebo (45.2 min), the 4-week least squares (LS) mean LSOpd was 36.5 min in the indiplon 10 mg group (P = 0.0023) and 34.4 min in the indiplon 20mg group (P < 0.0001). The 4-week LS mean sTSTpd was higher in the indiplon 10 mg group (253 min) and 20mg group (278 min) compared to placebo (229 min; P < 0.01 for both comparisons). There was no increase observed in VAS ratings of next-day sleepiness for either dose of indiplon when compared to placebo. Indiplon was well-tolerated at both doses.

Conclusions: Patients with chronic insomnia with nocturnal awakenings achieved significant and sustained improvement in sleep parameters while utilizing an as-needed post bedtime dosing strategy with indiplon capsules. Indiplon was well-tolerated, with no self-rated, next-day residual effects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.12.1731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2276136PMC
December 2007

Efficacy and tolerability of indiplon in transient insomnia.

J Clin Sleep Med 2007 Jun;3(4):374-9

Atlanta Sleep Institute, Atlanta, GA 30342, USA.

Objective: The efficacy of indiplon was evaluated by polysomnography (PSG) in an experimental model of transient insomnia consisting of the first night effect combined with a 2-hour phase advance.

Methods: Healthy volunteers age 21-64 years (N=593; 62% female; mean +/- SEM) years, 32 +/- 0.39) were randomized to double-blind treatment with a single nighttime dose of indiplon (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo. PSG assessments included latency to persistent sleep (LPS, primary endpoint) and total sleep time (TST); self-report assessments included sleep quality (SQ); next day residual effects were evaluated by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST), Symbol Copying Test (SCT), and a Visual Analog Scale of sleepiness (VAS).

Results: LPS mean (+/- SEM) values were significantly reduced on indiplon 10 mg (21.2 +/- 1.5 minutes) and indiplon 20 mg (16.8 +/- 1.1 minutes) compared to placebo (33.1 +/- 2.5 minutes; p < 0.0001 for both comparisons to placebo). TST mean (+/- SEM) values were significantly increased on indiplon 10 mg (414.5 +/- 3.9 minutes) and indiplon 20 mg (423.5 +/- 3.1 minutes) compared to placebo (402.9 +/- 3.9 minutes; p <0.005 for the 10 mg dose; p < 0.0001 for the 20 mg dose). SQ was also significantly improved on both doses. There were no differences between indiplon and placebo on next day DSST, SCT, or VAS.

Conclusions: Indiplon was effective in inducing sleep, increasing sleep duration, and improving overall sleep quality without next day residual effects in healthy volunteers in a model of transient insomnia.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1978303PMC
June 2007

Long-term nightly treatment with indiplon in adults with primary insomnia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month study.

Sleep 2007 Jun;30(6):743-52

Tri-State Sleep Disorders Center Cincinnati, OH, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of indiplon in primary insomnia.

Design: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-month study.

Setting: Multi-center outpatient setting.

Patients: N=702 (61% female; mean age 46 years) who met DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia of at least 3 months' duration.

Interventions: Indiplon 10 mg (n=236), indiplon 20 mg (n=233), or placebo (n=233).

Measurements: Subjective assessment of each of the following: latency to sleep onset (sLSO), total sleep time (sTST), number of awakenings after sleep onset (sNAASO), wake time after sleep onset (sWASO), sleep quality, Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and global improvement.

Results: Treatment with indiplon resulted in significant improvement relative to placebo at all time points for the primary endpoint, sLSO. Mean sLSO at Month 1 for each treatment group was: 10 mg (34.0 +/- 1.3 mins), 20 mg (33.0 +/- 1.3 mins), and placebo (48.7 +/- 1.9 mins; P <0.0001 for both comparisons); efficacy was sustained through Month 3. Both doses of indiplon resulted in significant improvement in sleep maintenance and duration endpoints, sTST and sWASO, as well as sleep quality, ISI, and global improvement at all assessment time points.

Conclusions: In patients with chronic insomnia, long-term nightly treatment with 10 mg and 20 mg doses of indiplon resulted in significant and sustained efficacy in sleep onset, maintenance, and duration, and significant associated improvement in both daytime functioning and quality of life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1978349PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sleep/30.6.743DOI Listing
June 2007

Effects of synthetic conjugated estrogens A on sleep quality in postmenopausal women with nocturnal diaphoresis and/or hot flushes: a pilot study.

