Publications by authors named "Martijn G H van Oijen"

178 Publications

Development and external validation of a prediction model for overall survival after resection of distal cholangiocarcinoma.

Br J Cancer 2022 Jan 17. Epub 2022 Jan 17.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Various prognostic factors are associated with overall survival (OS) after resection of distal cholangiocarcinoma (dCCA). The objective of this study was to develop and validate a prediction model for 3-year OS after pancreatoduodenectomy for dCCA.

Methods: The derivation cohort consisted of all patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy for dCCA in the Netherlands (2009-2016). Clinically relevant variables were selected based on the Akaike information criterion using a multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression model, with model performance being assessed by concordance index (C-index) and calibration plots. External validation was performed using patients from the Belgium Cancer Registry (2008-2016), and patients from two university hospitals of Southampton (U.K.) and Verona (Italy).

Results: Independent prognostic factors for OS in the derivation cohort of 454 patients after pancreatoduodenectomy for dCCA were age (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), pT (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.07-1.90) and pN category (pN1: HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.37-2.32; pN2: HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.63-3.01), resection margin status (HR 1.79, 95% CI 1.39-2.29) and tumour differentiation (HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.62-2.53). The prediction model was based on these prognostic factors. The optimism-adjusted C-indices were similar in the derivation cohort (0.69), and in the Belgian (0.66) and Southampton-Verona (0.68) validation cohorts. Calibration was accurate in the Belgian validation cohort (slope = 0.93, intercept = 0.12), but slightly less optimal in the Southampton-Verona validation cohort (slope = 0.88, intercept = 0.32). Based on this model, three risk groups with different prognoses were identified (3-year OS of 65.4%, 33.2% and 11.8%).

Conclusions: The prediction model for 3-year OS after resection of dCCA had reasonable performance in both the derivation and geographically external validation cohort. Calibration slightly differed between validation cohorts. The model is readily available via www. pancreascalculator.com to inform patients from Western European countries on their prognosis, and may be used to stratify patients for clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-021-01687-1DOI Listing
January 2022

The impact of cancer treatment on quality of life in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer: a propensity score matched analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Sep 25. Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Research and Development, Netherlands Comprehensive Cancer Organisation (IKNL), Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of pancreatic and periampullary cancer treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is unclear.

Methods: This study merged data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry with EORTC QLQ-C30 and -PAN26 questionnaires at baseline and three-months follow-up of pancreatic and periampullary cancer patients (2015-2018). Propensity score matching (1:3) of group without to group with treatment was performed. Linear mixed model regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between cancer treatment and HRQoL at follow-up.

Results: After matching, 247 of 629 available patients remained (68 (27.5%) no treatment, 179 (72.5%) treatment). Treatment consisted of resection (n = 68 (27.5%)), chemotherapy only (n = 111 (44.9%)), or both (n = 40 (16.2%)). At follow-up, cancer treatment was associated with better global health status (Beta-coefficient 4.8, 95% confidence-interval 0.0-9.5) and less constipation (Beta-coefficient -7.6, 95% confidence-interval -13.8-1.4) compared to no cancer treatment. Median overall survival was longer for the cancer treatment group compared to the no treatment group (15.4 vs. 6.2 months, p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Patients undergoing treatment for pancreatic and periampullary cancer reported slight improvement in global HRQoL and less constipation at three months-follow up compared to patients without cancer treatment, while overall survival was also improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.09.003DOI Listing
September 2021

SOURCE-PANC: A Prediction Model for Patients With Metastatic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Based on Nationwide Population-Based Data.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Jul 21;19(9):1045-1053. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

1Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Background: A prediction model for overall survival (OS) in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) including patient and treatment characteristics is currently not available, but it could be valuable for supporting clinicians in patient communication about expectations and prognosis. We aimed to develop a prediction model for OS in metastatic PDAC, called SOURCE-PANC, based on nationwide population-based data.

Materials And Methods: Data on patients diagnosed with synchronous metastatic PDAC in 2015 through 2018 were retrieved from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. A multivariate Cox regression model was created to predict OS for various treatment strategies. Available patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were used to compose the model. Treatment strategies were categorized as systemic treatment (subdivided into FOLFIRINOX, gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel, and gemcitabine monotherapy), biliary drainage, and best supportive care only. Validation was performed according to a temporal internal-external cross-validation scheme. The predictive quality was assessed with the C-index and calibration.

Results: Data for 4,739 patients were included in the model. Sixteen predictors were included: age, sex, performance status, laboratory values (albumin, bilirubin, CA19-9, lactate dehydrogenase), clinical tumor and nodal stage, tumor sublocation, presence of distant lymph node metastases, liver or peritoneal metastases, number of metastatic sites, and treatment strategy. The model demonstrated a C-index of 0.72 in the internal-external cross-validation and showed good calibration, with the intercept and slope 95% confidence intervals including the ideal values of 0 and 1, respectively.

Conclusions: A population-based prediction model for OS was developed for patients with metastatic PDAC and showed good performance. The predictors that were included in the model comprised both baseline patient and tumor characteristics and type of treatment. SOURCE-PANC will be incorporated in an electronic decision support tool to support shared decision-making in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7669DOI Listing
July 2021

The association between wearable activity monitor metrics and performance status in oncology: a systematic review.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Nov 12;29(11):7085-7099. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: The expanding armamentarium of wearable activity monitors (WAMs) offers new opportunities to supplement physician-assessed performance status (PS) with real-life patient activity data. These data could guide clinical decision making or serve as a measure of treatment outcome. However, information on the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) monitored with wearables (i.e., WAM metrics) and PS in patients with cancer is needed. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to examine the association between WAM metrics and PS in patients with cancer.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and Embase for studies that assessed the association between WAM metrics and performance status among adults with cancer. We extracted information on study design and population, WAM type and different activity metrics, outcome definitions, and results. Included studies were subjected to risk of bias assessment and subsequent best evidence synthesis.

Results: Fourteen studies were included in this review. All studies reported on different combinations of WAM metrics including: daily steps (n = 8), SB (n = 5), mean activity counts (n = 4), dichotomous circadian rest-activity index (n = 3), and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (n = 3). Much heterogeneity was observed regarding study population, WAM used, and reporting of results. We found moderate evidence for a positive weak-to-moderate association between WAM-assessed PA and PS and a weak-to-moderate negative association between WAM-assessed SB metrics and PS.

