Publications by authors named "Marta Penna"

37 Publications

Local Recurrence and Disease-Free Survival After Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: Results From the International TaTME Registry.

J Natl Compr Canc Netw 2021 Aug 17. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

1Department of Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: The oncologic safety of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) for rectal cancer has recently been questioned, with high local recurrence (LR) rates reported in Dutch and Norwegian experiences. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of TaTME in a large cohort of patients with primary rectal cancer, primarily in terms of LR, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS).

Patients And Methods: This was a prospective international registry cohort study, including all patients who underwent TaTME for primary rectal adenocarcinoma from February 2010 through December 2018. The main endpoints were 2-year LR rate, pattern of LR, and independent risk factors for LR. Secondary endpoints included 2-year DFS and OS rates. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate actuarial LR, DFS, and OS rates.

Results: A total of 2,803 patients receiving primary TaTME were included, predominantly men (71%) with a median age of 65 years (interquartile ratio, 57-73 years). After a median follow-up of 24 months (interquartile ratio, 12-38 months), the 2-year LR rate was 4.8% (95% CI, 3.8%-5.8%) with a unifocal LR pattern in 99 of 103 patients (96%). Independent risk factors for LR were male sex, threatened resection margin on baseline MRI, pathologic stage III cancer, and a positive circumferential resection margin on final histopathology. The 2-year DFS and OS rates were 77% (95% CI, 75%-79%) and 92% (95% CI, 91%-93%), respectively.

Conclusions: This largest TaTME cohort to date supports the oncologic safety of the TaTME technique for rectal cancer in patients treated in units that contributed to an international registry, with an acceptable 2-year LR rate and a predominantly unifocal LR pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6004/jnccn.2021.7012DOI Listing
August 2021

Summary of Oncologic and Functional Outcomes.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2020 May 28;33(3):150-156. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Large cohort and collaborative studies to date have shown that the short-term oncological outcomes appear to be at least as good as traditional laparoscopic surgery. These results need confirmation in randomized controlled trials, which are currently underway (GRECCAR 11 and COLOR III). The functional data on transanal total mesorectal excision is still very scarce and more mature data on quality of life and function outcomes are eagerly awaited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-3402778DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188505PMC
May 2020

The effect of time between procedures upon the proficiency gain period for minimally invasive esophagectomy.

Surg Endosc 2020 06 20;34(6):2703-2708. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Division of Surgery, Department Surgery & Cancer, Imperial College London, 10th Floor QEQM Building, London, UK.

Background: Complex surgical procedures including minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) are commonly associated with a period of proficiency gain. We aim to study the effect of reduced procedural interval upon the number of cases required to gain proficiency and adverse patient outcomes during this period from MIE.

Methods: All adult patients undergoing MIE for esophageal cancer in England from 2002 to 2012 were identified from Hospital Episode Statistics database. Outcomes evaluated included conversion rate from MIE to open esophagectomy, 30-day re-intervention, 30-day and 90-day mortality. Regression models investigated relationships between procedural interval and the number of cases and clinical outcomes during proficiency gain period.

Results: The MIE dataset comprised of 1696 patents in total, with procedures carried out by 148 surgeons. Thresholds for procedural interval extracted from change-point modeling were found to be 60 days for conversion, 80 days for 30-day re-intervention, 80 days for 30-day mortality and 110 days for 90-day mortality. Procedural interval of MIEs did not influence the number of cases required for proficiency gain. However, reduced MIE procedural interval was associated with significant reductions in conversions (0.16 vs. 0.07; P < 0.001), re-interventions (0.15 vs. 0.09; P < 0.01), 30-day (0.12 vs. 0.05; P < 0.01) and 90-day (0.14 vs. 0.06; P < 0.01) mortality during the period of proficiency gain.

Conclusions: This national study has demonstrated that the introduction of MIE is associated with a period of proficiency gain and adverse patient outcomes. The absolute effect of this period of proficiency gain upon patient morbidity and mortality may be reduced by reduced procedural interval of MIE practice within specialized esophageal cancer centers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-06692-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214481PMC
June 2020

Somatic symptom disorder: a diagnostic dilemma.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Nov 25;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 25.

