Publications by authors named "Martijn F Hoes"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Selenoprotein DIO2 Is a Regulator of Mitochondrial Function, Morphology and UPRmt in Human Cardiomyocytes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 2;22(21). Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 30.001, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Members of the fetal-gene-program may act as regulatory components to impede deleterious events occurring with cardiac remodeling, and constitute potential novel therapeutic heart failure (HF) targets. Mitochondrial energy derangements occur both during early fetal development and in patients with HF. Here we aim to elucidate the role of DIO2, a member of the fetal-gene-program, in pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived human cardiomyocytes and on mitochondrial dynamics and energetics, specifically. RNA sequencing and pathway enrichment analysis was performed on mouse cardiac tissue at different time points during development, adult age, and ischemia-induced HF. To determine the function of DIO2 in cardiomyocytes, a stable human hPSC-line with a DIO2 knockdown was made using a short harpin sequence. Firstly, we showed the selenoprotein, type II deiodinase (DIO2): the enzyme responsible for the tissue-specific conversion of inactive (T4) into active thyroid hormone (T3), to be a member of the fetal-gene-program. Secondly, silencing DIO2 resulted in an increased reactive oxygen species, impaired activation of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response, severely impaired mitochondrial respiration and reduced cellular viability. Microscopical 3D reconstruction of the mitochondrial network displayed substantial mitochondrial fragmentation. Summarizing, we identified DIO2 to be a member of the fetal-gene-program and as a key regulator of mitochondrial performance in human cardiomyocytes. Our results suggest a key position of human DIO2 as a regulator of mitochondrial function in human cardiomyocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222111906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8584701PMC
November 2021

Phospholamban antisense oligonucleotides improve cardiac function in murine cardiomyopathy.

Nat Commun 2021 08 30;12(1):5180. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Cardiology University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Heart failure (HF) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, highlighting an urgent need for novel treatment options, despite recent improvements. Aberrant Ca handling is a key feature of HF pathophysiology. Restoring the Ca regulating machinery is an attractive therapeutic strategy supported by genetic and pharmacological proof of concept studies. Here, we study antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) as a therapeutic modality, interfering with the PLN/SERCA2a interaction by targeting Pln mRNA for downregulation in the heart of murine HF models. Mice harboring the PLN R14del pathogenic variant recapitulate the human dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) phenotype; subcutaneous administration of PLN-ASO prevents PLN protein aggregation, cardiac dysfunction, and leads to a 3-fold increase in survival rate. In another genetic DCM mouse model, unrelated to PLN (Cspr3/Mlp), PLN-ASO also reverses the HF phenotype. Finally, in rats with myocardial infarction, PLN-ASO treatment prevents progression of left ventricular dilatation and improves left ventricular contractility. Thus, our data establish that antisense inhibition of PLN is an effective strategy in preclinical models of genetic cardiomyopathy as well as ischemia driven HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-25439-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8405807PMC
August 2021

Dynamic loading of human engineered heart tissue enhances contractile function and drives a desmosome-linked disease phenotype.

Sci Transl Med 2021 07;13(603)

Regenerative Biomaterials and Therapeutics Group, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

The role that mechanical forces play in shaping the structure and function of the heart is critical to understanding heart formation and the etiology of disease but is challenging to study in patients. Engineered heart tissues (EHTs) incorporating human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes have the potential to provide insight into these adaptive and maladaptive changes. However, most EHT systems cannot model both preload (stretch during chamber filling) and afterload (pressure the heart must work against to eject blood). Here, we have developed a new dynamic EHT (dyn-EHT) model that enables us to tune preload and have unconstrained contractile shortening of >10%. To do this, three-dimensional (3D) EHTs were integrated with an elastic polydimethylsiloxane strip providing mechanical preload and afterload in addition to enabling contractile force measurements based on strip bending. Our results demonstrated that dynamic loading improves the function of wild-type EHTs on the basis of the magnitude of the applied force, leading to improved alignment, conduction velocity, and contractility. For disease modeling, we used hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes from a patient with arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy due to mutations in the desmoplakin gene. We demonstrated that manifestation of this desmosome-linked disease state required dyn-EHT conditioning and that it could not be induced using 2D or standard 3D EHT approaches. Thus, a dynamic loading strategy is necessary to provoke the disease phenotype of diastolic lengthening, reduction of desmosome counts, and reduced contractility, which are related to primary end points of clinical disease, such as chamber thinning and reduced cardiac output.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd1817DOI Listing
July 2021

Human iPSC-Derived Cardiomyocytes of Peripartum Patients With Cardiomyopathy Reveal Aberrant Regulation of Lipid Metabolism.