Conclusion: Weak-to-moderate associations between WAM metrics and PS suggest that WAM data and physician-assessed PS cannot be used interchangeably. Instead, WAM data could serve as a dynamic and objective supplement measurement of patients' physical performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-021-06234-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8464563PMC
November 2021

Linked Colour imaging for the detection of polyps in patients with Lynch syndrome: a multicentre, parallel randomised controlled trial.

Gut 2021 Mar 18. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, Amsterdam, North Holland, The Netherlands

Objective: Despite regular colonoscopy surveillance, colorectal cancers still occur in patients with Lynch syndrome. Thus, detection of all relevant precancerous lesions remains very important. The present study investigates Linked Colour imaging (LCI), an image-enhancing technique, as compared with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE) for the detection of polyps in this patient group.

Design: This prospective, randomised controlled trial was performed by 22 experienced endoscopists from eight centres in six countries. Consecutive Lynch syndrome patients ≥18 years undergoing surveillance colonoscopy were randomised (1:1) and stratified by centre for inspection with either LCI or HD-WLE. Primary outcome was the polyp detection rate (PDR).

Results: Between January 2018 and March 2020, 357 patients were randomised and 332 patients analysed (160 LCI, 172 HD-WLE; 6 excluded due to incomplete colonoscopies and 19 due to insufficient bowel cleanliness). No significant difference was observed in PDR with LCI (44.4%; 95% CI 36.5% to 52.4%) compared with HD-WLE (36.0%; 95% CI 28.9% to 43.7%) (p=0.12). Of the secondary outcome parameters, more adenomas were found on a patient (adenoma detection rate 36.3%; vs 25.6%; p=0.04) and a colonoscopy basis (mean adenomas per colonoscopy 0.65 vs 0.42; p=0.04). The median withdrawal time was not statistically different between LCI and HD-WLE (12 vs 11 min; p=0.16).

Conclusion: LCI did not improve the PDR compared with HD-WLE in patients with Lynch syndrome undergoing surveillance. The relevance of findings more adenomas by LCI has to be examined further.

Trial Registration Number: NCT03344289.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2020-323132DOI Listing
March 2021

Gender Differences in Treatment Allocation and Survival of Advanced Gastroesophageal Cancer: A Population-Based Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Nov;113(11):1551-1560

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Biological sex and gender have been reported to affect incidence and overall survival (OS) of curatively treated gastroesophageal cancer. The aim of this study was to compare palliative treatment allocation and OS between women and men with advanced gastroesophageal cancer.

Methods: Patients with an unresectable or metastatic esophageal (including cardia) adenocarcinoma (EAC) or squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) or gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) diagnosed in 2015-2018 were identified in the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Treatment allocation was compared using χ2 tests and multivariable logistic regression analyses, and OS using the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards analysis. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Of patients with EAC (n = 3077), ESCC (n = 794), and GAC (n = 1836), 18.0%, 39.4%, and 39.1% were women, respectively. Women less often received systemic treatment compared with men for EAC (42.7% vs 47.4%, P = .045) and GAC (33.8% vs 38.8%, P = .03) but not for ESCC (33.2% vs 39.5%, P = .07). Women had a lower probability of receiving systemic treatment for GAC in multivariable analyses (odds ratio [OR] = 0.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.62 to 1.00) but not for EAC (OR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.69 to 1.06) and ESCC (OR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.57 to 1.14). Median OS was lower in women with EAC (4.4 vs 5.2 months, P = .04) but did not differ after adjustment for patient and tumor characteristics and systemic treatment administration.

Conclusions: We observed statistically significant and clinically relevant gender differences in systemic treatment administration and OS in advanced gastroesophageal cancer. Causes of these disparities may be sex based (ie, related to tumor biology) as well as gender based (eg, related to differences in treatment choices).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djab075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8562959PMC
November 2021

Conversion of a colorectal cancer guideline into clinical decision trees with assessment of validity.

Int J Qual Health Care 2021 Apr;33(2)

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, Noord-Holland 1105 AZ, Netherlands.

Objective: The interpretation and clinical application of guidelines can be challenging and time-consuming, which may result in noncompliance to guidelines. The aim of this study was to convert the Dutch guideline for colorectal cancer (CRC) into decision trees and subsequently implement decision trees in an online decision support environment to facilitate guideline application.

Methods: The recommendations of the Dutch CRC guidelines (published in 2014) were translated into decision trees consisting of decision nodes, branches and leaves that represent data items, data item values and recommendations, respectively. Decision trees were discussed with experts in the field and published as interactive open access decision support software (available at www.oncoguide.nl). Decision tree validation and a concordance analysis were performed using consecutive reports (January 2016-January 2017) from CRC multidisciplinary tumour boards (MTBs) at Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC.

Results: In total, we developed 34 decision trees driven by 101 decision nodes based on the guideline recommendations. Decision trees represented recommendations for diagnostics (n = 1), staging (n = 10), primary treatment (colon: n = 1, rectum: n = 5, colorectal: n = 9), pathology (n = 4) and follow-up (n = 3) and included one overview decision tree for optimal navigation. We identified several guideline information gaps and areas of inconclusive evidence. A total of 158 patients' MTB reports were eligible for decision tree validation and resulted in treatment recommendations in 80% of cases. The concordance rate between decision tree treatment recommendations and MTB advices was 81%. Decision trees reported in 22 out of 24 non-concordant cases (92%) that no guideline recommendation was available.

Conclusions: We successfully converted the Dutch CRC guideline into decision trees and identified several information gaps and areas of inconclusive evidence, the latter being the main cause of the observed disagreement between decision tree recommendations and MTB advices. Decision trees may contribute to future strategies to optimize quality of care for CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzab051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8023581PMC
April 2021

SOURCE: Prediction Models for Overall Survival in Patients With Metastatic and Potentially Curable Esophageal and Gastric Cancer.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 04 26;19(4):403-410. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

1Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, and.

Background: Personalized prediction of treatment outcomes can aid patients with cancer when deciding on treatment options. Existing prediction models for esophageal and gastric cancer, however, have mostly been developed for survival prediction after surgery (ie, when treatment has already been completed). Furthermore, prediction models for patients with metastatic cancer are scarce. The aim of this study was to develop prediction models of overall survival at diagnosis for patients with potentially curable and metastatic esophageal and gastric cancer (the SOURCE study).

Methods: Data from 13,080 patients with esophageal or gastric cancer diagnosed in 2015 through 2018 were retrieved from the prospective Netherlands Cancer Registry. Four Cox proportional hazards regression models were created for patients with potentially curable and metastatic esophageal or gastric cancer. Predictors, including treatment type, were selected using the Akaike information criterion. The models were validated with temporal cross-validation on their C-index and calibration.