Department of General Surgery, Wexham Park Hospital, Slough, UK.

Somatic symptom disorder (SSD) is a diagnosis that was introduced with publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) in 2013. It eliminated the diagnoses of somatisation disorder, undifferentiated somatoform disorder, hypochondriasis and pain disorder; most of the patients who previously received these diagnoses are now diagnosed in DSM-5 with SSD. The main feature of this disorder is a patient's concern with physical symptoms for which no biological cause is found. It requires psychiatric assessment to exclude comorbid psychiatric disease. Failure to recognise this disorder may lead the unwary physician or surgeon to embark on investigations or diagnostic procedures which may result in iatrogenic complications. It also poses a significant financial burden on the healthcare service. Patients with non-specific abdominal pain have a poor symptomatic prognosis with continuing use of medical services. Proven treatments include cognitive behavioural therapy, mindfulness therapy and pharmacological treatment using selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants. The authors describe the case of a 31-year-old woman with an emotionally unstable personality disorder and comorbid disease presenting to the emergency department with a 3-week history of left-sided abdominal and leg pain. Despite a plethora of investigations, no organic cause for her pain was found. She was reviewed by the multidisciplinary team including surgeons, physicians, neurologists and psychiatrists. A diagnosis of somatoform symptom disorder was subsequently rendered. As patients with SSD will present to general practice and the emergency department rather than psychiatric settings, this case provides a cautionary reminder of furthering the need for appropriate recognition of this condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-231550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887443PMC
November 2019

Predictive Factors and Risk Model for Positive Circumferential Resection Margin Rate After Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision in 2653 Patients With Rectal Cancer.

Ann Surg 2019 11;270(5):884-891

Department of Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of, and preoperative risk factors for, positive circumferential resection margin (CRM) after transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME).

Background: TaTME has the potential to further reduce the rate of positive CRM for patients with low rectal cancer, thereby improving oncological outcome.

Methods: A prospective registry-based study including all cases recorded on the international TaTME registry between July 2014 and January 2018 was performed. Endpoints were the incidence of, and predictive factors for, positive CRM. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were performed, and factors for positive CRM were then assessed by formulating a predictive model.

Results: In total, 2653 patients undergoing TaTME for rectal cancer were included. The incidence of positive CRM was 107 (4.0%). In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a positive CRM after TaTME was significantly associated with tumors located up to 1 cm from the anorectal junction, anterior tumors, cT4 tumors, extra-mural venous invasion (EMVI), and threatened or involved CRM on baseline MRI (odds ratios 2.09, 1.66, 1.93, 1.94, and 1.72, respectively). The predictive model showed adequate discrimination (area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve >0.70), and predicted a 28% risk of positive CRM if all risk factors were present.

Conclusion: Five preoperative tumor-related characteristics had an adverse effect on CRM involvement after TaTME. The predicted risk of positive CRM after TaTME for a specific patient can be calculated preoperatively with the proposed model and may help guide patient selection for optimal treatment and enhance a tailored treatment approach to further optimize oncological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003516DOI Listing
November 2019

Impact of Suture Type on Erosion Rate After Laparoscopic Ventral Mesh Rectopexy: A Case-Matched Study.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 12;62(12):1512-1517

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, University Hospitals of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Background: There has been increasing concern and scrutiny in the use of mesh for certain pelvic organ prolapse procedures. However, mesh erosion was often associated with sites of suture fixation of the mesh to the rectum or vagina. Thus, in response to this finding, we replaced our suture material with absorbable monofilament suture.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of mesh-related complications after laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy, according to the type of suture used in fixation of mesh.

Design: This was retrospective cohort study.

Settings: This study was performed at a high-volume, tertiary care center. It was conducted using a prospective database including patients who underwent laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy over a 7-year period.

Patients: A total of 495 cases were included; 296 (60%) laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexies were performed using a nonabsorbable suture compared with 199 (40%) with an absorbable suture in a case-matched analysis. In addition, 151 cases of laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy with nonabsorbable were matched based on age, sex, and time of follow-up, with an equal number of patients using absorbable monofilament suture.