Circulation 2020 12 7;142(23):2288-2291. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Cardiology (M.F.H., N.B., K.F.A.G., P.v.d.M.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.044962DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846285PMC
December 2020

Red-light-sensitive BODIPY photoprotecting groups for amines and their biological application in controlling heart rhythm.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 May;56(41):5480-5483

Centre for Systems Chemistry, Stratingh Institute for Chemistry, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Control of biological function by the use of photoremovable protecting groups (PPGs) is a gateway towards many new medical developments. Herein, we report the synthesis and application of efficient and biocompatible BODIPY-based photoprotecting groups for amines, which are cleavable with red light in the phototherapeutic window region (λ > 650 nm). We use the most promising PPG for the protection of dopamine and apply it to control the beating frequency of human cardiomyocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc02178dDOI Listing
May 2020

Selenium and outcome in heart failure.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 08 6;22(8):1415-1423. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Experimental Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Severe deficiency of the essential trace element selenium can cause myocardial dysfunction although the mechanism at cellular level is uncertain. Whether, in clinical practice, moderate selenium deficiency is associated with worse symptoms and outcome in patients with heart failure is unknown.

Methods And Results: BIOSTAT-CHF is a multinational, prospective, observational cohort study that enrolled patients with worsening heart failure. Serum concentrations of selenium were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure; secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. To investigate potential mechanisms by which selenium deficiency might affect prognosis, human cardiomyocytes were cultured in absence of selenium, and mitochondrial function and oxidative stress were assessed. Serum selenium concentration (deficiency) was <70 μg/L in 485 (20.4%) patients, who were older, more often women, had worse New York Heart Association class, more severe signs and symptoms of heart failure and poorer exercise capacity (6-min walking test) and quality of life (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire). Selenium deficiency was associated with higher rates of the primary endpoint [hazard ratio (HR) 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.42] and all-cause mortality (HR 1.52; 95% CI 1.26-1.86). In cultured human cardiomyocytes, selenium deprivation impaired mitochondrial function and oxidative phosphorylation, and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels.

Conclusions: Selenium deficiency in heart failure patients is independently associated with impaired exercise tolerance and a 50% higher mortality rate, and impaired mitochondrial function in vitro, in human cardiomyocytes. Clinical trials are needed to investigate the effect of selenium supplements in patients with heart failure, especially if they have low plasma concentrations of selenium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1644DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540257PMC
August 2020

The role of cathepsin D in the pathophysiology of heart failure and its potentially beneficial properties: a translational approach.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 11 3;22(11):2102-2111. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Cathepsin D is a ubiquitous lysosomal protease that is primarily secreted due to oxidative stress. The role of circulating cathepsin D in heart failure (HF) is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the association between circulating cathepsin D levels and clinical outcomes in patients with HF and to investigate the biological settings that induce the release of cathepsin D in HF.

Methods And Results: Cathepsin D levels were studied in 2174 patients with HF from the BIOSTAT-CHF index study. Results were validated in 1700 HF patients from the BIOSTAT-CHF validation cohort. The primary combined outcome was all-cause mortality and/or HF hospitalizations. Human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypoxic, pro-inflammatory signalling and stretch conditions. Additionally, cathepsin D expression was inhibited by targeted short hairpin RNAs (shRNA). Higher levels of cathepsin D were independently associated with diabetes mellitus, renal failure and higher levels of interleukin-6 and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (P < 0.001 for all). Cathepsin D levels were independently associated with the primary combined outcome [hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD): 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23], which was validated in an independent cohort (HR per SD: 1.23, 95% CI 1.09-1.40). In vitro experiments demonstrated that human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes released cathepsin D and troponin T in response to mechanical stretch. ShRNA-mediated silencing of cathepsin D resulted in increased necrosis, abrogated autophagy, increased stress-induced metabolism, and increased release of troponin T from human stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes under stress.

