Publications by authors named "Martin A Croce"

214 Publications

Youth, poverty, and interpersonal violence: a recipe for PTSD.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2021 13;6(1):e000710. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2021-000710DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8051402PMC
April 2021

Caught in the crossfire: 37 Years of firearm violence afflicting America's youth.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 04;90(4):623-630

From the Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Introduction: Publicly available firearm data are difficult to access. Trauma registry data are excellent at documenting patterns of firearm-related injury. Law enforcement data excel at capturing national violence trends to include both circumstances and firearm involvement. The goal of this study was to use publicly available law enforcement data from all 50 states to better define patterns of firearm-related homicides in the young.

Methods: All homicides in individuals 25 years or younger in the United States over a 37-year period ending in 2016 were analyzed: infant, 1 year or younger; child, 1 to 9 years old; adolescent, 10 to 19 years old; and young adult, 20 to 25 years old. Primary data files were obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and comprised the database. Data analyzed included homicide type, situation, circumstance, month, firearm type, and demographics. Rates of all homicides and firearm-related homicides per 1 million population and the proportion of firearm-related homicides (out of all homicides) were stratified by year and compared over time using simple linear regression.

Results: A total of 171,113 incidents of firearm-related homicide were analyzed (69% of 246,437 total homicides): 5,313 infants, 2,332 children, 59,777 adolescents, and 103,691 young adults. Most (88%) were male and Black (59%) with a median age of 20 years. Firearm-related homicides peaked during the summer months of June, July, and August (median, 1,156 per year; p = 0.0032). Rates of all homicides (89 to 53 per 1 million population) and firearm-related homicides (56 to 41 per 1 million population) decreased significantly from 1980 to 2016 (β = -1.12, p < 0.0001 and β = -0.57, p = 0.0039, respectively). However, linear regression analysis identified a significant increase in the proportion of firearm-related homicides (out of all homicides) from 63% in 1980 to 76% in 2016 (β = 0.33, p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: For those 25 years or younger, the proportion of firearm-related homicides has steadily and significantly increased over the past 37 years, with 3 of 4 homicides firearm related in the modern era. Despite focused efforts, reductions in the rate of firearm-related homicides still lag behind those for all other methods of homicide by nearly 50%. That is, while the young are less likely to die from homicide, for those unfortunate victims, it is more likely to be due to a firearm. This increasing role of firearms in youth homicides underscores the desperate need to better direct prevention efforts and firearm policy if we hope to further reduce firearm-related deaths in the young.

Level Of Evidence: Epidemiological study, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000003060DOI Listing
April 2021

Impact of Chemoprophylaxis on Thromboembolism Following Operative Fixation of Pelvic Fractures.

Am Surg 2020 Dec 23:3134820982577. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

38667Covenant Healthcare, Saginaw, MI, USA.

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a common cause of serious morbidity and mortality. While chemoprophylaxis decreases VTE, there is the theoretical risk of increased hemorrhagic complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of preoperative anticoagulation on VTE and bleeding complications in patients with blunt pelvic fractures requiring operative fixation.

Methods: Patients with blunt pelvic fractures requiring operative fixation over 10.5 years were identified. Patients were stratified by age, severity of shock, operative management, and timing and duration of anticoagulation. Outcomes were evaluated to determine risk factors for bleeding complications and VTE.

Results: 310 patients were identified: 212 patients received at least one dose of preoperative anticoagulation and 98 received no preoperative anticoagulation. 68% were male with a mean injury severity score and Glasgow Coma Scale of 26 and 13, respectively. Bleeding complications occurred in 24 patients and 21 patients suffered VTE. Patients with VTE had a greater initial severity of shock (resuscitation transfusions, 4 vs. 2 units, = .02). Despite longer time to mobilization (4 vs. 3 days, = .001), patients who received their scheduled preoperative doses within 48 hours of arrival had no significant differences in the number of deep vein thrombosis events (5.2% vs. 5.7%, = .99), but fewer episodes of pulmonary embolism (PE) (1.5% vs. 6.8%, = .03) with no difference in bleeding complications (7.5% vs. 8%, = .87) compared to either patients who had their doses held until after 48 hours of arrival or received no preoperative anticoagulation.

Discussion: Preoperative anticoagulation prior to pelvic fixation reduced the risk of PE without increasing bleeding complications. Preoperative anticoagulation is safe and beneficial in this group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820982577DOI Listing
December 2020

Use of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Patients with Concomitant Blunt Aortic and Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Am Coll Surg 2021 Apr 19;232(4):416-422. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma and Surgical Critical Care, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. Electronic address:

Background: Blunt aortic injury (BAI) and traumatic brain injury (TBI) represent the 2 leading causes of death after blunt trauma. The goal of this study was to examine the impact of TBI and use of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) on patients with BAI, using a large, national dataset.

Study Design: Patients with BAI were identified from the Trauma Quality Improvement Program (TQIP) database over 10 years, ending in 2016. Patients with BAI were stratified by the presence of concomitant TBI and compared. Multivariable logistic regression (MLR) analysis was performed to determine independent predictors of mortality in BAI patients with and without TBI. Youden's index was used to identify the optimal time to TEVAR in these patients.

Results: 17,040 patients with BAI were identified, with 4,748 (28%) having a TBI. Patients with BAI and TBI were predominantly male, with a higher injury burden and greater severity of shock at presentation, underwent fewer TEVAR procedures, and had increased mortality compared with BAI patients without TBI. The optimal time for TEVAR was 9 hours. Mortality was significantly increased in patients undergoing TEVAR before 9 hours (12.9% vs 6.5%, p = 0.003). For BAI patients with and without TBI, MLR identified use of TEVAR as the only modifiable risk factor significantly associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95%CI 0.32-0.54, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: TBI significantly increases mortality in BAI patients. TEVAR and delayed repair both significantly reduced mortality. So, for patients with both BAI and TBI, an endovascular repair performed in a delayed fashion should be the preferred approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2020.12.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Is NBATS-2 up to the Task? Actual vs. Predicted Patient Volume Shifts With the Addition of Another Trauma Center.