Main Outcomes Measures: Primary outcome was symptomatic mesh erosion after rectopexy. Secondary outcomes included other mesh-related complications and/or reoperations.

Results: The erosion rate was 2% (6/495) in the nonabsorbable suture group, including 4 erosions into the rectum and 2 into the vagina. There was no erosion in the group with absorbable suture. This difference was maintained after matching: after a median follow-up of 6 (12) months, there was no erosion in the absorbable suture group versus 3.3% erosion (n = 5) in the nonabsorbable suture group (p = 0.03).

Limitations: This study was limited by its retrospective design.

Conclusions: Mesh-related complications are reduced using absorbable sutures compared with nonabsorbable sutures when performing laparoscopic ventral mesh rectopexy with synthetic mesh without an increase in rectopexy failures. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B49. IMPACTO DEL TIPO DE SUTURA EN LA TASA DE EROSIóN DESPUéS DE LA RECTOPEXIA VENTRAL LAPAROSCóPICA CON MALLA: UN ESTUDIO DE CASOS EMPAREJADOS: Ha habido una creciente preocupación y escrutinio en el uso de la malla para ciertos procedimientos de prolapso de órganos pélvicos. Sin embargo, la erosión de la malla a menudo se asoció con sitios de fijación de sutura de la malla al recto o la vagina. Por lo tanto, en respuesta a este hallazgo, reemplazamos nuestro material de sutura con sutura de monofilamento absorbible.Comparar las tasas de complicaciones relacionadas con la malla después de la rectopexia laparoscópica de malla ventral, de acuerdo al tipo de sutura utilizada en la fijación de la malla.Este fue un estudio de cohorte retrospectivo.Este estudio se realizó en un centro de atención de tercer nivel de alto volumen. Se realizó utilizando una base de datos prospectiva que incluía pacientes que se sometieron a una rectopexia de malla ventral laparoscópica durante un período de 7 años.Se incluyeron un total de 495 casos; 296 (60%) rectopexias de malla ventral laparoscópica utilizando una sutura no reabsorbible en comparación con 199 (40%) con una sutura absorbible en un análisis de casos emparejados. Además, 151 casos de rectopexia ventral laparoscópica con malla no absorbible se emparejaron según la edad, el sexo y el tiempo de seguimiento con un número igual de pacientes que usaban sutura de monofilamento absorbible.La medida de resultado primaria fue la erosión sintomática de la malla después de la rectopexia. La medida de resultado secundarias incluyeron otras complicaciones y/o reoperaciones relacionadas con la malla.La tasa de erosión fue del 2% (6/495) en el grupo de sutura no absorbible; 4 erosiones en el recto y 2 en la vagina. No hubo erosión en el grupo con sutura absorbible. Esta diferencia se mantuvo después del emparejamiento: después de una mediana de seguimiento de 6 (12) meses, no hubo erosión en el grupo de sutura absorbible versus 3.3% de erosión (n = 5) en el grupo de sutura no absorbible (p = 0.03).Este estudio estuvo limitado por su diseño retrospectivo.Las complicaciones relacionadas con la malla se reducen utilizando suturas absorbibles en comparación con las suturas no absorbibles cuando se realiza la rectopexia de malla ventral laparoscópica con malla sintética, sin un aumento en los fracasos de rectopexia. Vea el Resumen del Video en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B49.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001510DOI Listing
December 2019

Urethral Injury and Other Urologic Injuries During Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: An International Collaborative Study.

Ann Surg 2021 08;274(2):e115-e125

Department of Surgery and Surgical Research, University of Graz, Graz, Austria.

Objective: To identify risk factors for urethral and urologic injuries during transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) and evaluate outcomes.

Background: Urethral injury is a rare complication of abdominoperineal resection (APR) that has not been reported during abdominal proctectomy. The Low Rectal Cancer Development Program international taTME registry recently reported a 0.8% incidence, but actual incidence and mechanisms of injury remain largely unknown.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of taTME cases complicated by urologic injury was conducted. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, intraoperative details, and outcomes were analyzed, along with surgeons' experience and training in taTME. Surgeons' opinion of contributing factors and best approaches to avoid injuries were evaluated.

