Publications by authors named "Martin Althaus"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Asymmetric Diels-Alder and Ficini reactions with alkylidene β-ketoesters catalyzed by chiral ruthenium PNNP complexes: mechanistic insight.

J Am Chem Soc 2012 Jan 6;134(2):1331-43. Epub 2012 Jan 6.

Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

Hydride abstraction from the β-position of the enolato ligand of the previously reported complex [Ru(3a-H)(PNNP)]PF(6) (5a; 3a-H is the enolate of 2-tert-butoxycarbonylcyclopentanone) with (Ph(3)C)PF(6) gives the dicationic complex [Ru(6a)(PNNP)](2+) (7a) as a single diastereoisomer, which contains the unsaturated β-ketoester 2-tert-butoxycarbonyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one (6a) as a chelating ligand. The methyl analogue 2-methoxycarbonylcyclopentanone (3b) gives [Ru(3b-H)(PNNP)]PF(6) as a mixture of noninterconverting diastereoisomers (ester group of 3b trans to P, 5b; or to N, 5c), which were separated by column chromatography. Hydride abstraction from 5b (or 5c) yields diastereomerically pure [Ru(6b)(PNNP)](2+) (7b or 7c). Complexes 7b and 7c do not interconvert at room temperature in CD(2)Cl(2) and form opposite enantiomers of the Diels-Alder adduct upon reaction with Dane's diene (1 equiv). X-ray studies of 7a, 5b, and 5c give insight into the origin of enantioselection and the sense of asymmetric induction in the previously reported asymmetric Diels-Alder and Ficini cycloaddition reactions with 2,3-disubstituted butadienes and ynamides, respectively. Stoichiometric reactions (substrate coordination, cycloaddition, and product displacement) between [Ru(OEt(2))(2)(PNNP)](2+) (2), 6b (or 6a), and Dane's diene (15, to give estrone derivatives) or N-benzyl-N-(cyclohexylethynyl)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamide (17, to give cyclobutenamides) suggest that product displacement from the catalyst is turnover limiting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja210372uDOI Listing
January 2012

Application of the lithiation-borylation reaction to the preparation of enantioenriched allylic boron reagents and subsequent in situ conversion into 1,2,4-trisubstituted homoallylic alcohols with complete control over all elements of stereochemistry.

J Am Chem Soc 2010 Mar;132(11):4025-8

School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK.

The reactions of Hoppe's lithiated carbamates with vinylboranes and boronic esters give allylic boranes/boronic esters, and subsequent addition of aldehydes provides a new route to enantioenriched homoallylic alcohols with high enantiomeric ratios and diastereomeric ratios. Specifically, reactions of sparteine-complexed lithiated carbamates with trans-alkenyl-9-BBN derivatives followed by addition of aldehydes gave (Z)-anti-homoallylic alcohols in greater than 95:5 er and 99:1 dr. However, in the special case of the methyl-substituted lithiated carbamate, diamine-free conditions were required to achieve high selectivity. Reactions of sparteine-complexed lithiated carbamates with (Z)-alkenyl pinacol boronic esters and (E)-alkenyl neopentyl boronic esters gave (E)-syn- and (E)-anti-homoallylic alcohols, respectively, in greater than 96:4 er and 98:2 dr. In these reactions, a Lewis acid (MgBr(2) or BF(3) x OEt(2)) was required to promote both the 1,2-metalate rearrangement and the addition of the intermediate allylic boronic ester to the aldehyde. This methodology provides a general route to each of the three classes of homoallylic alcohols with high selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja910593wDOI Listing
March 2010

Practical formal total syntheses of the homocamptothecin derivative and anticancer agent diflomotecan via asymmetric acetate aldol additions to pyridine ketone substrates.

J Org Chem 2006 Sep;71(20):7583-95

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd., Pharmaceuticals Division, Safety & Technical Sciences, Synthesis and Process Research, Grenzacherstr. 124, CH-4070 Basel, Switzerland.

Two practical, efficient, and scalable asymmetric routes to DE ring fragment 7, a key building block in the synthesis of the homocamptothecin derivative diflomotecan 4, are described. The "acetal route" starts from 2-chloro-4-cyanopyridine 8 and represents an enantioselective and optimized modification of the original racemic discovery chemistry synthesis. The inefficient optical resolution procedure was replaced by an efficient asymmetric acetate aldol addition (dr 87:13) to a ketone substrate as the key step generating the (R)-configured quaternary stereocenter with high stereoselectivity. 7 was finally obtained in 8.9% overall yield (er 99.95:0.05) over nine steps, avoiding chromatographic purifications and comparing favorably with the initial procedure. In the related "amide route" starting from 2-chloroisonicotinic acid 41, a secondary amide directing group was used to facilitate the ortho lithiation of the pyridine 3-position. The key step of this protocol again consists of a practical asymmetric acetate aldol addition (dr = 87:13). The DE ring building block 7 was thus obtained in 11.1% overall yield (er > 99.95:0.05) over nine steps requiring only one chromatographic purification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo060928vDOI Listing
September 2006

Practical formal total synthesis of (rac)- and (S)-camptothecin.

Org Biomol Chem 2006 Feb 22;4(3):498-509. Epub 2005 Dec 22.

F. Hoffmann-La Roche Ltd, Pharmaceuticals Division, Safety and Technical Sciences, Synthesis and Process Research, Grenzacherstr. 124, CH-4070 Basel, Switzerland.

A practical, efficient and scalable formal total synthesis of (rac)- and (S)-camptothecin is described, which proceeds via the known DE ring building blocks 19 and (S)-19, respectively. The racemic synthesis starts from diethyl oxalate and uses straightforward carbonyl chemistry in order to generate the pyridone ring system. 19 was formed in 8.4% overall yield over 9 linear steps avoiding any chromatographic purification. The asymmetric version of this approach encompassed a diastereoselective Grignard addition to the enantiomerically pure alpha-ketoester 30 in order to generate the (S)-configured quaternary stereocenter. The auxiliary could be recycled in high yield and was successfully reused multiple times. The final steps paralleled the racemic approach. (S)-19 was thus prepared in 9.4% overall yield (er = 95 : 5) over 10 steps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b514147hDOI Listing
February 2006
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