Am Surg 2021 Apr 1;87(4):595-601. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

4285University of Tennessee Health Science Center, TN, USA.

Introduction: Version 2 of the Needs-Based Assessment of Trauma Systems (NBATS) tool quantifies the impact of an additional trauma center on a region. This study applies NBATS-2 to a system where an additional trauma center was added to compare the tool's predictions to actual patient volumes.

Methods: Injury data were collected from the trauma registry of the initial (legacy) center and analyzed geographically using ArcGIS. From 2012 to 2014 ("pre-"period), one Level 1 trauma center existed. From 2016 to 2018 ("post-"period), an additional Level 2 center existed. Emergency medical service (EMS) destination guidelines did not change and favored the legacy center for severely injured patients (Injury Severity Score (ISS) >15). NBATS-2 predicted volume was compared to the actual volume received at the legacy center in the post-period.

Results: 4068 patients were identified across 14 counties. In the pre-period, 72% of the population and 90% of injuries were within a 45-minute drive of the legacy trauma center. In the post-period, 75% of the total population and 90% of injuries were within 45 minutes of either trauma center. The post-predicted volume of severely injured patients at the legacy center was 434, but the actual number was 809. For minor injuries (ISS £15), NBATS-2 predicted 581 vs. 1677 actual.

Conclusion: NBATS-2 failed to predict the post-period volume changes. Without a change in EMS destination guidelines, this finding was not surprising for severely injured patients. However, the 288% increase in volume of minor injuries was unexpected. NBATS-2 must be refined to assess the impact of local factors on patient volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820952383DOI Listing
April 2021

Long-Term Analysis of Functional Outcomes in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients.

Am Surg 2020 Sep 25;86(9):1124-1128. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

4285 Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine outcomes after discharge and identify factors from the index admission that may contribute to long-term mortality.

Methods: The study population is composed of patients who survived to discharge from a previously published study examining TBI. Demographics, injury severity, and length of stay were abstracted from the index study. Phone surveys of surviving patients were performed to evaluate each patient's Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOSE). Patients who were deceased at the time of the survey were compared with those who were alive.

Results: 1615 patients were alive at the end of the first study period and 211 (13%) comprised the study population. Overall, the median age was 54 years, and the majority were male (74%). The median time to follow-up was 80 months. The population was severely injured, with a median injury severity score (ISS) of 25 and a median head abbreviated injury score (AIS) of 4. Overall mortality was 57%. The group that survived at the time of the survey was younger, more injured, less likely to have received beta-blockers (BB) during the index admission, and had a longer time to follow-up. After adjusting for ISS, age, base deficit, and BB, age was the only variable predictive of mortality (HR 1.03; HL 1.02-1.04).

Conclusion: Despite being more severely injured, younger patients were more likely to survive to follow-up. Further investigation is needed to determine if aggressive care in older TBI patients in the acute phase leads to good long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003134820943648DOI Listing
September 2020

They only come out at night: Impact of time of day on outcomes after penetrating abdominal trauma.

Surg Open Sci 2020 Oct 5;2(4):1-4. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Background: Patients who present at night following penetrating abdominal trauma are thought to have more severe injuries and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. The current literature is at odds regarding this belief. The purpose of this study was to evaluate time of day on outcomes following laparotomy for penetrating abdominal trauma.

Methods: Patients undergoing laparotomy following penetrating abdominal trauma over a 12-month period at a level I trauma center were stratified by age, sex, severity of shock, injury, operative complexity, and time of day (DAY = 0700-1900, NIGHT = 1901-0659). Outcomes of damage control laparotomy, ventilator days, intensive care unit length of stay, hospital length of stay, morbidity, and mortality were compared between DAY and NIGHT.

Results: A total of 210 patients were identified: 145 (69%) comprised NIGHT, and 65 (31%) comprised DAY. Overall mortality was 2.9%. Both injury severity and intraoperative transfusions were increased with NIGHT with no difference in morbidity (37% vs 40%, P = 0.63) or mortality (2.1% vs 4.6%, P = 0.31). Adjusting for sex, time of day, injury severity, and operative complexity, only abdominal abbreviated injury severity (odds ratio 1.46; 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.99, P = .019) and operative transfusions (odds ratio 1.18; 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.28, P < .0001) were identified as independent predictors of damage control laparotomy using multivariable logistic regression (area under the curve 0.96).

Conclusion: The majority of operative penetrating abdominal trauma occurs at night with increased injury burden, more operative transfusions, and increased use of damage control laparotomy with no difference in morbidity and mortality. Outcomes at a fully staffed and operational trauma center should not be impacted by time of day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sopen.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7419659PMC
October 2020

Tigecycline to treat Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ventilator-associated pneumonia in a trauma intensive care unit as a result of a drug shortage: A case series.

J Clin Pharm Ther 2020 Aug 14;45(4):836-839. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Sciences, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

What Is Known And Objective: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an intrinsically multidrug-resistant (MDR) organism which commonly presents as a respiratory tract infection. S. maltophilia is typically treated with high-dose sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SMX/TMP). However, SMX/TMP and other treatment options for S. maltophilia can be limited because of resistance, allergy, adverse events or unavailability of the drug; use of novel agents may be necessary to adequately treat this MDR infection and overcome these limitations.