Results: Thirty-four urethral, 2 ureteral, and 3 bladder injuries were reported during taTME operations performed over 7 years by 32 surgical teams. Twenty injuries occurred during the teams' first 8 taTME cases ("early experience"), whereas the remainder occurred between the 12th to 101st case. Injuries resulted in a 22% conversion rate and 8% rate of unplanned APR or Hartmann procedure. At median follow-up of 27.6 months (range, 3-85), the urethral repair complication rate was 26% with a 9% rate of failed urethral repair requiring permanent urinary diversion. In patients with successful repair, 18% reported persistent urinary dysfunction.

Conclusions: Urologic injuries result in substantial morbidity. Our survey indicated that those occurring in surgeons' early experience might best be reduced by implementation of structured taTME training and proctoring, whereas those occurring later relate to case complexity and may be avoided by more stringent case selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003597DOI Listing
August 2021

Left renal vein entrapment syndrome: nutcracker syndrome!

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Sep 4;12(9). Epub 2019 Sep 4.

Department of Surgery, Wexham Park Hospital, Slough, UK.

Nutcracker syndrome (NCS) is a rare vascular compression disorder that involves compression of the left renal vein most commonly between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), although variations exist. It is associated with the formation of the left renal vein from the aortic collar during the 6th-8th week of gestation and abnormal angulation of the SMA from the aorta. Collateralisation of venous circulation including mainly the left gonadal vein and the communicating lumbar vein are the most significant effects. It has a female predilection occurring in the third to fourth decade and it tends to be diagnosed earlier in men. Affected individuals may present with a myriad of symptoms such as haematuria, left flank pain and proteinuria. As patients often present with these non-specific symptoms to primary care, knowledge of NCS is essential. The diagnosis can be rendered with Doppler ultrasonography, retrograde venography, CT angiography, intravascular ultrasound and magnetic resonance angiography. The authors describe the case of a 39-year-old woman with a low body mass index (BMI) presenting with generalised abdominal and flank pain as well as chronic microcytic anaemia. Physical examination findings were suggestive of biliary or renal colic. Laboratory investigations confirmed her anaemia (haemoglobin 88 g/L, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) 72 fL), but were otherwise unremarkable. Urinalysis showed proteinuria and haematuria. However, ultrasonography was unremarkable with a normal gallbladder and no evidence of calculi. Her CT scan showed marked compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and the SMA (nutcracker phenomenon), with upstream left renal, left gonadal and left lumbar vein dilatation. She was managed conservatively. This paper provides an overview of the aetiology, embryology, clinical manifestations, imaging modalities and management of NCS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-230877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731922PMC
September 2019

A nationwide study on the adoption and short-term outcomes of transanal total mesorectal excision in the UK.

Minerva Chir 2019 Aug;74(4):279-288

Department of Surgery, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands -

Background: The interest and adoption of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is growing worldwide, but evidence on nationwide implementation and short-term outcomes is scarce. This study aims to evaluate national results for this relatively new technique in the UK.

Methods: All TaTME procedures performed in the UK and recorded on the international TaTME registry between January 2013 and January 2018 were analyzed. Surgeons who received training on TaTME in the UK were sent a survey regarding their experience with implementation of TaTME in their unit. Primary endpoint was a composite for "optimal pathology" (free resection margin (R0) and TME specimen with no major defects and no rectal wall perforations). Secondary outcomes included 30-day clinical course and survey outcomes.

Results: Forty-two hospitals entered 513 cases over a 5-year period; 28 of 42 hospitals (66.7%) performed ten cases or less. The indication for surgery was cancer in 364 (71.0%) cases. Optimal pathology was achieved in 295 (92.8%), with an involved resection margin (R1) rate of 13 of 513 (4.1%). A Clavien-Dindo ≥III within 30 days was 13.4% (N.=45) and 6.8% (N.=10) in the cancer and benign groups, respectively. Based on the survey (response rate 68 of 86; 79%), 76.1% of the surgeons implemented TaTME in their unit after receiving training, all of whom experienced difficulties with performing TaTME.

Conclusions: This study reports acceptable nationwide short-term outcomes of TaTME. However, adoption occurred in a rapid and non-standardized manner. A structured TaTME training program is therefore recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0026-4733.19.08064-7DOI Listing
August 2019

Carbon Dioxide Embolism Associated With Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision Surgery: A Report From the International Registries.