Results: The validated model's C-index was 0.78 for potentially curable gastric cancer and 0.80 for potentially curable esophageal cancer. For the metastatic models, the c-indices were 0.72 and 0.73 for esophageal and gastric cancer, respectively. The 95% confidence interval of the calibration intercepts and slopes contain the values 0 and 1, respectively.

Conclusions: The SOURCE prediction models show fair to good c-indices and an overall good calibration. The models are the first in esophageal and gastric cancer to predict survival at diagnosis for a variety of treatments. Future research is needed to demonstrate their value for shared decision-making in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7631DOI Listing
April 2021

Prognosis of Interval Distant Metastases After Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

Ann Thorac Surg 2022 Feb 18;113(2):482-490. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: In esophageal cancer patients, distant metastases develop between the start of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and planned surgery, so-called interval metastases. The primary aim of this study was to assess management, overall survival (OS), and prognostic factors for OS in these patients. A secondary aim was to compare OS with synchronous metastatic patients.

Methods: Esophageal cancer patients with interval distant metastases were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (2010 to 2017). Management was categorized into metastasis-directed therapy (MDT), primary tumor resection, or best supportive care (BSC). The OS was calculated from the diagnosis of the primary tumor. Prognostic factors affecting OS were studied using Cox proportional hazard models. Propensity score-matching (1:3) generated matched cases with synchronous distant metastases.

Results: In all, 208 patients with interval metastases were identified: in 87 patients (42%) MDT was initiated; in 10%, primary tumor resection only; in 7%, primary tumor resection plus MDT; and in 41%, BSC. Median OS was 10 months (interquartile range, 8.6 to 11.1). Compared with BSC, superior OS was independently associated with MDT (hazard ratio [HR] 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.49), primary tumor resection (HR 0.55; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.94), and primary tumor resection plus MDT (HR 0.20; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.38). Worse OS was independently associated with signet ring cell carcinoma (HR 1.92; 95% CI, 1.12 to 3.28) and poor differentiation grade (HR 1.96; 95% CI, 1.35 to 2.83). The OS was comparable between matched patients with interval and synchronous distant metastases (10.2 versus 9.4 months, P = .760).

Conclusions: In esophageal cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy with interval distant metastases, the OS was poor and comparable to that of synchronous metastatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.01.061DOI Listing
February 2022

Cachexia and Dietetic Interventions in Patients With Esophagogastric Cancer: A Multicenter Cohort Study.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 01 8;19(2):144-152. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

1Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam.

Background: Cachexia is common in patients with esophagogastric cancer and is associated with increased mortality. Nutritional screening and dietetic interventions can be helpful in preventing evolvement of cachexia. Our aim was to study the real-world prevalence and prognostic value of pretreatment cachexia on overall survival (OS) using patient-reported weight loss, and to explore dietetic interventions in esophagogastric cancer.

Materials And Methods: Patients with esophagogastric cancer (2015-2018), regardless of disease stage, who participated in the Prospective Observational Cohort Study of Esophageal-Gastric Cancer Patients (POCOP) and completed patient-reported outcome measures were included. Data on weight loss and dietetic interventions were retrieved from questionnaires before start of treatment (baseline) and 3 months thereafter. Additional patient data were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cachexia was defined as self-reported >5% half-year body weight loss at baseline or >2% in patients with a body mass index (BMI) <20 kg/m2 according to the Fearon criteria. The association between cachexia and OS was analyzed using multivariable Cox proportional hazard analyses adjusted for sex, age, performance status, comorbidities, primary tumor location, disease stage, histology, and treatment strategy.

Results: Of 406 included patients, 48% had pretreatment cachexia, of whom 65% were referred for dietetic consultation at baseline. The proportion of patients with cachexia was the highest among those who received palliative chemotherapy (59%) or best supportive care (67%). Cachexia was associated with decreased OS (hazard ratio, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.11-2.09). Median weight loss after 3-month follow-up was lower in patients with cachexia who were referred to a dietician at baseline compared with those who were not (0% vs 2%; P=.047).

Conclusions: Nearly half of patients with esophagogastric cancer have pretreatment cachexia. Dietetic consultation at baseline was not reported in more than one-third of the patients with cachexia. Because cachexia was independently associated with decreased survival, improving nutritional screening and referral for dietetic consultation are warranted to prevent further deterioration of malnutrition and mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2020.7615DOI Listing
January 2021

Conversion strategies with chemotherapy plus targeted agents for colorectal cancer liver-only metastases: A systematic review.

Eur J Cancer 2020 12 12;141:225-238. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: There is no consensus on the optimal systemic conversion therapy in patients with unresectable colorectal cancer liver-only metastases (CRLM) to achieve a complete resection. Interpretation of trials is complicated by heterogeneity of patients caused by emerging prognostic and predictive characteristics, such as RAS/BRAF mutation status, lack of consensus on unresectability criteria and lack of data on clinical outcome of secondary resections. A systematic review was performed of characteristics of study populations and methodology of trials regarding patients with initially unresectable colorectal cancer liver-only metastases.

Methods: Phase II/III randomised trials, published after 2008, regarding first-line systemic conversion therapy in patients or subgroups of patients with CRLM were included. Data on secondary resection outcomes were collected.

Results: Overall, 20 trials were included for analysis: seven prospective trials in patients with unresectable CRLM and 13 trials in the overall population of unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) with retrospective subgroup analysis of CRLM patients. Fourteen trials did not provide unresectability criteria at baseline, and criteria differed among the remaining studies. Trials and study populations were heterogeneous in prognostic/predictive factors, use of primary end-points, and reporting on long-term clinical outcomes. R0-resection rates in CRLM patients varied between CRLM studies and mCRC studies, with rates of 22-57% and 11-38%, respectively.

Conclusions: Cross-study comparison of (subgroups of) studies regarding first-line systemic treatment in patients with unresectable CRLM is hampered by heterogeneity in study populations, trial designs, use of (K)RAS/BRAF mutational tumour status, and differences/absence of unresectability criteria. No optimal conversion systemic regimen can be selected from available data. Prospective studies with well-defined criteria of these issues are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.09.037DOI Listing
December 2020

Cachexia, dietetic consultation, and survival in patients with pancreatic and periampullary cancer: A multicenter cohort study.