Case Description: This small case series describes two patients who underwent treatment with tigecycline for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by S. maltophilia after admission to a trauma intensive care unit. At the time of admission for the two reported patients, a national drug shortage of intravenous (IV) SMX/TMP prevented its use. Tigecycline was chosen as a novel agent to treat S. maltophilia VAP based on culture and susceptibility data, and it was used successfully. Both patients showed clinical signs of improvement with eventual cure and discharge from the hospital after treatment with tigecycline, and one patient demonstrated confirmed microbiological cure with a negative repeat bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).

What Is New And Conclusion: To our knowledge, this small case series is the first documentation of utilizing tigecycline to treat S. maltophilia VAP in the United States. Although it likely should not be considered as a first-line agent, tigecycline proved to be an effective treatment option in the two cases described in the setting of a national drug shortage of the drug of choice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13158DOI Listing
August 2020

How soon is too soon?: Optimal timing of split-thickness skin graft following polyglactin 910 mesh closure of the open abdomen.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 08;89(2):377-381

From the Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Various management strategies exist for the abdomen that will not close. At our institution, these patients are managed with polyglactin 910 mesh followed 14 days later (LATE) by split-thickness skin graft (STSG) or, in some cases, earlier (EARLY, <14 days), if the wound is judged to be adequately granulated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of STSG timing for wounds felt ready for grafting on STSG failure.

Methods: Consecutive patients over a 3-year period managed with polyglactin 910 mesh followed by STSG were identified. Patient characteristics, severity of injury and shock, time to STSG, and outcomes, including STSG failure, were recorded and compared. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of graft failure.

Results: Sixty-one patients were identified: 31 EARLY and 30 LATE. There was no difference in severity of injury or shock between the groups. Split-thickness skin graft failure occurred in 11 patients (9 EARLY vs. 2 LATE, p < 0.0001). Time to STSG was significantly less in patients with graft failure (11 days vs. 15 days, p = 0.012). In fact, after adjusting for age, injury severity, severity of shock, and time to STSG, multivariable logistic regression identified EARLY STSG (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.8, p = 0.020) as the only independent predictor of graft failure.

Conclusion: Appearance of the open abdomen can be misleading during the first 2 weeks following polyglactin 910 mesh placement. EARLY STSG was the only modifiable risk factor associated with graft failure. Thus, for optimal results, STSG should be delayed at least 14 days after polyglactin 910 mesh placement.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic study, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002759DOI Listing
August 2020

Radiographic predictors of therapeutic operative intervention after blunt abdominal trauma: the RAPTOR score.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2020 Apr 16. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN, USA.

Purpose: Bowel and mesenteric injuries are rare in patients following blunt abdominal trauma. Computed tomography (CT) imaging has become a mainstay in the work-up of the stable trauma patient. The purpose of this study was to identify radiographic predictors of therapeutic operative intervention for mesenteric and/or bowel injuries in patients after blunt abdominal trauma.

Methods: All patients with a discharge diagnosis of bowel and/or mesenteric injury after blunt trauma were identified over a 5-year period. Admission CT scans were reviewed to identify potential predictors of bowel and/or mesenteric injury. Patients were then stratified by operative intervention [therapeutic laparotomy (TL) vs. non-therapeutic laparotomy (NTL)] and compared. All potential predictors included in the initial regression model were assigned one point and a score based on the number of predictors was calculated: the radiographic predictors of therapeutic operative intervention (RAPTOR) score.

Results: 151 patients were identified. 114 (76%) patients underwent operative intervention. Of these, 75 patients (66%) underwent TL. Multifocal hematoma, acute arterial extravasation, bowel wall hematoma, bowel devascularization, fecalization, pneumoperitoneum and fat pad injury, identified as potential predictors on univariable analysis, were included in the initial regression model and comprised the RAPTOR score. The optimal RAPTOR score was identified as ≥ 3, with a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 67%, 85% and 86%, respectively. Acute arterial extravasation (OR 3.8; 95% CI 1.2-4.3), bowel devascularization (OR 14.5; 95% CI 11.8-18.4) and fat pad injury (OR 4.5 95% CI 1.6-6.2) were identified as independent predictors of TL (AUC 0.91).

Conclusions: CT imaging remains vital in assessing for potential bowel and/or mesenteric injuries following blunt abdominal trauma. The RAPTOR score provides a simplified approach to predict the need for early therapeutic operative intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-020-01371-8DOI Listing
April 2020

Separating Truth from Alternative Facts: 37 Years of Guns, Murder, and Violence Across the US.

J Am Coll Surg 2020 04 13;230(4):475-481. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN.

Background: Gun violence remains a significant public health problem that is both understudied and underfunded, and plagued by inadequate or inaccessible data sources. Over the years, numerous trauma centers have attempted to use local registries to study single-institutional trends, however, this approach limits generalizability to our national epidemic. In fact, even easily accessible, health-centered data from the CDC lack national relevance because they are limited to those enrolled states only. We sought to examine how publicly available law enforcement data from all 50 states might complement our understanding of circumstances and demographics surrounding national firearm death and help forge the first step in partnering law enforcement with trauma centers.

Methods: All homicide that occurred in the US during a 37-year period ending in 2016 was analyzed. Primary data files were obtained from the Federal Bureau of Investigation and comprised the database. Data analyzed included homicide type, situation, circumstance, firearm type, and demographic characteristics of victims and offenders. The proportion of firearm-related homicide was stratified by year and compared over time using simple linear regression.