Fertil Steril 2007 Sep 12;88(3):654-6. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Tri-State Sleep Disorders Center, The Center for Research in Sleep Disorders, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

In a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study, patients who received 0.625 mg daily of synthetic conjugated estrogens A experienced a statistically significant reduction in the average number of hot flushes and galvanic skin responses. The polysomnographic change in sleep measures did not reach statistical significance, but the data suggest an overall improvement in sleep quality in the treatment group.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2006.11.181DOI Listing
September 2007

Sodium oxybate for narcolepsy.

Authors:
Martin B Scharf

Expert Rev Neurother 2006 Aug;6(8):1139-46

The Center for Research in Sleep Disorders, 1275 Kemper Road Cincinnati, OH 45246-3901, USA.

Sodium oxybate (Xyrem), also known as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, is the only therapeutic specifically approved in the USA for the treatment of cataplexy in narcolepsy. The US FDA has recently expanded its indication to include excessive daytime sleepiness associated with narcolepsy. In contrast to the antidepressants and stimulants commonly used to treat the disorder, sodium oxybate is the only compound that addresses both sets of symptoms and, when used properly, is less likely to lead to the development of tolerance and other undesirable side effects. In this review, the results of clinical trials and the place of sodium oxybate in narcolepsy treatment are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/14737175.6.8.1139DOI Listing
August 2006

Effects of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg on sleep maintenance and sleep architecture in a model of transient insomnia.

Curr Med Res Opin 2005 Feb;21(2):223-30

Pacific Sleep Medicine Services, San Diego, California 92121, USA.

Objective: To compare the effects of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg on sleep maintenance during the last third of the night (last 160 min) and on sleep architecture throughout the night.

Research Design And Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of a previously reported double-blind, randomized, uncontrolled, parallel-group, multicenter study. Healthy subjects with previous but no current complaints of transient insomnia were enrolled. Transient insomnia was induced in the sleep laboratory by means of the 'first night' effect and by implementing a 2-h phase advance. The effects of both doses of temazepam on polysomnographic measures of sleep were evaluated for 1 night. The primary, prospectively-defined analysis of this study showed that 7.5-mg and 15-mg doses of temazepam had equivalent effects on latency to persistent sleep, total sleep time, and the number of sleep interruptions recorded over an 8-h period. Both doses were well tolerated. The post hoc analysis reported here compared these 2 doses for their effects on sleep maintenance and architecture. Sleep efficiency during the last third of the night was designated as the primary endpoint. The methodology for this analysis was fully defined and documented prior to re-analysis of the database for these parameters.

Results: Sixty-five subjects received temazepam 7.5 mg and 66 received temazepam 15 mg. No statistically significant differences between doses were detected for sleep efficiency or number of sleep interruptions during the last third of the night. Sleep architecture (measured over 8 h) did not differ significantly between groups.

Conclusions: The 7.5-mg and 15-mg doses of temazepam were equally effective for maintaining sleep during the last third of the night. Continuity of sleep throughout the night, as reflected by sleep architecture, was also similar regardless of dose. In keeping with current practice guidelines, initiation of treatment with temazepam for transient insomnia should begin with the 7.5 mg dose.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/030079905X25541DOI Listing
February 2005

The efficacy and safety of the melatonin agonist beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin in primary insomnia: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical trial.

J Clin Psychiatry 2005 Mar;66(3):384-90

Phase 2 Discovery, Inc., Cincinnati, OH 45219, USA.

Background: While melatonin agonists are known to regulate circadian sleep rhythms, it is not clear whether melatonin agonists have a direct soporific effect. It has been suggested that melatonin's soporific effect is secondary to its ability to induce hypothermia. beta-Methyl-6-chloromelatonin is a high-affinity melatonin receptor agonist that is not associated with hypothermia. The purpose of the present study was to determine if the melatonin agonist beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin has a direct soporific effect in subjects with primary insomnia.