Cancer Med 2020 12 27;9(24):9385-9395. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

It is unclear to what extent patients with pancreatic cancer have cachexia and had a dietetic consult for nutritional support. The aim was to assess the prevalence of cachexia, dietitian consultation, and overall survival in these patients. This prospective multicenter cohort study included patients with pancreatic cancer, who participated in the Dutch Pancreatic Cancer Project and completed patient reported outcome measures (2015-2018). Additional data were obtained from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Cachexia was defined as self-reported >5% body weight loss, or >2% in patients with a BMI <20 kg/m over the past half year. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to analyze overall survival. In total, 202 patients were included from 18 centers. Cachexia was present in 144 patients (71%) and 81 of those patients (56%) had dietetic consultation. Cachexia was present in 63% of 94 patients who underwent surgery, 77% of 70 patients who received palliative chemotherapy and 82% of 38 patients who had best supportive care. Dietitian consultation was reported in 53%, 52%, and 71%, respectively. Median overall survival did not differ between patients with and without cachexia, but decreased in those with severe weight loss (12 months (IQR 7-20) vs. 16 months (IQR 8-31), p = 0.02), as compared to those with <10% weight loss during the past half year. Two-thirds of patients with pancreatic cancer present with cachexia of which nearly half had no dietetic consultation. Survival was comparable in patients with and without cachexia, but decreased in patients with more severe weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.3556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774726PMC
December 2020

Efficacy and safety of systemic induction therapy in initially unresectable locally advanced intrahepatic and perihilar cholangiocarcinoma: A systematic review.

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Dec 6;91:102110. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Amsterdam UMC, Dept. of Medical Oncology, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: According to international guidelines, induction therapy may be considered in selected patients with initially unresectable locally advanced cholangiocarcinoma. The criteria for (un)resectability in cholangiocarcinoma varies between studies and no consensus-based agreement is available about these criteria. By performing a systematic literature review, we aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of systemic induction therapy in initially unresectable locally advanced perihilar (pCCA) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) and summarize resectability criteria used across studies.

Methods: A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane library to identify studies on systemic induction therapy in locally advanced pCCA and/or iCCA. The primary outcome was resection rate (RR) after induction therapy and secondary outcomes were overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR).

Results: Ten studies with a total of 1167 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Among these patients, 334 (28.6%) were treated with systemic induction therapy. Across the studies, different types of chemotherapy regimens were administered (e.g., gemcitabine (based) chemotherapy and 5-FU (based) chemotherapy). Only six studies provided sufficient data and were used to analyze pooled (radical) resection rates. After induction therapy, 94 patients (39.2%) underwent a resection, of which R0 resections (22.9%). Pooled data on OS showed, better OS for chemotherapy plus resection versus chemotherapy only (pooled HR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.19-0.50; P value < 0.0001).

Conclusion: Adequately selected patients with locally advanced pCCA or iCCA may benefit from induction therapy followed by surgical resection. Prospective randomized controlled trials are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102110DOI Listing
December 2020

Hospital volume and beyond first-line palliative systemic treatment in metastatic oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma: A population-based study.

Eur J Cancer 2020 11 25;139:107-118. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Beyond first-line palliative systemic treatment can be beneficial to selected oesophagogastric cancer patients, but experience with its administration may be limited and vary among hospitals. In a population-based study, we analysed the association between hospital systemic treatment volume and administration of beyond first-line treatment in oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma, as well as the effect on overall survival (OS).

Methods: Synchronous metastatic oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma patients (2010-2017) were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry. Hospitals were categorised in volumes quartiles. The association between hospital systemic treatment volume and the use of beyond first-line treatment was assessed using trend and multivariable logistic regression analyses. OS was compared between hospitals with high and low beyond first-line treatment administration and treatment strategies using Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression.

Results: Beyond first-line treatment was administered in 606 of 2,466 patients who received first-line treatment, and increased from 20% to 31% between 2010 and 2017 (P < 0.001). The lowest hospital volumes were independently associated with lower beyond first-line treatment administration compared to the highest volume (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39-0.99; OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.95). Median OS was higher in all patients treated in hospitals with a high versus low beyond first-line treatment administration (7.9 versus 6.2 months, P < 0.001). Second-line paclitaxel/ramucirumab was administered most frequently and independently associated with longer OS compared to taxane monotherapy (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.92).

Conclusion: Higher hospital volume was associated with increased beyond first-line treatment administration in oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. Second-line paclitaxel/ramucirumab resulted in longer survival compared to taxane monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.08.010DOI Listing
November 2020

Practice Variation in the Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer in the Netherlands: A Population-based Study.

Anticancer Res 2020 Aug;40(8):4331-4341

Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background/aim: Adjuvant chemotherapy is recommended for a subgroup of colon cancer patients based on patient and tumour characteristics. Population-based data on the adoption of the prevailing guideline recommendations including the assessment of tumour mismatch repair (MMR) status are limited, while variations in treatment strategies may influence patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to assess practice variation in adjuvant chemotherapy administration in colon cancer patients.

Patients And Methods: We examined the association between patient, demographic and tumour characteristics on the odds of being treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in a random sample of adult stage II-III colon cancer patients from the Dutch National Cancer Registry (2008-2015) and assessed its association with survival.

Results: The study population consisted of 2,044 patients of whom 18% (79 out of 450) were high-risk stage II and 65% (645 out of 997) were stage III colon cancer and received adjuvant chemotherapy. Chemotherapy administration differed between individual hospitals (high-risk stage II: 0-39%; p=0.01; stage III: 50-78%; p=0.06). Type of hospital (teaching versus academic) and the presence of a pT4 tumour were positively associated (high-risk stage II), and bowel perforation and examined regional lymph nodes (<10) were negatively associated (stage III) with adjuvant treatment. Higher age was associated with non-administration of adjuvant chemotherapy for both stages. Tumour MMR-status assessment increased from 9% to 23% (p<0.001), but 62% of high-risk stage II and 13% of stage III patients did not undergo guideline-recommended MMR-status testing. Adjuvant chemotherapy was correlated with survival for stage III (HR=0.4; 95%CI=0.3-0.5) but not for high-risk stage II patients (HR=1.2; 95%CI=0.7-2.2).

Conclusion: Significant practice variation in the adjuvant treatment of colon cancer on hospital level was demonstrated, predominantly in high-risk stage II patients. The implementation of MMR testing was suboptimal. We recommend continuous monitoring of treatment patterns using population-based data, which should facilitate hospital auditing and improve guideline implementation and quality of care for colon cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/anticanres.14436DOI Listing
August 2020

Evaluation of the performance of algorithms mapping EORTC QLQ-C30 onto the EQ-5D index in a metastatic colorectal cancer cost-effectiveness model.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 Jul 20;18(1):240. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Cost-effectiveness models require quality of life utilities calculated from generic preference-based questionnaires, such as EQ-5D. We evaluated the performance of available algorithms for QLQ-C30 conversion into EQ-5D-3L based utilities in a metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patient population and subsequently developed a mCRC specific algorithm. Influence of mapping on cost-effectiveness was evaluated.