Results: There were 485,288 incidents of firearm homicide analyzed (64% of 752,935 total homicides). Most victims were male (85%), black (53%), and a mean age of 33 years; offenders were predominantly male (67%), black (39%), and a mean age of 30 years. Fifty-four percent of all homicide involved a single victim and single offender, followed by a single victim and unknown offender(s) (31%); 4% of firearm homicide had multiple victims. Overall, handguns, shotguns, and rifles accounted for 76%, 7%, and 5% of all firearm homicide, respectively; 11% had no firearm type listed and <1% were other gun or unknown. Linear regression analysis identified a significant increase in the proportion of firearm-related homicide from 61% in 1980 to 71% in 2016 (β = 0.25; p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Gun violence represents an ongoing public health concern, with the proportion of firearm homicide steadily and significantly increasing from 1980 to 2016. Homicide data from the Federal Bureau of Investigation can serve to supplement trauma registry data by helping to define gun violence patterns. However, stronger partnerships between local law enforcement agencies and trauma centers are necessary to better characterize firearm type and resultant injury patterns, direct prevention efforts and firearm policy, and reduce gun-related deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2019.12.040DOI Listing
April 2020

Location, location, location: Utilizing Needs-Based Assessment of Trauma Systems-2 in trauma system planning.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 01;88(1):94-100

From the Department of Surgery (J.H.D., L.J.M., M.A.C., P.E.F.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee; Department of Earth Sciences (E.O.), University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee; Covenant HealthCare (J.P.S.), Saginaw, Michigan.

Background: In 2015, the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma introduced the Needs-Based Assessment of Trauma Systems (NBATS) tool to quantify the optimal number of trauma centers for a region. While useful, more focus was required on injury population, distribution, and transportation systems. Therefore, NBATS-2 was developed utilizing advanced geographical modeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate NBATS-2 in a large regional trauma system.

Methods: Data from all injured patients from 2016 to 2017 with an Injury Severity Score greater than 15 was collected from the trauma registry of the existing (legacy) center. Injury location and demographics were analyzed by zip code. A regional map was built using US census data to include hospital and population demographic data by zip code. Spatial modeling was conducted using ArcGIS to estimate an area within a 45-minute drive to a trauma center.

Results: A total of 1,795 severely injured patients were identified across 54 counties in the tri-state region. Forty-eight percent of the population and 58% of the injuries were within a 45-minute drive of the legacy trauma center. With the addition of another urban center, injured and total population coverage increased by only 1% while decreasing the volume to the existing center by 40%. However, the addition of two rural trauma centers increased coverage significantly to 62% of the population and 71% of the injured (p < 0.001). The volume of the legacy center was decreased by 25%, but the self-pay rate increased by 16%.

Conclusion: The geospatial modeling of NBATS-2 adds a new dimension to trauma system planning. This study demonstrates how geospatial modeling applied in a practical tool can be incorporated into trauma system planning at the local level and used to assess changes in population and injury coverage within a region, as well as potential volume and financial implications to a current system.

Level Of Evidence: Care management/economic, level V.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002463DOI Listing
January 2020

Traumacare.

Authors:
Martin A Croce

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 01;88(1):1-9

From the Elvis Presley Memorial Trauma Center at Regional One Health; and Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002549DOI Listing
January 2020

Long-term functional outcomes after traumatic popliteal artery injury: A 20-year experience.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2020 Feb;88(2):197-206

From the Department of Surgery (L.J.M., J.P.S., B.T., F.T., R.H.L., D.M.F., C.E., T.C.F., M.A.C.), University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee; and Department of Surgery (L.K.), University of Mississippi Oxford, Mississippi.

Background: Traumatic popliteal arterial injury (TPAI) is associated with a risk of both limb loss and long-term morbidity due to prolonged ischemia and the often-associated musculoskeletal injuries. Long-term functional outcome following this injury has not been adequately studied. We evaluated patients with TPAI to determine if there was an improvement in functional outcome over time. We hypothesized that both the initial severity of ischemia and the associated injuries limited the ability of patients to improve functional outcome.

Methods: Patients with TPAI for 20 years were identified. All patients had at least a 2-year follow-up. Functional outcomes were measured using the Boston University Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care to assess basic mobility (BM) and daily activity (DA). Multiple linear regression, adjusted for age, severity of injury and shock, operative complexity, associated injuries, ischemic time, and length of follow-up were used to identify predictors of functional outcome after TPAI.

Results: A total of 214 patients were identified: 123 penetrating (57%) and 91 blunt (43%). Overall mortality was 1.9% (all in-hospital), and amputation occurred in 10%. Of the 210 survivors, follow-up was obtained in 145 patients (69%). Median follow-up was 9.2 years (interquartile range, 5.7-15.7 years). Mean Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care scores for BM and DA were 78 and 75, respectively, both signifying mild impairment (normal, >84). Multiple linear regression failed to identify increasing length of follow-up as a predictor of improved functional outcomes. Only age, lower extremity fracture, and ischemic time were identified as predictors of decreased BM and DA.

Conclusion: Increasing age, lower extremity fracture, and prolonged ischemic time worsened long-term functional outcomes. Functional outcome did not improve over time, suggesting that maximal recovery may be achieved within the first 2 years postinjury. Thus, early and effective revascularization remains the only potentially modifiable risk factor for improving functional outcomes following TPAI.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002548DOI Listing
February 2020

Hypercalcemia Without Hypervitaminosis D During Cholecalciferol Supplementation in Critically Ill Patients.

Nutr Clin Pract 2020 Oct 11;35(5):933-941. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Translational Science, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency during critical illness has been associated with worsened outcomes. Because most critically ill patients with severe traumatic injuries are vitamin D deficient, we investigated the efficacy and safety of cholecalciferol therapy for these patients.

Methods: Fifty-three patients (>17 years of age) admitted to the trauma intensive care unit who had a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH vit D) concentration <20 ng/mL were given 10,000 IU of cholecalciferol daily. Efficacy was defined as achievement of a 25-OH vit D of 30-79.9 ng/mL. Safety was evaluated by the presence of hypercalcemia (serum ionized calcium [iCa] >1.32 mmol/L) or hypervitaminosis D (25-OH vit D >79.9 nmol/L). Patients were monitored for 2 weeks during cholecalciferol therapy.

