Publications by authors named "Martin A Chacon-Portillo"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Imaging in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: insights into echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.

Rev Cardiovasc Med 2021 Mar;22(1):11-24

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is increasingly prevalent and represents more than half of all heart failure cases. It is defined by the presence of heart failure signs and symptoms, identification of cardiac structural abnormalities leading to high left ventricular filling pressures, and an EF > 50%. Common imaging findings in HFpEF include left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction, left atrial enlargement, and elevated pulmonary artery pressure (> 35 mm Hg). Echocardiography is the primary imaging modality for diagnosing HFpEF. It can be complemented by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) when further characterization is needed. Advances like real-time 3-dimensional echocardiography and speckle-tracking derived strain, as well as tissue characterization by CMR, have furthered our understanding of the mechanisms and aided in making the diagnosis of a diverse group of conditions that can present as HFpEF. This review aims to touch upon the imaging methods of characterizing HFpEF and discuss their role in specific disease entities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31083/j.rcm.2021.01.134DOI Listing
March 2021

Bioprosthetic aortic valve haemodynamic deterioration secondary to a thrombus.

BMJ Case Rep 2020 Sep 8;13(9). Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Sarver Heart Center, Tucson, Arizona, USA.

A 77-year-old man with a history of coronary artery bypass grafting and surgical aortic valve replacement for severe aortic stenosis 2 years prior presented with exertional chest pain and shortness of breath. The patient underwent a thorough initial evaluation including a transthoracic echocardiogram and coronary angiogram without significant findings. One month later the patient presented with worsened symptoms and a repeat echocardiogram showed an increased mean aortic valve gradient of 87 mm Hg. The patient had to undergo reoperation for a surgical aortic valve replacement and was found to have an aortic bioprosthetic valve thrombus. This case suggests a mismatch between the aortic prosthesis and the patient's aortic root size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-233400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481080PMC
September 2020

Sickle Cell-Related Complications in Patients Undergoing Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg 2020 09;11(5):565-571

Texas Center for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease, 441903University of Texas Dell Medical School/Dell Children's Medical Center, Austin, TX, USA.

Background: We aimed to describe our experience with patients with sickle cell trait (SCT) and undergoing surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Methods: Data on all patients with SCT or sickle-α thalassemia who underwent surgery on CPB were collected (1996-2017).

Results: Overall, 46 patients were included, 37 (80%) had SCT and 9 (20%) had sickle-α thalassemia. A total of 4 (9%) developed a potential sickle cell-related complication. Patients with sickle cell-related complications were significantly older (median 14 years vs 14 months, = .037) and heavier (median 54 kg vs 9 kg, = .041). Complications occurred, although without statistical significance, in patients who underwent longer median CPB times (249 minutes vs 137 minutes, = .069), lower median temperature (31.7 °C vs 33.3 °C, = .094), and a higher percentage underwent deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (50% vs 7%, = .053). A total of 30 (65%) patients underwent exchange transfusion (ET) pre-bypass. Patients who underwent ET were significantly older (median 4 years vs 7 months, = .003) and heavier (median 16 kg vs 6 kg, = .015) than patients who did not undergo ET. The incidence of complications was comparable between patients who underwent ET (10%) and those who did not (6%).

Conclusions: In this retrospective, single-center study, it has been shown that cardiac surgery requiring CPB in patients with SCT and sickle-α thalassemia had a low risk for sickle cell-associated complications. In this cohort of patients, older age, longer CPB times, lower median temperature, and the utilization of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest appear to play an important role in the development of complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150135120926991DOI Listing
September 2020

Twenty-Three-Year Experience With the Arterial Switch Operation: Expectations and Long-Term Outcomes.

Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2020 Summer;32(2):292-299. Epub 2020 Jan 17.

Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Michael E. DeBakey Department of Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

We aimed to describe the short- and long-term outcomes of patients after an arterial switch operation (ASO) at a single institution during a 23-year period. A retrospective chart review of all patients <18 months of age who underwent an ASO between January 1995 and March 2018 at Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX was performed. Primary endpoints include mortality and reintervention. Perioperative mortality was defined as mortality occurring in-hospital and/or <30 days after surgery. Survival and freedom-from-reintervention were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank tests, and Cox regression models. The cohort included 394 patients. Diagnoses included 204 patients (52%) with intact ventricular septum, 137 (35%) with a ventricular septal defect, 17 (4%) with a ventricular septal defect and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO), and 36 (9%) with Taussig-Bing anomaly. Median age at surgery was 8 days (range: 1 day to 17 months) and median weight was 3.4 (range: 0.8-12.0) kg. Overall perioperative mortality was 1.3% (n = 5), 0.3% (n = 1) since 1999. Overall survival at 5, 10, and 15 years was 98.2%, 97.8%, and 97.8%, respectively. Perioperative morality was associated with prematurity (P = 0.012), <2.5 kg (P< 0.001), and longer circulatory arrest (P = 0.024) after univariate analysis. Reintervention was associated with a longer cross-clamp time (P < 0.001), <2.5 kg (P = 0.009), LVOTO resection (P = 0.047), and genetic syndrome (P= 0.011) after multivariable analysis. Current ASO expectations should include a perioperative mortality risk of <1% and good long-term survival. Reinterventions are more frequent in patients <2.5 kg, concomitant LVOTO resection, a genetic syndrome, and longer cross-clamp time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2020.01.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Reoperation after isolated subaortic membrane resection.

Cardiol Young 2019 Nov 26;29(11):1391-1396. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Baylor College of Medicine, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USA.

Background: The resection of a subaortic membrane remains far from a curative operation. We sought to examine factors associated with reoperation and the degree of aortic valve regurgitation as a potential long-term source for reoperation.

Methods: All patients who underwent resection of an isolated subaortic membrane between 1995 and 2018 were included. Patients who underwent other procedures were excluded. Paired categorical data were compared using McNemar's test. Univariate time-to-event analyses were performed using Kaplan-Meier methods with log-rank tests for categorical variables and univariate Cox models for continuous variables.

Results: A total of 84 patients (median age 6.6, 31% females) underwent resection of isolated subaortic membrane. At a median follow-up of 9.3 years (interquartile range 0.6-22.5), 12 (14%) patients required one reoperation and 1 patient required two reoperations. Median time to first reoperation was 4.6 years. The degree of aortic valve regurgitation improved post-operatively from pre-operatively (p = 0.0007); however, the degree of aortic valve regurgitation worsened over the course of follow-up (p = 0.010) to equivalence with pre-operative aortic valve regurgitation (p = 0.18). Performance of a septal myectomy was associated with longer freedom from reoperation (p = 0.004).

Conclusions: In patients with isolated subaortic membranes, performance of a septal myectomy can minimise risk for reoperation. Patients should be serially monitored for degradation of the aortic valve, even if aortic regurgitation is not present post-operatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1047951119002336DOI Listing
November 2019

Contemporary results after repair of partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects.

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2019 03 24;157(3):1117-1127.e4. Epub 2018 Nov 24.

Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Tex.

Objective: The exact incidence and risk factors for reoperation in partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects are unclear. The goal of this study was to assess risk factors for left atrioventricular valve and left ventricular outflow tract reoperation in partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects.

Methods: All patients undergoing partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects repair between 1995 and 2017 were reviewed. Patients were classified as infants (<1 year), toddlers (1-3 years), children (3-17 years), and adults (≥18 years). Survival and reoperation were assessed using log-rank test and Cox models for univariate and multivariable analyses, respectively.