Method: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover safety and efficacy study of 20 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg of beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin and placebo was conducted in subjects with DSM-IV-TR primary insomnia. Of 84 subjects screened, 40 progressed to randomly receive each of 3 beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin doses or placebo on each of 2 consecutive nights with 5-day washout periods between treatments. The effect of treatment on both polysomnographic and subjectively measured sleep parameters, next-morning psychomotor performance, and safety measures was determined. The primary outcome measure was latency to persistent sleep measured by polysomnography.

Results: A significant effect of beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin on the primary efficacy variable, latency to persistent sleep, was observed (p = .0003). The 20-mg dose resulted in a significant 31% improvement in sleep latency compared with placebo, while significant 32% and 41% improvements were observed at the 50-mg and 100-mg doses, respectively (20 mg, p = .0082; 50 mg, p = .0062; 100 mg, p < .0001). Similarly, a significant effect of beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin on subjective measures of time to fall asleep occurred (p = .0050), with significant improvement observed at both the 50-mg and 100-mg doses (p = .0350 and .0198, respectively) and a trend toward improvement observed at the 20-mg dose (p = .0582). Adverse events were mild to moderate in severity and did not differ in frequency between beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin and placebo treatments.

Conclusion: beta-Methyl-6-chloromelatonin significantly decreases both objective and subjective measures of sleep latency in subjects with primary insomnia. Thus, these data suggest that mel-atonin agonists may exert a direct soporific effect, as previous research indicates that beta-methyl-6-chloromelatonin is not associated with changes in body temperature, heart rate, or blood pressure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/jcp.v66n0316DOI Listing
March 2005

Effect of zolpidem on sleep in women with perimenopausal and postmenopausal insomnia: a 4-week, randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

Clin Ther 2004 Oct;26(10):1578-86

Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Although most adults in the United States obtain less sleep than they need, women report more sleep deprivation throughout their lifetime than do men. The prevalence of self-reported sleep difficulty increases as women make the transition from the premenopausal to the postmenopausal period.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of zolpidem as a treatment for insomnia in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.

Methods: Women who were perimenopausal or postmenopausal for >or=6 months, who had developed insomnia in conjunction with menopausal symptoms, and who had difficulty maintaining sleep or had nonrestorative sleep for >or=6 months were eligible for this 4-week, multicenter study. Sleep maintenance difficulty had to occur an average of >or=3 nights per week and had to be accompanied by >or=2 nocturnal hot flashes, hot flushes, or night sweats. Patients were randomized in a double-blind fashion to 1 of 2 treatment groups--zolpidem 10 mg or placebo. Capsules were provided in weekly blister cards, and patients were instructed to take 1 capsule each night at bedtime. Patients recorded estimates of their sleep quality and quantity and daytime functioning on daily morning and evening questionnaires, and made weekly global assessments of sleep.

Results: The study included 141 women (mean age +/- SD, 50.8 +/- 4.5 years; age range, 39-60 years). Increases in reported total sleep time were significantly greater in the zolpidem group than in the placebo group (P < 0.01) for each treatment week. Wake time after sleep onset and number of awakenings decreased significantly in the zolpidem group compared with the placebo group (P < 0.05). Each week, approximately twice as many patients in the zolpidem group as in the placebo group reported improved sleep (P < 0.001 for each week). The improvement in sleep-related difficulty with daytime functioning was significantly greater in the zolpidem group than in the placebo group (P < 0.05). The effects of zolpidem did not diminish with the duration of treatment.

Conclusions: Zolpidem 10 mg/d was effective and well tolerated in the treatment of menopause-related insomnia in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2004.10.003DOI Listing
October 2004

Comparison of temazepam 7.5 mg with temazepam 15 mg for the treatment of transient insomnia.

Curr Med Res Opin 2004 Apr;20(4):441-9

Pacific Sleep Medicine Services, San Diego, CA 92121, USA.

Objective: To demonstrate the equivalent efficacy of temazepam 7.5 mg and temazepam 15 mg for the treatment of transient insomnia.