Results: Twenty-four patients (45%) achieved target 25-OH vit D. No patients experienced hypervitaminosis D. Hypercalcemia occurred in 40% (n = 21) of patients; 2 patients experienced an iCa >1.49 nmol/L. 25-OH vit D was significantly greater for those who developed hypercalcemia (37.2 + 11.2 vs 28.4 + 5.6 ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.001) by the second week of cholecalciferol. Of 24 patients who achieved target 25-OH vit D, 14 (58%) experienced hypercalcemia in contrast to 24% of patients (7 out of 29) who did not achieve target 25-OH vit D (P = 0.024).

Conclusions: Cholecalciferol normalized serum 25-OH vit D concentrations in less than half of patients yet was associated with a substantial proportion of patients with hypercalcemia without hypervitaminosis D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ncp.10407DOI Listing
October 2020

Beta-adrenergic blockade for attenuation of catecholamine surge after traumatic brain injury: a randomized pilot trial.

Trauma Surg Acute Care Open 2019 18;4(1):e000307. Epub 2019 Aug 18.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Beta-blockers have been proven in multiple studies to be beneficial in patients with traumatic brain injury. Few prospective studies have verified this and no randomized controlled trials. Additionally, most studies do not titrate the dose of beta-blockers to therapeutic effect. We hypothesize that propranolol titrated to effect will confer a survival benefit in patients with traumatic brain injury.

Methods: A randomized controlled pilot trial was performed during a 24-month period. Patients with traumatic brain injury were randomized to propranolol or control group for a 14-day study period. Variables collected included demographics, injury severity, physiologic parameters, urinary catecholamines, and outcomes. Patients receiving propranolol were compared with the control group.

Results: Over the study period, 525 patients were screened, 26 were randomized, and 25 were analyzed. Overall, the mean age was 51.3 years and the majority were male with blunt mechanism. The mean Injury Severity Score was 21.8 and median head Abbreviated Injury Scale score was 4. Overall mortality was 20.0%. Mean arterial pressure was higher in the treatment arm as compared with control (p=0.021), but no other differences were found between the groups in demographics, severity of injury, severity of illness, physiologic parameters, or mortality (7.7% vs. 33%; p=0.109). No difference was detected over time in any variables with respect to treatment, urinary catecholamines, or physiologic parameters. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation scores all improved over time. GCS at study end was significantly higher in the treatment arm (11.7 vs. 8.9; p=0.044). Finally, no difference was detected with survival analysis over time between groups.

Conclusions: Despite not being powered to show statistical differences between groups, GCS at study end was significantly improved in the treatment arm and mortality was improved although not at a traditional level of significance. The study protocol was safe and feasible to apply to an appropriately powered larger multicenter study.

Level Of Evidence: Level 2-therapeutic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tsaco-2019-000307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699724PMC
August 2019

Better understanding the utilization of damage control laparotomy: A multi-institutional quality improvement project.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 Jul;87(1):27-34

From the Department of Surgery, the University of Texas McGovern Medical School at Houston (J.A.H., J.B.H.), Houston, Texas; the Department of Surgery, the University of Tennessee Health Science Center (J.P.S., M.A.C.), Memphis, Tennessee; the Department of Surgery, the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (M.D.G.), Cincinnati, Ohio; the Department of Surgery, Temple University School of Medicine (E.D.D., B.J.M.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine (R.D.R., B.L.Z.), Indianapolis, Indiana; and the Department of Surgery, MetroHealth System (L.A.K., J.A.C.), Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: Rates of damage control laparotomy (DCL) vary widely and consensus on appropriate indications does not exist. The purposes of this multicenter quality improvement (QI) project were to decrease the use of DCL and to identify indications where consensus exists.

Methods: In 2016, six US Level I trauma centers performed a yearlong, QI project utilizing a single QI tool: audit and feedback. Each emergent trauma laparotomy was prospectively reviewed. Damage control laparotomy cases were adjudicated based on the majority vote of faculty members as being appropriate or potentially, in retrospect, safe for definitive laparotomy. The rate of DCL for 2 years prior (2014 and 2015) was retrospectively collected and used as a control. To account for secular trends of DCL, interrupted time series was used to effectiveness of the QI interventions.

Results: Eight hundred seventy-two emergent laparotomies were performed: 73% definitive laparotomies, 24% DCLs, and 3% intraoperative deaths. Of the 209 DCLs, 162 (78%) were voted appropriate, and 47 (22%) were voted to have been potentially safe for definitive laparotomy. Rates of DCL ranged from 16% to 34%. Common indications for DCL for which consensus existed were packing (103/115 [90%] appropriate) and hemodynamic instability (33/40 [83%] appropriate). The only common indication for which primary closure at the initial laparotomy could have been safely performed was avoiding a planned second look (16/32 [50%] appropriate).

Conclusion: A single faceted QI intervention failed to decrease the rate of DCL at six US Level I trauma centers. However, opportunities for improvement in safely decreasing the rate of DCL were present. Second look laparotomy appears to lack consensus as an indication for DCL and may represent a target to decrease the rate of DCL after injury.