Methods: Three available algorithms were compared with observed utilities from the CAIRO3 study. Six models were developed using 5-fold cross-validation: predicting EQ-5D-3L tariffs from QLQ-C30 functional scale scores, continuous QLQ-C30 scores or dummy levels with a random effects model (RE), a most likely probability method on EQ-5D-3L functional scale scores, a beta regression model on QLQ-C30 functional scale scores and a separate equations subgroup approach on QLQ-C30 functional scale scores. Performance was assessed, and algorithms were tested on incomplete QLQ-C30 questionnaires. Influence of utility mapping on incremental cost/QALY gained (ICER) was evaluated in an existing Dutch mCRC cost-effectiveness model.

Results: The available algorithms yielded mean utilities of 1: 0.87 ± sd:0.14,2: 0.81 ± 0.15 (both Dutch tariff) and 3: 0.81 ± sd:0.19. Algorithm 1 and 3 were significantly different from the mean observed utility (0.83 ± 0.17 with Dutch tariff, 0.80 ± 0.20 with U.K. tariff). All new models yielded predicted utilities drawing close to observed utilities; differences were not statistically significant. The existing algorithms resulted in an ICER difference of €10,140 less and €1765 more compared to the observed EQ-5D-3L based ICER (€168,048). The preferred newly developed algorithm was €5094 higher than the observed EQ-5D-3L based ICER. Disparity was explained by minimal diffences in incremental QALYs between models.

Conclusion: Available mapping algorithms sufficiently accurately predict utilities. With the commonly used statistical methods, we did not succeed in developping an improved mapping algorithm. Importantly, cost-effectiveness outcomes in this study were comparable to the original model outcomes between different mapping algorithms. Therefore, mapping can be an adequate solution for cost-effectiveness studies using either a previously designed and validated algorithm or an algorithm developed in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01481-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370458PMC
July 2020

Priming the tumor immune microenvironment with chemo(radio)therapy: A systematic review across tumor types.

Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer 2020 08 12;1874(1):188386. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) are able to alter the composition of the tumor immune microenvironment (TIME). Understanding the effect of these modalities on the TIME could aid in the development of improved treatment strategies. Our aim was to systematically review studies investigating the influence of CT, RT or CRT on different TIME markers.

Methods: The EMBASE (Ovid) and PubMed databases were searched until January 2019 for prospective or retrospective studies investigating the dynamics of the local TIME in cancer patients (pts) treated with CT, RT or CRT, with or without targeted agents. Studies could either compare baseline and follow-up specimens - before and after treatment - or a treated versus an untreated cohort. Studies were included if they used immunohistochemistry and/or flow cytometry to assess the TIME.

Results: In total we included 110 studies (n = 8850 pts), of which n = 89 (n = 6295 pts) compared pre-treatment to post-treatment specimens and n = 25 (n = 2555 pts) a treated versus an untreated cohort (4 studies conducted both comparisons). For several tumor types (among others; breast, cervical, esophageal, ovarian, rectal, lung mesothelioma and pancreatic cancer) remodeling of the TIME was observed, leading to a potentially more immunologically active microenvironment, including one or more of the following: an increase in CD3 or CD8 lymphocytes, a decrease in FOXP3 Tregs and increased PD-L1 expression. Both CT and CRT were able to immunologically alter the TIME.

Conclusion: The TIME of several tumor types is significantly altered after conventional therapy creating opportunities for concurrent or sequential immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbcan.2020.188386DOI Listing
August 2020

Modeling Personalized Adjuvant TreaTment in EaRly stage coloN cancer (PATTERN).

Eur J Health Econ 2020 Sep 26;21(7):1059-1073. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Amsterdam UMC, VU University, MF F-wing, PO Box 7057, 1007 MB, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Aim: To develop a decision model for the population-level evaluation of strategies to improve the selection of stage II colon cancer (CC) patients who benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy.

Methods: A Markov cohort model with a one-month cycle length and a lifelong time horizon was developed. Five health states were included; diagnosis, 90-day mortality, death other causes, recurrence and CC death. Data from the Netherlands Cancer Registry were used to parameterize the model. Transition probabilities were estimated using parametric survival models including relevant clinical and pathological covariates. Subsequently, biomarker status was implemented using external data. Treatment effect was incorporated using pooled trial data. Model development, data sources used, parameter estimation, and internal and external validation are described in detail. To illustrate the use of the model, three example strategies were evaluated in which allocation of treatment was based on (A) 100% adherence to the Dutch guidelines, (B) observed adherence to guideline recommendations and (C) a biomarker-driven strategy.

Results: Overall, the model showed good internal and external validity. Age, tumor growth, tumor sidedness, evaluated lymph nodes, and biomarker status were included as covariates. For the example strategies, the model predicted 83, 87 and 77 CC deaths after 5 years in a cohort of 1000 patients for strategies A, B and C, respectively.

Conclusion: This model can be used to evaluate strategies for the allocation of adjuvant chemotherapy in stage II CC patients. In future studies, the model will be used to estimate population-level long-term health gain and cost-effectiveness of biomarker-based selection strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10198-020-01199-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423797PMC
September 2020

Practice variation on hospital level in the systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer in The Netherlands: a population-based study.

Acta Oncol 2020 Apr 12;59(4):395-403. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Population-based data on the implementation of guidelines for cancer patients in daily practice are scarce, while practice variation may influence patient outcomes. Therefore, we evaluated treatment patterns and associated variables in the systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) in the Netherlands. We selected a random sample of adult mCRC patients diagnosed from 2008 to 2015 from the National Cancer Registry in 20 (4 academic, 8 teaching and 8 regional) Dutch hospitals. We examined the influence of patient, demographic and tumour characteristics on the odds of being treated with systemic therapy according to the current guideline and assessed its association with survival. Our study population consisted of 2222 mCRC patients of whom 1307 patients received systemic therapy for mCRC. Practice variation was most obvious in the use of bevacizumab and anti-EGFR therapy in patients with wild-type tumours. Administration rates did not differ between hospital types but fluctuated between individual hospitals for bevacizumab (8-92%;  < .0001) and anti-EGFR therapy (10-75%;  = .05). Bevacizumab administration was inversely correlated to higher age (OR:0.2; 95%CI: 0.1-0.3) comorbidity (OR:0.6; 95%CI: 0.5-0.8) and the presence of metachronous metastases (OR:0.5; 95%CI: 0.3-0.7), but patient characteristics did not differ between hospitals with low or high bevacizumab administration rates. The hazard ratios for exposure to bevacizumab and anti-EGFR therapy were 0.8 (95%CI: 0.7-0.9) and 0.6 (95%CI: 0.5-0.8), respectively. We identified significant inter-hospital variation in targeted therapy administration for mCRC patients, which may affect outcome. Age and comorbidity were inversely correlated with non-administration of bevacizumab but did not explain inter-hospital practice variation. Our data suggest that practice variation is based on individual strategy of hospitals rather than guideline recommendations or patient-driven decisions. Individual hospital strategies are an additional factor that may explain the observed differences between real-life data and results obtained from clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2020.1722320DOI Listing
April 2020