Results: Overall, 265 patients underwent partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects repair (partial: 177 [67%]). Median age was 2 years. The cohort included 73 infants (28%), 85 toddlers (32%), 94 children (35%), and 13 adults (5%). Trisomy 21 was present in 76 patients (29%), and in 216 patients (83%), the zone of apposition was completely closed. Perioperative mortality was 0.8%. Complete heart block did not develop in any patients. Ten-year survival and freedom from reoperation were 98% and 81%, respectively. On multivariable analysis, trisomy 21 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.16) and older age compared with infants (toddlers: HR, 0.35; children: HR, 0.25) were protective for any reoperation, whereas heterotaxy (HR, 3.43) was a risk factor. For left atrioventricular valve reoperation, toddlers (HR, 0.35), children (HR, 0.25), and trisomy 21 (HR, 0.16) remained protective, whereas left atrioventricular valve anomaly was a risk factor (HR, 2.61). Likewise, for left ventricular outflow tract reoperation, toddlers (HR, 0.24) and children (HR, 0.06) were protective.

Conclusions: Mortality after partial and transitional atrioventricular septal defects repair is minimal, yet reoperation for left atrioventricular valve disease and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction remains significant. Patients requiring repair during infancy are at higher risk of reoperation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcvs.2018.10.154DOI Listing
March 2019

Ventricular Assist Device Support: Single Pediatric Institution Experience Over Two Decades.

Ann Thorac Surg 2019 03 6;107(3):829-836. Epub 2018 Oct 6.

Department of Congenital Heart Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: We reviewed our single institutional experience with pediatric ventricular assist device (VAD) support over the last 2 decades, with an aim to improve our current management and gain an insight into the future direction.

Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on all patients that had undergone VAD support between 1996 and 2017. Outcomes were analyzed based on the type of VADs, whether temporary or durable devices. Primary end points were positive outcomes, including bridge-to-transplantation, bridge-to-recovery, alive on device, and bridge-to-bridge to another VAD, or negative outcomes, including death during VAD support or in-hospital death after bridge-to-recovery. The Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support definition was used to classify adverse events.

Results: Overall, 201 VADs were implanted in 159 patients, with 82 (41%) and 119 (59%) being temporary and durable support, respectively. There has been a trend toward an increasing annual implant volume both with temporary and durable VADs. Positive outcomes were achieved in 80% (66 of 82) of those with temporary support, with bridge-to-recovery (53% [35 of 66]) and bridge-to-bridge to another VAD (38% [25 of 66]) being the predominant outcomes. Of those on durable support, 84% (100 of 119) achieved positive outcomes, with bridge-to-transplant (66% [78 of 119]) being the leading destination. The most notable change during the study period was the introduction of implantable continuous-flow VADs, resulting in outpatient management becoming a routine practice. No patients were discharged on VAD support before 2004, but 85% were discharged on VADs with discharge capability after 2013.

Conclusions: The present study has demonstrated the evolutional changes of pediatric VAD support and their effect on clinical outcomes over the last 2 decades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.08.018DOI Listing
March 2019

Pulsatile Glenn as long-term palliation for single ventricle physiology patients.

Congenit Heart Dis 2018 Nov 2;13(6):927-934. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas.

Objective: There are limited studies analyzing pulsatile Glenn as a long-term palliation strategy for single ventricle patients. This study sought to determine their outcomes at a single institution.

Design: A retrospective review was performed.

Setting: Study performed at a single pediatric hospital.

Patients: All single ventricle patients who underwent pulsatile Glenn from 1995 to 2016 were included.

Outcome Measures: Pulsatile Glenn failure was defined as takedown, transplant, or death. Further palliation was defined as Fontan, 1.5, or biventricular repair. Risk factors were assessed by Cox multivariable competing risk analyses.

Results: Seventy-eight patients underwent pulsatile Glenn at age 9 months (interquartile range, 5-14). In total, 28% had heterotaxy, 18% had a genetic syndrome, and 24% had an abnormal inferior vena cava. There were 3 (4%) perioperative mortalities. Further palliation was performed in 41 (53%) patients with a median time-to-palliation of 4 years (interquartile range, 3-5). Pulsatile Glenn failure occurred in 10 (13%) patients with 8 total mortalities. Five- and 10-year transplant-free survival were 91% and 84%, respectively. At a median follow-up of 6 years (interquartile range, 2-8), 27 patients (35%) remained with PG (age 7 years [interquartile range, 3-11], oxygen saturation 83% ± 4%). Preoperative moderate-severe atrioventricular valve regurgitation (AVVR) (hazard ratio 7.77; 95% confidence interval 1.80-33.43; P =.005) and higher pulmonary vascular resistance (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% confidence interval 1.08-6.15; P =.031) were predictors of pulsatile Glenn failure after adjusting for covariates. Reaching further palliation was less likely in patients with preoperative moderate-severe AVVR (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% confidence interval 0.08-0.59; P =.002).