Level Of Evidence: Epidemiological study with one negative criterion, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6771434PMC
July 2019

Effect of damage control laparotomy on major abdominal complications and lengths of stay: A propensity score matching and Bayesian analysis.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 08;87(2):282-288

From the Department of Surgery, The University of Texas McGovern Medical School at Houston (J.A.H., J.B.H.), Houston, Texas; The Department of Surgery, The University of Tennessee Health Science Center (J.P.S., M.A.C.), Memphis, Tennessee; The Department of Surgery, The University of Cincinnati College of Medicine(M.D.G., T.A.P.), Cincinnati, Ohio; The Department of Surgery, Temple University School of Medicine (E.D.D., B.J.M.), Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Department of Surgery, Indiana University School of Medicine (R.D.R., B.L.Z.), Indianapolis, Indiana; and The Department of Surgery, MetroHealth System (L.A.K., J.A.C.), Cleveland, Ohio.

Background: In patients for whom surgical equipoise exists for damage control laparotomy (DCL) and definitive laparotomy (DEF), the effect of DCL and its associated resource utilization are unknown. We hypothesized that DEF would be associated with fewer abdominal complications and less resource utilization.

Methods: In 2016, six US Level I trauma centers performed a yearlong, prospective, quality improvement project with the primary aim to safely decrease the use of DCL. From this cohort of patients undergoing emergent trauma laparotomy, those who underwent DCL but were judged by majority faculty vote at each center to have been candidates for potential DEF (pDEF) were prospectively identified. These pDEF patients were matched 1:1 using propensity scoring to the DEF patients. The primary outcome was the incidence of major abdominal complications (MAC). Deaths within 5 days were excluded. Outcomes were assessed using both Bayesian generalized linear modeling and negative binomial regression.

Results: Eight hundred seventy-two total patients were enrolled, 639 (73%) DEF and 209 (24%) DCL. Of the 209 DCLs, 44 survived 5 days and were judged to be patients who could have safely been closed at the primary laparotomy. Thirty-nine pDEF patients were matched to 39 DEF patients. There were no differences in demographics, mechanism of injury, Injury Severity Score, prehospital/emergency department/operating room vital signs, laboratory values, resuscitation, or procedures performed during laparotomy. There was no difference in MAC between the two groups (31% DEF vs. 21% pDEF, relative risk 0.99, 95% credible interval 0.60-1.54, posterior probability 56%). Definitive laparotomy was associated with a 72%, 77%, and 72% posterior probability of more hospital-free, intensive care unit-free, and ventilator-free days, respectively.

Conclusion: In patients for whom surgeons have equipoise for DCL versus definitive surgery, definitive abdominal closure was associated with a similar probability of MAC, but a high probability of fewer hospital-free, intensive care unit-free, and ventilator-free days.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic/care management, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660375PMC
August 2019

Obesity attenuates serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to cholecalciferol therapy in critically ill patients.

Nutrition 2019 Jul - Aug;63-64:120-125. Epub 2019 Jan 30.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, USA.

Objectives: The presence of obesity may confound cholecalciferol dosing in vitamin D-deficient patients owing to potentially decreased bioavailability. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate cholecalciferol therapy in vitamin D-deficient, critically ill trauma patients with and without obesity.

Methods: Adult patients with severe traumatic injuries who had a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) <50nmol/L were prescribed 10 000 IU of liquid cholecalciferol daily. Efficacy was defined as achievement of a 25-OH vit D of 75 to 200nmol/L. Safety was evaluated by the presence of hypercalcemia (serum ionized calcium >1.32 mmol/L). Fifty-three patients (18 obese, 35 non-obese) were identified for study.

Results: Despite similar baseline concentrations (36 ± 7 versus 37 ± 7 nmol/L; P = NS), 25-OH vit D response was attenuated for those with obesity after 1 and 2 wk of cholecalciferol therapy (51 ± 18 versus 66 ± 27nmol/L, P < 0.01; 68 ± 19 versus 92 ± 25nmol/L, P < 0.01, respectively). Patients with obesity also tended to experience less hypercalcemia (22% versus 49% of patients, respectively) post-cholecalciferol therapy.

Conclusion: Obesity alters the response to cholecalciferol therapy in critically ill patients with severe traumatic injuries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2019.01.018DOI Listing
September 2020

Does lack of thoracic trauma attenuate the severity of pulmonary failure? An 8-year analysis of critically injured patients.

Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg 2020 Feb 2;46(1):3-9. Epub 2019 Feb 2.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 910 Madison Ave. #225, Memphis, TN, 38163, USA.

Purpose: Patients with thoracic trauma are presumed to be at higher risk for pulmonary dysfunction, but adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) may develop in any patient, regardless of associated chest injury. This study evaluated the impact of thoracic trauma and pulmonary failure on outcomes in trauma patients admitted to the intensive-care unit (ICU).

Methods: All trauma patients admitted to the ICU over an 8-year period were identified. Patients that died within 48 h of arrival were excluded. Patients were stratified by baseline characteristics, injury severity, development of ARDS, and infectious complications. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine variables significantly associated with the development of ARDS.

Results: 10,362 patients were identified. After exclusions, 4898 (50%) patients had chest injury and 4975 (50%) did not. 200 (2%) patients developed ARDS (3.6% of patients with chest injury and 0.5% of patients without chest injury). Patients with ARDS were more likely to have chest injury than those without ARDS (87% vs 49%, p < 0.001). However, of the patients without chest injury, the development of ARDS still led to a significant increase in mortality compared to those patients without ARDS (58% vs 5%, p < 0.001). Multiple logistic regression found ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) to be the only independent predictor for the development of ARDS in ICU patients without chest injury.

Conclusions: ARDS development was more common in patients with thoracic trauma. Nevertheless, the development of ARDS in patients without chest injury was associated with a tenfold higher risk of death. The presence of VAP was found to be the only potentially preventable and treatable risk factor for the development of ARDS in ICU patients without chest injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00068-019-01081-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7223815PMC
February 2020

Evolution of Firearm Violence over 20 Years: Integrating Law Enforcement and Clinical Data.