Increased assessment of HER2 in metastatic gastroesophageal cancer patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Gastric Cancer 2020 07 11;23(4):579-590. Epub 2020 Jan 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Addition of trastuzumab to first-line palliative chemotherapy in gastroesophageal cancer patients with HER2 overexpression has shown to improve survival. Real-world data on HER2 assessment and administration of trastuzumab are lacking. The aim of this study was to assess HER2 testing, trastuzumab administration, and overall survival (OS) in a nationwide cohort of metastatic gastroesophageal cancer patients.

Methods: Data of patients with synchronous metastatic gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma diagnosed in 2010-2016 that received palliative systemic treatment (n = 2846) were collected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry and Dutch Pathology Registry. The ToGA trial criteria were used to determine HER2 overexpression. Proportions of HER2 tested patients were analyzed between hospital volume categories using Chi-square tests, and over time using trend analysis. OS was tested using the Kaplan Meier method with log rank test.

Results: HER2 assessment increased annually, from 18% in 2010 to 88% in 2016 (P < 0.01). Median OS increased from 6.9 (2010-2013) to 7.9 months (2014-2016; P < 0.05). Between the hospitals, the proportion of tested patients varied between 29-100%, and was higher in high-volume hospitals (P < 0.01). Overall, 77% of the HER2 positive patients received trastuzumab. Median OS was higher in patients with positive (8.8 months) and negative (7.4 months) HER2 status, compared to non-tested patients (5.6 months; P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Increased determination of HER2 and administration of trastuzumab have changed daily practice management of metastatic gastroesophageal cancer patients receiving palliative systemic therapy, and possibly contributed to their improved survival. Further increase in awareness of HER2 testing and trastuzumab administration may improve quality of care and patient outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10120-020-01039-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7305095PMC
July 2020

Efficacy and safety of FOLFIRINOX as salvage treatment in advanced biliary tract cancer: an open-label, single arm, phase 2 trial.

Br J Cancer 2020 03 10;122(5):634-639. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Amsterdam UMC, Department of Medical Oncology, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: No standard treatment is available for advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) after first-line therapy with gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GEMCIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate safety and anti-tumour activity of fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan plus oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) as salvage treatment in patients with previously treated advanced BTC.

Methods: In this two-stage phase 2 study, patients with advanced BTC who had disease progression or unacceptable toxicity after ≥3 cycles of GEMCIS were eligible. Primary endpoints were safety and efficacy (defined as objective response rate, ORR). In stage one, ten patients were treated with FOLFIRINOX every 2 weeks. In stage two, an additional 20 patients were enrolled at a starting dose as defined in stage one, provided that in stage ≥1 objective response or ≥2 stable diseases were observed and ≤3 patients had serious adverse events (SAEs) within the first 6 weeks of treatment. Secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Forty patients were screened for eligibility and 30 patients were enrolled. In stage one, one patient had a partial response and five patients had stable disease. One patient had a SAE during the first 6 weeks of treatment, and five patients required a dose reduction due to adverse events. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events in stage one were neutropaenia, mucositis and diarrhoea. Stage two was initiated with FOLFIRINOX in an adapted dose. In stage two, grade 3-4 neutropaenia, diarrhoea, nausea and vomiting were the most common adverse events. The ORR, median PFS and OS in all patients were 10%, 6.2 and 10.7 months, respectively.

Conclusions: In patients with advanced BTC who progressed after or were intolerant to GEMCIS, FOLFIRINOX can be administered safely and could be considered as an option for salvage treatment in these patients.

Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02456714.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41416-019-0698-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7054309PMC
March 2020

Gastro-oesophageal junction: to FLOT or to CROSS?

Acta Oncol 2020 Feb 9;59(2):233-236. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2019.1698765DOI Listing
February 2020

Phase II Feasibility and Biomarker Study of Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab and Pertuzumab With Chemoradiotherapy for Resectable Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Positive Esophageal Adenocarcinoma: TRAP Study.

J Clin Oncol 2020 02 6;38(5):462-471. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Approximately 15% to 43% of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) are human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positive. Because dual-agent HER2 blockade demonstrated a survival benefit in breast cancer, we conducted a phase II feasibility study of trastuzumab and pertuzumab added to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in patients with EAC.

Patients And Methods: Patients with resectable HER2-positive EAC received standard nCRT with carboplatin and paclitaxel and 41.4 Gy of radiotherapy, with 4 mg/kg of trastuzumab on day 1, 2 mg/kg per week during weeks 2 to 6, and 6 mg/kg per week during weeks 7, 10, and 13 and 840 mg of pertuzumab every 3 weeks. The primary end point was feasibility, defined as ≥ 80% completion of treatment with both trastuzumab and pertuzumab. An exploratory comparison of survival with a propensity score-matched cohort receiving standard nCRT was performed, as were exploratory pharmacokinetic and biomarker analyses.

Results: Of the 40 enrolled patients (78% men; median age, 63 years), 33 (83%) completed treatment with trastuzumab and pertuzumab. No unexpected safety events were observed. R0 resection was achieved in all patients undergoing surgery, with pathologic complete response in 13 patients (34%). Three-year progression-free and overall survival (OS) were 57% and 71%, respectively (median follow-up, 32.1 months). Compared with the propensity score-matched cohort, a significantly longer OS was observed with HER2 blockade (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.97). Results of pharmacokinetic analysis and activity on [F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans did not correlate with survival or pathologic response. Patients with HER2 3+ overexpression or growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (Grb7) -positive tumors at baseline demonstrated significantly better survival ( = .007) or treatment response ( = .016), respectively.

Conclusion: Addition of trastuzumab and pertuzumab to nCRT in patients with HER2-positive EAC is feasible and demonstrates potentially promising activity compared with historical controls. HER2 3+ overexpression and Grb7 positivity are potentially predictive for survival and treatment response, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01814DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7007286PMC
February 2020

The Use of (Network) Meta-Analysis in Clinical Oncology.