Conclusion: Pulsatile Glenn can be an effective tool to be used in challenging circumstances, these patients can have a favorable long-term prognosis without reducing their suitability for further palliation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/chd.12664DOI Listing
November 2018

Contemporary Outcomes After Repair of Isolated and Complex Complete Atrioventricular Septal Defect.

Ann Thorac Surg 2018 11 4;106(5):1429-1437. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Division of Congenital Heart Surgery, Texas Children's Hospital/Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Background: Contemporary outcomes of complete atrioventricular septal defect (CAVSD) repair, particularly for defects with associated abnormalities, is unclear. The goal of this study is to report an all-inclusive experience of CAVSD repair using a consistent surgical approach.

Methods: All patients undergoing CAVSD repair between 1995 and 2016 at our institution were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups: isolated and complex (tetralogy of Fallot, aortic arch repair, double outlet right ventricle, and total anomalous pulmonary venous return). Survival and reoperation were analyzed using log-rank test and Gray's test, respectively. Multivariable analysis was performed with Cox regression.

Results: Overall, 406 patients underwent repair: 350 (86%) isolated and 56 (14%) complex CAVSD (tetralogy of Fallot: 34, double outlet right ventricle: 7, aortic arch repair: 12, total anomalous pulmonary venous return: 3). Median age at repair was 5 months (range, 10 days to 16 years); 339 (84%) had trisomy 21. A 2-patch repair was used in 395 (97%) and the zone of apposition was completely closed in 305 (75%). Perioperative mortality was 2% and 4% in the isolated and complex groups, respectively. Perioperative mortality since 2006 was 0.9%. Median follow-up was 7 years. Overall 10-year survival and incidence of any reoperation were 92% and 11%, respectively. Complex anatomy was not a risk factor for mortality (p = 0.35), but it was for reoperation (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.6; p < 0.01). Risk factors for left atrioventricular valve reoperation were a second bypass run (HR: 2.7) and preoperative moderate or worse regurgitation (HR: 2.3).

Conclusions: Mortality after CAVSD repair is low, yet reoperation remains a significant problem. Repair of complex CAVSD can be performed with similar mortality rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2018.06.006DOI Listing
November 2018

Circumflex aorta with double aortic arch in an infant.

J Card Surg 2018 May 17;33(5):292-295. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Congenital Heart Surgery and Cardiology, Texas Children's Hospital, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Circumflex aorta and double aortic arch are two forms of rare vascular rings. We present a case of an infant who was diagnosed with circumflex aorta and double aortic arch, and describe the surgical management of this rare anomaly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocs.13604DOI Listing
May 2018

Cerebral microbleeds shouldn't dictate treatment of acute stroke: a retrospective cohort study evaluating risk of intracerebral hemorrhage.

BMC Neurol 2018 Mar 27;18(1):33. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

Department of Neurology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Phipps 446, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Background: Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) after acute ischemic stroke carries the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH). Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may indicate increased risk of hemorrhage and can be seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In this study, we examined the association between CMBs and sICH, focusing on the predictive value of their presence, burden, and location.

Methods: Records from all patients presenting to two academic stroke centers with acute ischemic stroke treated with IV tPA over a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Demographic, medical, and imaging variables were evaluated. The presence, number, and location (lobar vs nonlobar) of CMBs were noted on gradient echo MRI sequences obtained during the admission. Univariable and multivariable statistical models were used to determine the relationship between CMBs and hemorrhagic (symptomatic and asymptomatic) transformation.