Conclusions: Circulating cathepsin D levels are associated with HF severity and poorer outcome, and reduced levels of cathepsin D may have detrimental effects with therapeutic potential in HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1674DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7754332PMC
November 2020

In peripartum cardiomyopathy plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a potential new biomarker with controversial roles.

Cardiovasc Res 2020 09;116(11):1875-1886

Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg Str. 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany.

Aims: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is a life-threatening heart disease occurring in previously heart-healthy women. A common pathomechanism in PPCM involves the angiostatic 16 kDa-prolactin (16 kDa-PRL) fragment, which via NF-κB-mediated up-regulation of microRNA-(miR)-146a induces vascular damage and heart failure. We analyse whether the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is involved in the pathophysiology of PPCM.

Methods And Results: In healthy age-matched postpartum women (PP-Ctrl, n = 53, left ventricular ejection fraction, LVEF > 55%), PAI-1 plasma levels were within the normal range (21 ± 10 ng/mL), but significantly elevated (64 ± 38 ng/mL, P < 0.01) in postpartum PPCM patients at baseline (BL, n = 64, mean LVEF: 23 ± 8%). At 6-month follow-up (n = 23), PAI-1 levels decreased (36 ± 14 ng/mL, P < 0.01 vs. BL) and LVEF (49 ± 11%) improved. Increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and Troponin T did not correlate with PAI-1. C-reactive protein, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β did not differ between PPCM patients and PP-Ctrl. MiR-146a was 3.6-fold (P < 0.001) higher in BL-PPCM plasma compared with PP-Ctrl and correlated positively with PAI-1. In BL-PPCM serum, 16 kDa-PRL coprecipitated with PAI-1, which was associated with higher (P < 0.05) uPAR-mediated NF-κB activation in endothelial cells compared with PP-Ctrl serum. Cardiac biopsies and dermal fibroblasts from PPCM patients displayed higher PAI-1 mRNA levels (P < 0.05) than healthy controls. In PPCM mice (due to a cardiomyocyte-specific-knockout for STAT3, CKO), cardiac PAI-1 expression was higher than in postpartum wild-type controls, whereas a systemic PAI-1-knockout in CKO mice accelerated peripartum cardiac fibrosis, inflammation, heart failure, and mortality.

Conclusion: In PPCM patients, circulating and cardiac PAI-1 expression are up-regulated. While circulating PAI-1 may add 16 kDa-PRL to induce vascular impairment via the uPAR/NF-κB/miR-146a pathway, experimental data suggest that cardiac PAI-1 expression seems to protect the PPCM heart from fibrosis. Thus, measuring circulating PAI-1 and miR-146a, together with an uPAR/NF-κB-activity assay could be developed into a specific diagnostic marker assay for PPCM, but unrestricted reduction of PAI-1 for therapy may not be advised.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz300DOI Listing
September 2020

Concise Review: The Current State of Human In Vitro Cardiac Disease Modeling: A Focus on Gene Editing and Tissue Engineering.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2019 01 9;8(1):66-74. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, RB, The Netherlands.