Dis Colon Rectum 2019 07;62(7):794-801

Department of Surgery, Oncologic and Lower GI Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Carbon dioxide embolus has been reported as a rare but clinically important risk associated with transanal total mesorectal excision surgery. To date, there exists limited data describing the incidence, risk factors, and management of carbon dioxide embolus in transanal total mesorectal excision.

Objective: This study aimed to obtain data from the transanal total mesorectal excision registries to identify trends and potential risk factors for carbon dioxide embolus specific to this surgical technique.

Design: Contributors to both the LOREC and OSTRiCh transanal total mesorectal excision registries were invited to report their incidence of carbon dioxide embolus. Case report forms were collected detailing the patient-specific and technical factors of each event.

Settings: The study was conducted at the collaborating centers from the international transanal total mesorectal excision registries.

Main Outcome Measures: Characteristics and outcomes of patients with carbon dioxide embolus associated with transanal mesorectal excision were measured.

Results: Twenty-five cases were reported. The incidence of carbon dioxide embolus during transanal total mesorectal excision is estimated to be ≈0.4% (25/6375 cases). A fall in end tidal carbon dioxide was noted as the initial feature in 22 cases, with 13 (52%) developing signs of hemodynamic compromise. All of the events occurred in the transanal component of dissection, with mean (range) insufflation pressures of 15 mm Hg (12-20 mm Hg). Patients were predominantly (68%) in a Trendelenburg position, between 30° and 45°. Venous bleeding was reported in 20 cases at the time of carbon dioxide embolus, with periprostatic veins documented as the most common site (40%). After carbon dioxide embolus, 84% of cases were completed after hemodynamic stabilization. Two patients required cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of cardiovascular collapse. There were no deaths.

Limitations: This is a retrospective study surveying reported outcomes by surgeons and anesthetists.

Conclusions: Surgeons undertaking transanal total mesorectal excision must be aware of the possibility of carbon dioxide embolus and its potential risk factors, including venous bleeding (wrong plane surgery), high insufflation pressures, and patient positioning. Prompt recognition and management can limit the clinical impact of such events. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/A961.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001410DOI Listing
July 2019

Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) versus laparoscopic TME for MRI-defined low rectal cancer: a propensity score-matched analysis of oncological outcomes.

Surg Endosc 2019 08 22;33(8):2459-2467. Epub 2018 Oct 22.

Department Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: While a shift to minimally invasive techniques in rectal cancer surgery has occurred, non-inferiority of laparoscopy in terms of oncological outcomes has not been definitely demonstrated. Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) has been pioneered to potentially overcome difficulties experienced when operating with a pure abdominal approach deep down in the pelvis. This study aimed to compare short-term oncological results of TaTME versus laparoscopic TME (lapTME), based on a strict anatomical definition for low rectal cancer on MRI.

Methods: From June 2013, all consecutive TaTME cases were included and compared to lapTME in a single institution. Propensity score-matching was performed for nine relevant factors. Primary outcome was resection margin involvement (R1), secondary outcomes included intra- and post-operative outcomes.

Results: After matching, forty-one patients were included in each group; no significant differences were observed in patient and tumor characteristics. The resection margin was involved in 5 cases (12.2%) in the laparoscopic group, versus 2 (4.9%) TaTME cases (P = 0.432). The TME specimen quality was complete in 84.0% of the laparoscopic cases and in 92.7% of the TaTME cases (P = 0.266). Median distance to the circumferential resection margin (CRM) was 5 mm in lapTME and 10 mm in TaTME (P = 0.065). Significantly more conversions took place in the laparoscopic group, 9 (22.0%) compared to none in the TaTME group (P < 0.001). Other clinical outcomes did not show any significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusion: This is the first study to compare results of TaTME with lapTME in a highly selected patient group with MRI-defined low rectal tumors. A significant decrease in R1 rate could not be demonstrated, although conversion rate was significantly lower in this TaTME cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-018-6530-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6647375PMC
August 2019

Personalized management of elderly patients with rectal cancer: Expert recommendations of the European Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Coloproctology, International Society of Geriatric Oncology, and American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2018 11 15;44(11):1685-1702. Epub 2018 Aug 15.

Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

With an expanding elderly population and median rectal cancer detection age of 70 years, the prevalence of rectal cancer in elderly patients is increasing. Management is based on evidence from younger patients, resulting in substandard treatments and poor outcomes. Modern management of rectal cancer in the elderly demands patient-centered treatment, assessing frailty rather than chronological age. The heterogeneity of this group, combined with the limited available data, impedes drafting evidence-based guidelines. Therefore, a multidisciplinary task force convened experts from the European Society of Surgical Oncology, European Society of Coloproctology, International Society of Geriatric Oncology and the American College Surgeons Commission on Cancer, with the goal of identifying the best practice to promote personalized rectal cancer care in older patients. A crucial element for personalized care was recognized as the routine screening for frailty and geriatrician involvement and personalized care for frail patients. Careful patient selection and improved surgical and perioperative techniques are responsible for a substantial improvement in rectal cancer outcomes. Therefore, properly selected patients should be considered for surgical resection. Local excision can be utilized when balancing oncologic outcomes, frailty and life expectancy. Watch and wait protocols, in expert hands, are valuable for selected patients and adjuncts can be added to improve complete response rates. Functional recovery and patient-reported outcomes are as important as oncologic-specific outcomes in this age group. The above recommendations and others were made based on the best-available evidence to guide the personalized treatment of elderly patients with rectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2018.08.003DOI Listing
November 2018

A Succinct Critical Appraisal of Indications to Transanal TME.

Ann Surg 2018 12;268(6):e94-e95

Department of Surgery, Oncologic and Lower GI Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, United Kingdom Department of Surgery, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom Department of Surgery, Imperial College, London, United Kingdom Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002820DOI Listing
December 2018

Incidence and Risk Factors for Anastomotic Failure in 1594 Patients Treated by Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: Results From the International TaTME Registry.

Ann Surg 2019 04;269(4):700-711

Department of Surgery, Imperial College, London, UK.

Objective: To determine the incidence of anastomotic-related morbidity following Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME) and identify independent risk factors for failure.

Background: Anastomotic leak and its sequelae are dreaded complications following gastrointestinal surgery. TaTME is a recent technique for rectal resection, which includes novel anastomotic techniques.

Methods: Prospective study of consecutive reconstructed TaTME cases recorded over 30 months in 107 surgical centers across 29 countries. Primary endpoint was "anastomotic failure," defined as a composite endpoint of early or delayed leak, pelvic abscess, anastomotic fistula, chronic sinus, or anastomotic stricture. Multivariate regression analysis performed identifying independent risk factors of anastomotic failure and an observed risk score developed.

Results: One thousand five hundred ninety-four cases with anastomotic reconstruction were analyzed; 96.6% performed for cancer. Median anastomotic height from anal verge was 3.0 ± 2.0 cm with stapled techniques accounting for 66.0%. The overall anastomotic failure rate was 15.7%. This included early (7.8%) and delayed leak (2.0%), pelvic abscess (4.7%), anastomotic fistula (0.8%), chronic sinus (0.9%), and anastomotic stricture in 3.6% of cases. Independent risk factors of anastomotic failure were: male sex, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, tumors >25 mm, excessive intraoperative blood loss, manual anastomosis, and prolonged perineal operative time. A scoring system for preoperative risk factors was associated with observed rates of anastomotic failure between 6.3% to 50% based on the cumulative score.

Conclusions: Large tumors in obese, diabetic male patients who smoke have the highest risk of anastomotic failure. Acknowledging such risk factors can guide appropriate consent and clinical decision-making that may reduce anastomotic-related morbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002653DOI Listing
April 2019

St.Gallen consensus on safe implementation of transanal total mesorectal excision.

Surg Endosc 2018 03 12;32(3):1091-1103. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The management of rectal cancer has evolved over the years, including the recent rise of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (TaTME). TaTME addresses the limitations created by the bony confines of the pelvis, bulky tumours, and fatty mesorectum, particularly for low rectal cancers. However, guidance is required to ensure safe implementation and to avoid the pitfalls and potential major morbidity encountered by the early adopters of TaTME. We report a broad international consensus statement, which provides a basis for optimal clinical practice.