Front Oncol 2019 27;9:822. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Centre Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Meta-analysis is important in oncological research to provide a more reliable answer to a clinical research question that was assessed in multiple studies but with inconsistent results. Pair-wise meta-analysis can be applied when comparing two treatments at once, whereas it is possible to compare multiple treatments at once with network meta-analysis (NMA). After careful systematic review of the literature and quality assessment of the identified studies, there are several assumptions in the use of meta-analysis. First, the added value of meta-analysis should be evaluated by examining the comparability of study populations. Second, the appropriate comparator in meta-analysis should be chosen according to the types of comparisons made in individual studies: (1) Experimental and comparator arms are different treatments (A vs. B); (2) Substitution of a conventional treatment by an experimental treatment (A+B vs. A+C); or (3) Addition of an experimental treatment (A+B vs. B). Ideally there is one common comparator treatment, but when there are multiple common comparators, the most efficacious comparator is preferable. Third, treatments can only be adequately pooled in meta-analysis or merged into one treatment node in NMA when considering likewise mechanism of action and similar setting in which treatment is indicated. Fourth, for both pair-wise meta-analysis and NMA, adequate assessment of heterogeneity should be performed and sub-analysis and sensitivity analysis can be applied to objectify a possible confounding factor. Network inconsistency, as statistical manifestation of violating the transitivity assumption, can best be evaluated by node-split modeling. NMA has advantages over pair-wise meta-analysis, such as clarification of inconsistent outcomes from multiple studies including multiple common comparators and indirect effect calculation of missing direct comparisons between important treatments. Also, NMA can provide increased statistical power and cross-validation of the observed treatment effect of weak connections with reasonable network connectivity and sufficient sample-sizes. However, inappropriate use of NMA can cause misleading results, and may emerge when there is low network connectivity, and therefore low statistical power. Furthermore, indirect evidence is still observational and should be interpreted with caution. NMA should therefore preferably be conducted and interpreted by both expert clinicians in the field and an experienced statistician. Finally, the use of meta-analysis can be extended to other areas, for example the identification of prognostic and predictive factors. Also, the integration of evidence from both meta-analysis and expert opinion can improve the construction of prognostic models in real-world databases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00822DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6718703PMC
August 2019

From presentation to paper: Gender disparities in oncological research.

Int J Cancer 2020 06 11;146(11):3011-3021. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Gender disparities in scientific publications have been identified in oncological research. Oral research presentations at major conferences enhance visibility of presenters. The share of women presenting at such podia is unknown. We aim to identify gender-based differences in contributions to presentations at two major oncological conferences. Abstracts presented at plenary sessions of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meetings and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congresses were collected. Trend analyses were used to analyze female contribution over time. The association between presenter's sex, study outcome (positive/negative) and journals' impact factors (IFs) of subsequently published papers was assessed using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. Of 166 consecutive abstracts presented at ASCO in 2011-2018 (n = 34) and ESMO in 2008-2018 (n = 132), 21% had female presenters, all originating from Northern America (n = 17) or Europe (n = 18). The distribution of presenter's sex was similar over time (p = 0.70). Of 2,425 contributing authors to these presented abstracts, 28% were women. The proportion of female abstract authors increased over time (p < 0.05) and was higher in abstracts with female (34%) compared to male presenters (26%; p < 0.01). Presenter's sex was not associated with study outcome (p = 0.82). Median journals' IFs were lower in papers with a female first author (p < 0.05). In conclusion, there is a clear gender disparity in research presentations at two major oncological conferences, with 28% of authors and 21% of presenters of these studies being female. Lack of visibility of female presenters could impair acknowledgement for their research, opportunities in their academic career and even hamper heterogeneity in research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7187424PMC
June 2020

COMplot, A Graphical Presentation of Complication Profiles and Adverse Effects for the Curative Treatment of Gastric Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Oncol 2019 25;9:684. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers (UMC), University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

For the curative treatment of gastric cancer, several neoadjuvant, and adjuvant treatment-regimens are available which have shown to improve overall survival. No overview is available regarding toxicity and surgery related outcomes. Our aim was to construct a novel graphical method concerning adverse events (AEs) associated with multimodality treatment and perform a meta-analysis to compare different clinically relevant cytotoxic regimens with each other. The PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and ASCO/ESMO databases were searched up to May 2019 for randomized controlled trials investigating curative treatment regimens for gastric cancer. To construct single and bidirectional bar-charts (COMplots), grade 1-2 and grade 3-5 AEs were extracted per cytotoxic regimen. For surgery-related outcomes a pre-specified set of complications was used. Thereafter, treatment-arms comparing the same regimens were combined in a single-arm random-effects meta-analysis and pooled-proportions were calculated with 95% confidence-intervals. Comparative meta-analyses were performed based on clinical relevance and compound similarity. In total 16 RCTs ( = 4,526 patients) were included investigating pre-operative-therapy and 39 RCTs investigating adjuvant-therapy ( = 13,732 patients). Pre-operative COMplots were created for among others; 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin-oxaliplatin-docetaxel (FLOT), epirubicin-cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine (ECF), cisplatin-fluoropyrimidine (CF), and oxaliplatin-fluoropyrimidine (FOx). Pre-operative FLOT showed a minor increase in grade 1-2 and grade 3-4 AEs compared to pre-operative ECF, CF, and FOx. A pooled analysis of patients who had received pre-operative therapy compared to patients who underwent direct surgery did not reveal any significant difference in surgery related morbidity/mortality. When we compared three commonly used adjuvant regimens; S-1 had the lowest amount of grade 3-4 AEs compared to capecitabine with oxaliplatin (CAPOX) and 5-FU with radiotherapy (5-FU+RT). COMplot provides a novel tool to visualize and compare treatment related AEs for gastric cancer. Based on our comparisons, pre-operative FLOT had a manageable toxicity profile compared to other pre-operative doublet or triplet regimens. We found no evidence indicating surgical outcomes might be hampered by pre-operative therapy. Adjuvant S-1 had a more favorable toxicity profile compared to CAPOX and 5-FU+RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677173PMC
July 2019

Heterogeneity of first-line palliative systemic treatment in synchronous metastatic esophagogastric cancer patients: A real-world evidence study.

Int J Cancer 2020 04 24;146(7):1889-1901. Epub 2019 Aug 24.