Research Design And Methods: This was a double-blind, parallel group, multicenter study. Healthy male and female subjects with previous but not current complaints of transient insomnia were enrolled. Transient insomnia was induced in the sleep laboratory by means of the 'first night' effect and by implementing a 2-h phase advance. The effects of both doses of temazepam on polysomnographic (PSG) measures of sleep were evaluated for one night. Latency to persistent sleep (LPS) and total sleep time (TST) were designated as the primary efficacy endpoints.

Results: One hundred and thirty-one subjects completed the study: 65 received the 7.5-mg dose, and 66 received the 15-mg dose. Treatment groups begin with the lowest effective dose, i.e., 7.5 mg. were well matched based on background demographics. No statistically significant differences between doses were detected for LPS, TST,or any other objective (PSG) measure of sleep. Furthermore, both doses were found to be clinically equivalent for LPS and TST based on predetermined criteria. Temazepam was well tolerated, and no significant differences between doses were found for adverse event (AE) incidence, mean score on the Digit Symbol Substitution Task, or mean scores on questions related to tolerability from the Leeds Sleep Evaluation Questionnaire.

Conclusions: The 7.5-mg and 15-mg doses of temazepam were equally effective for the treatment of transient insomnia. In keeping with current practice guidelines, initiation of treatment with temazepam for transient insomnia should
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1185/030079904125003151DOI Listing
April 2004

Self-reported sleep in postmenopausal women.

Menopause 2004 Mar-Apr;11(2):198-207

Brigham & Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Objective: We aimed to find how self-reported sleep (measured by the St. Mary's Hospital Sleep Questionnaire) in postmenopausal women having hot flash activity was related to objective sleep (actigraphy), psychological and somatic symptoms [Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ)], and cognitive test performance (computerized tests). A secondary aim was to find if self-reported sleep showed expected correlations with hyperarousal (Hyperarousal Scale).

Design: Drug trial baseline data from 88 healthy, postmenopausal women were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for confounder variables and test whether differences in self-reported sleep measures were systematically associated with differences in objective sleep, WHQ symptom measures, or cognitive test performance scores.

Results: Increased self-report scores for low sleep quality were associated with an increased risk of WHQ symptoms and reduced cognitive test performance. Self-reported sleep measures showed little correlation with their analogous objective measures. Self-reported low sleep quality proved most closely associated with the WHQ symptoms of tiredness, clumsiness, and difficulty concentrating. Women whose self-reported sleep-onset latency times were longer than the median overestimated their objective sleep onset time by 30 min, whereas the other women underestimated theirs by 15 min (P < 0.0001). Women whose self-reported total sleep was longer or shorter than the median, respectively, underestimated objective sleep times by 9 and 71 min (P < 0.0001). High hyperarousal scores were associated with underestimations of objective sleep.

Conclusion: Self-reports of lower sleep quality were associated with increased WHQ psychological and somatic symptom measures and decreased cognitive test performance more than with differences in objective sleep. Self-reported trouble sleeping may signal problems independent from objectively low sleep quality, such as subjective distress or diminished cognitive function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.gme.0000097741.18446.3eDOI Listing
May 2004

The pharmacokinetics of sodium oxybate oral solution following acute and chronic administration to narcoleptic patients.

J Clin Pharmacol 2004 Mar;44(3):253-7

Orphan Medical, Inc., 13911 Ridgedale Drive, Suite 250, Minnetonka, MN 55305, USA.

This trial was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and safety of a sodium oxybate (gamma-hydroxybutyrate [GHB]) oral solution in narcoleptic patients after acute and chronic treatment. An open-label, two-period, two-treatment study design was used. Trial subjects included 13 patients with polysomnographically confirmed narcolepsy. The patients were administered a bedtime dose of 4.5 g of sodium oxybate while in a sleep research center. They were subsequently treated with sodium oxybate at the nightly dose of 4.5 g for 8 weeks. The patients then returned to the sleep center and were again treated with the 4.5-g sodium oxybate dose at bedtime. Blood samples (5 mL) were collected at 18 time points before and up to 7 hours after both the first dose of sodium oxybate and following 8 weeks of dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed for oxybate content by a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method. Noncompartmental methods were applied in the determination of pharmacokinetic parameters from each patient's plasma oxybate concentration versus time curve. No serious adverse events were recorded, and all patients completed the study. Headache, enuresis, and leg cramps were reported as adverse experiences. With both acute and chronic dosing, sodium oxybate was rapidly absorbed and eliminated with an apparent half-life of about 40 minutes. The only changes observed in the kinetics of oxybate after 8 weeks of treatment were a 13% and 16% increase in peak concentration (C(max)) and systemic exposure (AUC), respectively. The pharmacokinetics of sodium oxybate in narcoleptic patients were not changed in any clinically significant manner when the drug was chronically administered. The drug was well tolerated.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270003262795DOI Listing
March 2004

The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgia.