Methods: Forty international experts were invited to participate based on clinical and academic achievements. The consensus statements were developed using Delphi methodology incorporating three successive rounds. Consensus was defined as agreement by 80% or more of the experts.

Results: A total of 37 colorectal surgeons from 20 countries and 5 continents (Europe, Asia, North and South America, Australasia) contributed to the consensus. Participation to the iterative Delphi rounds was 100%. An expert radiologist, pathologist, and medical oncologist provided recommendations to maximize relevance to current practice. Consensus was obtained on all seven different chapters: patient selection and surgical indication, perioperative management, patient positioning and operating room set up, surgical technique, devices and instruments, pelvic anatomy, TaTME training, and outcomes analysis.

Conclusions: This multidisciplinary consensus statement achieved more than 80% approval and can thus be graded as strong recommendation, yet acknowledging the current lack of high level evidence. It provides the best possible guidance for safe implementation and practice of Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5990-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5807525PMC
March 2018

Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: Why, When, and How.

Clin Colon Rectal Surg 2017 Nov 27;30(5):339-345. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Surgical Oncology and Gastrointestinal Surgery, Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) has evolved over the past decade fueled by advances in minimally invasive surgery. The technique aims to overcome the constraints posed by a narrow rigid pelvis and poor TME visualization that are encountered during "top-down" rectal surgery. A more accurate pelvic dissection should subsequently result in safer oncological resections and better preservation of pelvic autonomic nerves. taTME is an advanced complex technique that requires dedicated training and experience in TME surgery. Initial results from small cohorts are promising and confirmation by randomized controlled trials is eagerly awaited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1606111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5703657PMC
November 2017

Biological mesh reconstruction of the pelvic floor following abdominoperineal excision for cancer: A review.

World J Clin Oncol 2017 Jun;8(3):249-254

Boris Schiltz, Nicolas Christian Buchs, Cosimo Riccardo Scarpa, Emilie Liot, Philippe Morel, Frederic Ris, Division of Visceral Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland.

Extralevator abdominoperineal excision and pelvic exenteration are mutilating operations that leave wide perineal wounds. Such large wounds are prone to infection and perineal herniation, and their closure is a major concern to most surgeons. Different approaches to the perineal repair exist, varying from primary or mesh closure to myocutaneous flaps. Each technique has its own associated advantages and potential complications and the ideal approach is still debated. In the present study, we reviewed the current literature and our own local data regarding the use of biological mesh for perineal wound closure. Current evidence suggests that the use of biological mesh carries an acceptable risk of wound complications compared to primary closure and is similar to flap reconstruction. In addition, the rate of perineal hernia is lower in early follow-up, while long-term hernia occurrence appears to be similar between the different techniques. Finally, it is an easy and quick reconstruction method. Although more expensive than primary closure, the cost associated with the use of a biological mesh is at least equal, if not less, than flap reconstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v8.i3.249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5465014PMC
June 2017

Consensus on structured training curriculum for transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME).

Surg Endosc 2017 07 1;31(7):2711-2719. Epub 2017 May 1.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, University Hospitals of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Background: The interest and adoption of transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is growing amongst the colorectal surgical community, but there is no clear guidance on the optimal training framework to ensure safe practice for this novel operation. The aim of this study was to establish a consensus on a detailed structured training curriculum for TaTME.

Methods: A consensus process to agree on the framework of the TaTME training curriculum was conducted, seeking views of 207 surgeons across 18 different countries, including 52 international experts in the field of TaTME. The process consisted of surveying potential learners of this technique, an international experts workshop and a final expert's consensus to draw an agreement on essential elements of the curriculum.