Until recently, in vivo and ex vivo experiments were the only means to determine factors and pathways involved in disease pathophysiology. After the generation of characterized human embryonic stem cell lines, human diseases could readily be studied in an extensively controllable setting. The introduction of human-induced pluripotent stem cells, a decade ago, allowed the investigation of hereditary diseases in vitro. In the field of cardiology, diseases linked to known genes have successfully been studied, revealing novel disease mechanisms. The direct effects of various mutations leading to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, arrythmogenic cardiomyopathy, or left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy are discovered as a result of in vitro disease modeling. Researchers are currently applying more advanced techniques to unravel more complex phenotypes, resulting in state-of-the-art models that better mimic in vivo physiology. The continued improvement of tissue engineering techniques and new insights into epigenetics resulted in more reliable and feasible platforms for disease modeling and the development of novel therapeutic strategies. The introduction of CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing granted the ability to model diseases in vitro independent of induced pluripotent stem cells. In addition to highlighting recent developments in the field of human in vitro cardiomyopathy modeling, this review also aims to emphasize limitations that remain to be addressed; including residual somatic epigenetic signatures induced pluripotent stem cells, and modeling diseases with unknown genetic causes. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019;8:66-74.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sctm.18-0052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6312446PMC
January 2019

Iron deficiency impairs contractility of human cardiomyocytes through decreased mitochondrial function.

Eur J Heart Fail 2018 05 27;20(5):910-919. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Iron deficiency is common in patients with heart failure and associated with a poor cardiac function and higher mortality. How iron deficiency impairs cardiac function on a cellular level in the human setting is unknown. This study aims to determine the direct effects of iron deficiency and iron repletion on human cardiomyocytes.

Methods And Results: Human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes were depleted of iron by incubation with the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO). Mitochondrial respiration was determined by Seahorse Mito Stress test, and contractility was directly quantified using video analyses according to the BASiC method. The activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes was examined using spectrophotometric enzyme assays. Four days of iron depletion resulted in an 84% decrease in ferritin (P < 0.0001) and significantly increased gene expression of transferrin receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1 (both P < 0.001). Mitochondrial function was reduced in iron-deficient cardiomyocytes, in particular ATP-linked respiration and respiratory reserve were impaired (both P < 0.0001). Iron depletion affected mitochondrial function through reduced activity of the iron-sulfur cluster containing complexes I, II and III, but not complexes IV and V. Iron deficiency reduced cellular ATP levels by 74% (P < 0.0001) and reduced contractile force by 43% (P < 0.05). The maximum velocities during both systole and diastole were reduced by 64% and 85%, respectively (both P < 0.001). Supplementation of transferrin-bound iron recovered functional and morphological abnormalities within 3 days.

Conclusion: Iron deficiency directly affects human cardiomyocyte function, impairing mitochondrial respiration, and reducing contractility and relaxation. Restoration of intracellular iron levels can reverse these effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5993224PMC
May 2018

EGR1 controls divergent cellular responses of distinctive nucleus pulposus cell types.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2016 Mar 14;17:124. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Department of Molecular Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Background: Immediate early genes (IEGs) encode transcription factors which serve as first line response modules to altered conditions and mediate appropriate cell responses. The immediate early response gene EGR1 is involved in physiological adaptation of numerous different cell types. We have previously shown a role for EGR1 in controlling processes supporting chondrogenic differentiation. We recently established a unique set of phenotypically distinct cell lines from the human nucleus pulposus (NP). Extensive characterization showed that these NP cellular subtypes represented progenitor-like cell types and more functionally mature cells.

Methods: To further understanding of cellular heterogeneity in the NP, we analyzed the response of these cell subtypes to anabolic and catabolic factors. Here, we test the hypothesis that physiological responses of distinct NP cell types are mediated by EGR1 and reflect specification of cell function using an RNA interference-based experimental approach.

Results: We show that distinct NP cell types rapidly induce EGR1 exposure to either growth factors or inflammatory cytokines. In addition, we show that mRNA profiles induced in response to anabolic or catabolic conditions are cell type specific: the more mature NP cell type produced a strong and more specialized transcriptional response to IL-1β than the NP progenitor cells and aspects of this response were controlled by EGR1.

Conclusions: Our current findings provide important substantiation of differential functionality among NP cellular subtypes. Additionally, the data shows that early transcriptional programming initiated by EGR1 is essentially restrained by the cells' epigenome as it was determined during development and differentiation. These studies begin to define functional distinctions among cells of the NP and will ultimately contribute to defining functional phenotypes within the adult intervertebral disc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-016-0979-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4791893PMC
March 2016
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