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The optimal first-line palliative systemic treatment strategy for metastatic esophagogastric cancer is not well defined. The aim of our study was to explore real-world use of first-line systemic treatment in esophagogastric cancer and assess the effect of treatment strategy on overall survival (OS), time to failure (TTF) of first-line treatment and toxicity. We selected synchronous metastatic esophagogastric cancer patients treated with systemic therapy (2010-2016) from the nationwide Netherlands Cancer Registry (n = 2,204). Systemic treatment strategies were divided into monotherapy, doublet and triplet chemotherapy, and trastuzumab-containing regimens. Data on OS were available for all patients, on TTF for patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2015 (n = 1,700), and on toxicity for patients diagnosed from 2010 to 2014 (n = 1,221). OS and TTF were analyzed using multivariable Cox regression, with adjustment for relevant tumor and patient characteristics. Up to 45 different systemic treatment regimens were found to be administered, with a median TTF of 4.6 and OS of 7.5 months. Most patients (45%) were treated with doublet chemotherapy; 34% received triplets, 10% monotherapy and 10% a trastuzumab-containing regimen. The highest median OS was found in patients receiving a trastuzumab-containing regimen (11.9 months). Triplet chemotherapy showed equal survival rates compared to doublets (OS: HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.83-1.02; TTF: HR 0.92, 95%CI 0.82-1.04) but significantly more grade 3-5 toxicity than doublets (33% vs. 21%, respectively). In conclusion, heterogeneity of first-line palliative systemic treatment in metastatic esophagogastric cancer patients is striking. Based on our data, doublet chemotherapy is the preferred treatment strategy because of similar survival and less toxicity compared to triplets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.32580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027521PMC
April 2020

Prognostic immunohistochemical biomarkers of chemotherapy efficacy in biliary tract cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 2019 Sep 8;141:82-94. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Dept. Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Introduction: Chemotherapy is the mainstay of systemic treatment of biliary tract cancer (BTC). However, the treatment response to chemotherapy varies between patients. Currently, no prognostic biomarkers for chemotherapy efficacy have been considered for use in clinical practice. A systematic review was conducted to evaluate the prognostic value of immunohistochemical biomarkers for chemotherapy in patients with resected as well as with advanced BTC.

Method: Medline and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2017 for studies that evaluated biomarker expression by immunohistochemistry in resected or advanced BTC patients treated with chemotherapy. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and disease or progression free survival (DFS or PFS).

Result: Twenty-six studies, including a total of 1348 patients and 26 different biomarkers, met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. The most frequently studied prognostic biomarkers in BTC were the human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (hENT1), Ribonucleotide Reductase M1 (RRM1), and excision repair cross-complementation 1 (ERCC1). In the meta-analysis of patients treated with gemcitabine-based chemotherapy, high hENT1 expression was associated with longer OS (HR 0.43, 95% CI: 0.28 to 0.64) and DFS/PFS (HR 0.45, 95% CI: 0.33 to 0.61).

Conclusion: hENT1 is a promising prognostic biomarker for gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in resected as well as in advanced BTC and should be further validated for the selection of patients for chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.critrevonc.2019.06.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Quality of Life During Palliative Systemic Therapy for Esophagogastric Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 01;112(1):12-29

Department of Medical Oncology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Palliative systemic therapy can prolong life and reduce tumor-related symptoms for patients with advanced esophagogastric cancer. However, side effects of treatment could negatively affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to review the literature and conduct a meta-analysis to examine the effect of palliative systemic therapy on HRQoL.

Methods: EMBASE, Medline, and Central were searched for phase II/III randomized controlled trials until April 2018 investigating palliative systemic therapy and HRQoL. Meta-analysis was performed on baseline and follow-up summary values of global health status (GHS) and other European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer scales. A clinically relevant change and difference of 10 points (scale 0-100) was set to assess the course of HRQoL over time within treatment arms as well as between arms.

Results: We included 43 randomized controlled trials (N = 13 727 patients). In the first-line and beyond first-line treatment setting, pooled baseline GHS mean estimates were 54.6 (95% confidence interval = 51.9 to 57.3) and 57.9 (95% confidence interval = 55.7 to 60.1), respectively. Thirty-nine (81.3%) treatment arms showed a stable GHS over the course of time. Anthracycline-based triplets, fluoropyrimidine-based doublets without cisplatin, and the addition of trastuzumab to chemotherapy were found to have favorable HRQoL outcomes. HRQoL benefit was observed for taxane monotherapy and several targeted agents over best supportive care beyond first line.

Conclusions: Patients reported impaired GHS at baseline and generally remained stable over time. Anthracycline-based triplets and fluoropyrimidine-based doublets without cisplatin may be preferable first-line treatment options regarding HRQoL for HER2-negative disease. Taxanes and targeted agents could provide HRQoL benefit beyond first line compared with best supportive care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz133DOI Listing
January 2020

Phase I Dose Escalation Study with Expansion Cohort of the Addition of Nab-Paclitaxel to Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin (CapOx) as First-Line Treatment of Metastatic Esophagogastric Adenocarcinoma (ACTION Study).

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jun 14;11(6). Epub 2019 Jun 14.

Laboratory for Experimental Oncology and Radiobiology, Center for Experimental and Molecular Medicine, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

First-line triplet chemotherapy including a taxane may prolong survival in patients with metastatic esophagogastric cancer. The added toxicity of the taxane might be minimized by using nab-paclitaxel. The aim of this phase I study was to determine the feasibility of combining nab-paclitaxel with the standard of care in the Netherlands, capecitabine and oxaliplatin (CapOx). Patients with metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma received oxaliplatin 65 mg/m on days 1 and 8, and capecitabine 1000 mg/m bid on days 1-14 in a 21-day cycle, with nab-paclitaxel on days 1 and 8 at four dose levels (60, 80, 100, and 120 mg/m, respectively), using a standard 3 + 3 dose escalation phase, followed by a safety expansion cohort. Baseline tissue and serum markers for activated tumor stroma were assessed as biomarkers for response and survival. Twenty-six patients were included. The first two dose-limiting toxicities (i.e., diarrhea and dehydration) occurred at dose level 3. The resulting maximum tolerable dose (MTD) of 80 mg/m was used in the expansion cohort, but was reduced to 60 mg/m after three out of eight patients experienced diarrhea grade 3. The objective response rate was 54%. The median progression-free (PFS) and overall survival were 8.0 and 12.8 months, respectively. High baseline serum ADAM12 was associated with a significantly shorter PFS ( = 0.011). In conclusion, albeit that the addition of nab-paclitaxel 60 mg/m to CapOx may be better tolerated than other taxane triplets, relevant toxicity was observed. There is a rationale for preserving taxanes for later-line treatment. ADAM12 is a potential biomarker to predict survival, and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060827DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627561PMC
June 2019
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