Results: Of 292 patients (mean age 62.8 years (SD 15.3), 49% African-American, 52% women), 21% (n = 62) had at least one CMB, 1% (n = 3) had > 10 CMBs, and 1% (n = 3) were diagnosed with probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy. After treatment, 16% (n = 46) developed hemorrhagic transformation, of which 6 (2%) were sICH. There was no association between CMB presence (p = .135) or location (p = .325) with sICH; however, those with a high CMB burden (> 10 CMB) were more likely to develop sICH (OR 37.8; 95% CI: 2.7-539.3; p = .007).

Conclusions: Our findings support prior findings that a high CMB burden (> 10) in patients with acute stroke treated with IV tPA are associated with a higher risk of sICH. However, the overall rate of sICH in the presence of CMB is very low, indicating that the presence of CMBs by itself should not dictate the decision to treat with thrombolytics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1029-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5870091PMC
March 2018

Abnormal Cardiovascular Findings in Acute Pancreatitis: Are They Associated with Disease Severity?

Rev Invest Clin 2017 Nov-Dec;69(6):314-318

Department of Gastroenterology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, Mexico.

Background: Acute pancreatitis (AP), a disease that commonly requires in-hospital treatment, has been associated with a high incidence of abnormal cardiovascular findings (ACFs). We conducted a prospective study to explore the association of these findings with severity of the disease.

Methods: Adult patients with AP diagnosis were prospectively enrolled in an observational study during an 8-month period in a tertiary care center. AP and its severity were defined according to the Revised Atlanta Classification of AP. Subjects were submitted to electrocardiographic, echocardiographic, and serologic testing during the acute period and a 3-month follow-up. The incidence of ACF was compared between two groups: (1) Mild and (2) moderate/severe cases.

Results: Twenty-seven patients (mean age 48 ± 17 years) with AP were enrolled; 15 (55%) had mild and 12 (45%) had moderate/severe AP. During the acute episode, 67% had increased pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels; 52% had abnormal electrocardiographic findings; 48% had abnormal echocardiographic findings; and 18% had increased troponin I levels. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ACF between mild and moderate/severe groups. Nineteen patients (70%) had repeated follow-up testing, and most of the initial ACF did not persist.

Conclusion: ACFs occur in an important proportion of patients during AP episodes. Future research should continue to focus in the association of ACFs and the severity of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/RIC.17002361DOI Listing
July 2018

Management of Hemostasis for Pediatric Patients on Ventricular-Assist Devices.

Semin Thromb Hemost 2018 Feb 17;44(1):30-37. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Division of Transfusion Medicine & Coagulation, Department of Pathology & Immunology, Texas Children's Hospital and Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas.

Ventricular-assist devices (VADs) have seen increased utilization in the pediatric population. Formerly, this therapeutic modality was limited to only the pulsatile VAD, EXCOR (Berlin Heart GmbH). However, the continuous flow VAD devices, HeartMate II (Abbott Inc.) and HeartWare (Medtronic Inc.), are now increasingly used in this population. Postoperatively, VAD patients are acutely anticoagulated using unfractionated heparin, often beginning 24 to 48 hours after VAD placement. Once the patient is stabilized and ready to transition to a lower acuity or outpatient setting, low-molecular-weight heparin or warfarin therapy may be instituted. Also, because of the risk for thrombotic and thromboembolic complications, antiplatelet strategies are employed using medications such as aspirin, clopidogrel, or dipyridamole. Platelet-rich plasma or whole blood platelet aggregation studies, platelet function analyzer-100 (Siemens), VerifyNow (Accriva Diagnostics), or thromboelastography platelet mapping (Haemonetics) may be used to help monitor antiplatelet effects, though the interpretation of the strength of the antiplatelet effect remains difficult. Care must be taken to monitor the hematologic complications of VAD, including acquired von Willebrand syndrome, which increases the risk for bleeding, and intravascular hemolysis, which increases the risk of thrombosis. Appropriate device placement and anticoagulation management are imperative to help avoid neurological dysfunction and ischemic stroke, the most devastating potential complications of VAD therapy. As our experience grows, we continue to gain an increased understanding of the management of anticoagulation, need for antiplatelet medication, and appropriate monitoring for these critical patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1607982DOI Listing
February 2018
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