J Am Coll Surg 2019 04 28;228(4):427-434. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Surgery, Memphis, TN.

Background: Data linking ballistics to injury are lacking. To address this data chasm, a partnership with law enforcement was developed to describe clinical outcomes from specific firearms.

Study Design: A random sample of patients with gunshot wounds over a 20-year period ending in 2015, was identified. Circumstances of incident, firearm type, and/or caliber were extracted from police reports. Data on demographics, mortality, injury severity, and clinical outcomes were collected from the trauma registry, and these datasets were linked. Firearms were stratified by velocity (high > 2,500 ft/sec; low < 1,200 ft/sec) and caliber (large = .40 and .45; small = .20 and .25) and compared over time.

Results: Police reports were obtained on 366 patients who had a gun type or caliber documented. The majority were male (82%) with a median age of 28 years. Twenty-one percent of patients had an Injury Severity Score > 25, 60% required immediate operative intervention, and overall mortality was 13%. The use of large caliber firearms increased from 4% (1996 to 2000) to 33% (2011 to 2015); small caliber guns decreased from 33% to 7% over the same time period (p < 0.0001). High velocity firearm usage significantly increased (p = 0.0320). Recovered shell casings doubled from the first decade to the second (2 vs 4; p = 0.0006). Both median New Injury Severity Score (p = 0.0488) and hospital days (p = 0.0321) increased from 1996 to 2015.

Conclusions: Larger caliber and higher velocity firearms have significantly increased over the past 20 years in conjunction with injury severity, hospital days, and mean number of gun-related homicides per year (112 in 1996 to 2000 vs 143 in 2011 to 2015). Robust data sharing partnerships can be built between police and trauma centers to address the dearth of data on firearm crime and resulting injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2018.12.033DOI Listing
April 2019

The Future of Emergency General Surgery.

Ann Surg 2019 08;270(2):221-222

Division of Acute Care Surgery, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003183DOI Listing
August 2019

Use of Aerosolized Antibiotics in Gram-Negative Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients.

Am Surg 2018 Dec;84(12):1906-1912

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is associated with significant morbidity (ventilator days, ICU days, and cost) and mortality increase in trauma patients. Multidrug-resistant strains of causative VAP pathogens are becoming increasingly common. Aerosolized antibiotics achieve high alveolar concentrations and provide valuable adjuncts in the treatment of VAP. This study examined the impact of aerosolized antibiotics in the treatment of VAP in trauma patients. Patients with either or VAP over 10 years treated with aerosolized antibiotics (cases) were stratified by age, severity of shock, and injury severity. A frequency-matched (by causative pathogen) control group treated without aerosolized antibiotics was used for comparison. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify predictors for the use of aerosolized antibiotics. One hundred twenty VAP episodes were identified in 100 patients. Microbiologic resolution was achieved in all patients treated with aerosolized antibiotics. There was no difference in mortality (14.5% vs 15.7%, = 0.87) and no antibiotic-related complications in either group. Multivariable logistic regression identified VAP persistence and relapse as independent predictors for the use of aerosolized antibiotics. Combined with systemic therapy, aerosolized antibiotics broaden the spectrum of therapy. They are valuable adjuncts with minimal risk of antibiotic resistance and/or systemic complications.
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December 2018

Analysis of over 2 decades of colon injuries identifies optimal method of diversion: Does an end justify the means?

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 02;86(2):214-219

From the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Critical Care (N.R.M., J.P.S., R.H.L., M.S.I., R.C., T.C.F., M.A.C., L.J.M.).

Introduction: Conflicting evidence exists regarding the definitive management of destructive colon injuries. Although diversion with an end ostomy can theoretically decrease initial complications, it mandates a more extensive reversal procedure. Conversely, anastomosis with proximal loop ostomy diversion, while simplifying the reversal, increases the number of suture lines and potential initial morbidity. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of diversion technique on morbidity and mortality in patients with destructive colon injuries.

Methods: Consecutive patients with destructive colon injuries managed with diversion from 1996 to 2016 were stratified by demographics, severity of shock and injury, operative management, and timing of reversal. Outcomes, including ostomy complications (obstruction, ischemia, readmission) and reversal complications (obstruction, abscess, suture line failure, fascial dehiscence), were compared between patients managed with a loop versus end colostomy. Patients with rectal injuries and who died within 24 hours were excluded.

Results: A total of 115 patients were identified: 80 with end colostomy and 35 with loop ostomy. Ostomy complications occurred in 22 patients (19%), and 11 patients (10%) suffered reversal complications. There was no difference in ostomy-related (2.9% vs. 3.8%, p = 0.99) mortality. For patients without a planned ventral hernia (PVH), there was no difference in ostomy complications between patients managed with a loop versus end colostomy (12% vs. 18%, p = 0.72). However, patients managed with a loop ostomy had a shorter reversal operative time (95 vs. 245 minutes, p = 0.002) and reversal length of stay (6 vs. 10, p = 0.03) with fewer reversal complications (0% vs. 36%, p = 0.02). For patients with a PVH, there was no difference in outcomes between patients managed with a loop versus end colostomy.

Conclusion: For patients without PVH, anastomosis with proximal loop ostomy reduced reversal-related complications, operative time, LOS, and hospital charges without compromising initial morbidity. Therefore, loop ostomy should be the preferred method of diversion, if required, following destructive colon injury.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, level IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002135DOI Listing
February 2019

Impact of a simplified management algorithm on outcome following exsanguinating pelvic fractures: A 10-year experience.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2019 04;86(4):658-663

From the Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: Optimal management of exsanguinating pelvic fractures remains controversial. Our previous experience suggested that management decisions based on a defined algorithm were associated with a significant reduction in transfusion requirements and mortality. Based on these outcomes, a clinical pathway (PW) for the management of exsanguinating pelvic fractures was developed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of this PW on outcomes.