J Rheumatol 2003 May;30(5):1070-4

Tri-State Sleep Disorders Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45246, USA.

Objective: Fibromyalgia (FM) is associated with the sleep phenomenon of alpha intrusion, and with low growth hormone secretion. Sodium oxybate has been shown to increase both slow-wave sleep and growth hormone levels. This double blind, randomized, placebo controlled crossover trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of sodium oxybate on the subjective symptoms of pain, fatigue, and sleep quality and the objective polysomnographic (PSG) sleep variables of alpha intrusion, slow-wave (stage 3/4) sleep, and sleep efficiency in patients with FM.

Methods: Patients received either 6.0 g/day sodium oxybate or placebo for 1 month, with an intervening 2 week washout period. Efficacy measures included PSG evaluations, tender point index (TPI), and subjective measurements from daily diary entries. Safety measures included clinical laboratory values, vital signs, and adverse events.

Results: Twenty-four female patients were included in the study; 18 completed the trial. TPI was decreased from baseline by 8.5, compared with an increase of 0.4 for placebo (p = 0.0079). Six of the 7 pain/fatigue scores (overall pain, pain at rest, pain during movement, end of day fatigue, overall fatigue, and morning fatigue) were relieved by 29% to 33% with sodium oxybate, compared with 6% to 10% relief with placebo (p < 0.005). Alpha intrusion, sleep latency, and rapid-eye-movement sleep were significantly decreased, while slow-wave (stage 3/4) sleep was significantly increased, compared with placebo (p < 0.005). Two of the 5 subjective sleep related variables were significantly different from placebo: morning alertness (improved by 18% with sodium oxybate, compared with 2% for placebo; p = 0.0033) and quality of sleep (improved by 33% and 10%, respectively; p = 0.0003).

Conclusion: Sodium oxybate effectively reduced the symptoms of pain and fatigue in patients with FM, and dramatically reduced the sleep abnormalities (alpha intrusion and decreased slow-wave sleep) associated with the nonrestorative sleep characteristic of this disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
May 2003

Comparative efficacy of zolpidem and temazepam in transient insomnia.

Hum Psychopharmacol 2001 Mar;16(2):169-176

Scripps Clinic, La Jolla, C4, USA.

This study compared hypnotic effects of zolpidem 10 mg, temazepam 15 mg and placebo in healthy adults. Two factors expected to promote insomnia, the 'first night effect' and a 2-hour phase advance, were combined in a single night laboratory-based double-blinded protocol. This was a multi-center study, with data collected in 13 sleep laboratories. Subjects with normal sleep histories and without prior sleep laboratory experience were randomly assigned to treatment groups. Medications were administered 15 min before lights out, with polysomnographic monitoring for 7.5 h. Subjective questionnaires and performance tests, digit symbol substitution test (DSST) and symbol copying test (SCT), were administered at study entry and after arising. 630 subjects completed the study and provided data analyzed using repeated measures ANOVAs. Neither agent significantly reduced objective sleep latency relative to placebo. Zolpidem reduced awakenings and wake after sleep onset (WASO); temazepam did not. Both agents improved sleep efficiency and most subjective sleep measures relative to placebo, with zolpidem superior for five of six subjective outcome measures compared to temazepam. SCT, morning sleepiness and morning concentration were not altered by any treatment. Zolpidem significantly reduced morning DSST performance; temazepam did not. Zolpidem 10 mg provided greater subjective hypnotic efficacy than temazepam 15 mg in this model of transient insomnia, with reduced polysomnographic awakenings and WASO. Impairment of DSST was seen with zolpidem but not temazepam. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hup.238DOI Listing
March 2001
-->