Methods: Consecutive patients over 10 years with blunt pelvic fractures subsequent to the implementation of the clinical PW were identified. Patients with hemodynamically unstable pelvic fractures are managed initially with a pelvic orthotic device. For those with continued hemodynamic instability and no extrapelvic source of hemorrhage, pelvic angiography was performed followed by elective pelvic fixation. Patients managed according to the PW were compared with those patients whose management deviated (DEV) from the PW.

Results: There were 3,467 patients identified. Three hundred twelve (9%) met entry criteria: 246 (79%) comprised the PW group and 66 (21%) the DEV group. Injury severity, as measured by Injury Severity Score (35 vs. 36; p = 0.55), admission Glasgow Coma Scale (10 vs. 10; p = 0.58), admission BE (-7.4 vs. -6.4, p = 0.38), admission SBP (107 vs. 104, p = 0.53), and PRBC requirements during initial resuscitation (6.1 units vs. 6.6 units, p = 0.22) were similar between the groups. Pelvic orthotic device use was 48% in the DEV group (p < 0.001). Twenty-four percent of the PW group required angiography compared with 74% of the DEV group (p < 0.001). Forty-eight-hour transfusions (11 vs. 16, p = 0.01) and mortality (35% vs. 48%, p = 0.04) were reduced in the PW group compared with the DEV group. Pathway adherence was identified as an independent predictor of both decreased transfusions (β = -5.8, p = 0.002) via multiple linear regression and decreased mortality (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.42-0.98) via multivariable cox proportional hazards analysis.

Conclusion: Adherence to a defined clinical PW simplified the management of exsanguinating pelvic fractures and contributed to a reduction in both transfusion requirements and mortality.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002162DOI Listing
April 2019

Re: Chemoprophylaxis for VTE prevention in spine surgery patients.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 12;85(6):1133-1134

University of Tennessee, Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002110DOI Listing
December 2018

Keeping it Simple: Impact of a Restrictive Antibiotic Policy for Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Trauma Patients on Incidence and Sensitivities of Causative Pathogens.

Surg Infect (Larchmt) 2018 Oct 11;19(7):672-678. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Department of Surgery, University of Tennessee Health Science Center , Memphis, Tennessee.

Background: An integral part of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) therapy is the appropriate choice of empiric antibiotics. Our previous experience demonstrated adherence to an empiric therapy pathway was associated with only modest changes in organisms causing VAP. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a restrictive antibiotic policy for VAP in trauma patients on the incidence and sensitivities of causative pathogens since the previous study.

Patients And Methods: Patients with VAP diagnosed on bronchoalveolar lavage since the previous study were stratified by age, gender, mechanism of injury, and injury severity. All patients received empiric antibiotics based on duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay using a unit-specific pathway. The incidence and sensitivities of causative pathogens in the current study were documented. The adequacy of the VAP pathway was evaluated for all VAP episodes. The current study was then compared with the previous study.

Results: Over a 10-year period, 1,474 episodes of VAP were diagnosed with 2,387 causative pathogens isolated. Overall incidence of gram-positive and gram-negative VAP pathogens was unchanged between the study periods. The current study experienced an increase in the incidence of Staphylococcus aureus (23% vs. 17%, p = 0.001) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (10% vs. 6%, p = 0.002) compared with the previous study. The pathway for empiric antibiotics resulted in adequate empiric coverage in 85% of VAP episodes, which was improved compared with the previous study (76%, p = 0.024). Furthermore, despite the increased incidence of early methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) VAP, adequacy of the pathway improved for both the early period (91% vs. 86%, p = 0.001) as well as the late period (86% vs. 63%, p < 0.001) in the current study compared with the previous study.

Conclusions: A comprehensive protocol for the diagnosis and management of VAP, along with antibiotic stewardship, can prevent the development of bacterial resistance to empiric therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/sur.2018.087DOI Listing
October 2018

Propofol Infusion Syndrome: Efficacy of a Prospective Screening Protocol.

Am Surg 2018 Aug;84(8):1333-1338

Propofol infusion syndrome (PIS) is a potentially lethal complication of propofol marked by rhabdomyolysis, metabolic acidosis, and cardiac arrhythmias or collapse. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a prospective screening protocol to prevent PIS. All trauma patients admitted who received propofol as a continuous infusion were prospectively screened from November 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015. Variables studied included demographics, injury severity, laboratory values, infusion rates, and mortality. Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate were drawn daily. Propofol was stopped for a positive screen defined as an increase in CPK to greater than 5000 IU/L or lactate greater than 4 mmol/L. Positive and negative cohorts were compared. Two hundred and twenty-five patients met the inclusion criteria and 12 patients (5.3%) had propofol stopped because of elevated CPK. No differences were identified in demographics, transfusions, injury severity, hospital length of stay, or propofol dose. The positive screened group had longer intensive care unit length of stay (20 vs 13 days; P = 0.002) and increased vent days (14.5 vs 10 days; P = 0.008). Max serum osmolality (334 vs 305 mosm/kg; P = 0.049) and max serum CPK (6782 vs 1058 IU/L; P < 0.0001) were higher in the positive cohort. No cases of PIS occurred, and mortality (16.7 vs 15.5%; P = 0.999) was not different between the cohorts. The screening protocol was effective in eliminating PIS. Serial CPK evaluations provided an effective screening tool and serum lactate can be dropped from screening.
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August 2018

AAST Statement on Firearm Injury-One Surgeon's Perspective.

Authors:
Martin A Croce

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2018 08;85(2):427-428

From the University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000002038DOI Listing
August 2018