Results: Appropriate case selection was strongly recommended, and TaTME should be offered to patients with mid and low rectal cancers, but not proximal rectal cancers. Pre-requisites to learn TaTME should include completion of training and accreditation in laparoscopic colorectal surgery, with prior experience in transanal surgery. Ideally, two surgeons should undergo training together in centres with high volume for rectal cancer surgery. Mentorship and multidisciplinary training were the two most important aspects of the curriculum, which should also include online modules and simulated training for purse-string suturing. Mentors should have performed at least 20 TaTME cases and be experienced in laparoscopic training. Reviewing the specimens' quality, clinical outcome data and entering data into a registry were recommended. Assessment should be an integral part of the curriculum using Global Assessment Scales, as formative assessment to promote learning and competency assessment tool as summative assessment.

Conclusions: A detailed framework for a structured TaTME training curriculum has been proposed. It encompasses various training modalities and assessment, as well as having the potential to provide quality control and future research initiatives for this novel technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-017-5562-5DOI Listing
July 2017

Laparoscopic Lavage Versus Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: Review and Meta-analysis.

Ann Surg 2018 02;267(2):252-258

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, University Hospitals of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Objective: To compare clinical outcomes after laparoscopic lavage (LL) or colonic resection (CR) for purulent diverticulitis.

Background: Laparoscopic lavage has been suggested as an alternative treatment for traditional CR. Comparative studies to date have shown conflicting results.

Methods: Electronic searches of Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were performed. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated for effect size of continuous variables and pooled odds ratios (POR) calculated for discrete variables.

Results: A total of 589 patients recruited from 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 4 comparative studies were included; 85% as Hinchey III. LL group had younger patients with higher body mass index and lower ASA grades, but comparable Hinchey classification and previous diverticulitis rates. No significant differences were noted for mortality, 30-day reoperations and unplanned readmissions. LL had higher rates of intraabdominal abscesses (POR = 2.85; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.52-5.34; P = 0.001), peritonitis (POR = 7.80; 95% CI 2.12-28.69; P = 0.002), and increased long-term emergency reoperations (POR = 3.32; 95% CI 1.73-6.38; P < 0.001). Benefits of LL included shorter operative time, fewer cardiac complications, fewer wound infections, and shorter hospital stay. Overall, 90% had stomas after CR, of whom 74% underwent stoma reversal within 12-months. Approximately, 14% of LL patients required a stoma; 48% obtaining gut continuity within 12-months, whereas 36% underwent elective sigmoidectomy.

Conclusions: The preservation of diseased bowel by LL is associated with approximately 3 times greater risk of persistent peritonitis, intraabdominal abscesses and the need for emergency surgery compared with CR. Future studies should focus on developing composite predictive scores encompassing the wide variation in presentations of diverticulitis and treatment tailored on case-by-case basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002236DOI Listing
February 2018

Surgeon-specific outcome reporting: is it time to move forward?

Colorectal Dis 2016 Nov;18(11):1031-1032

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.13433DOI Listing
November 2016

Transanal Total Mesorectal Excision: International Registry Results of the First 720 Cases.

Ann Surg 2017 07;266(1):111-117

*Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital, Oxford University Hospitals, Oxford, United Kingdom †Department of Colorectal Surgery, Basingstoke and North Hampshire Hospital, Basingstoke, Hampshire, United Kingdom ‡Department of Colorectal Surgery, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Essex, United Kingdom §Department of Colorectal Surgery, St Mark's Hospital, Harrow, Middlesex, United Kingdom ¶Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom ||Department of Colorectal Surgery, The Royal Marsden Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Objective: This study aims to report short-term clinical and oncological outcomes from the international transanal Total Mesorectal Excision (taTME) registry for benign and malignant rectal pathology.

Background: TaTME is the latest minimally invasive transanal technique pioneered to facilitate difficult pelvic dissections. Outcomes have been published from small cohorts, but larger series can further assess the safety and efficacy of taTME in the wider surgical population.

Methods: Data were analyzed from 66 registered units in 23 countries. The primary endpoint was "good-quality TME surgery." Secondary endpoints were short-term adverse events. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of poor specimen outcome.

Results: A total of 720 consecutively registered cases were analyzed comprising 634 patients with rectal cancer and 86 with benign pathology. Approximately, 67% were males with mean BMI 26.5 kg/m. Abdominal or perineal conversion was 6.3% and 2.8%, respectively. Intact TME specimens were achieved in 85%, with minor defects in 11% and major defects in 4%. R1 resection rate was 2.7%. Postoperative mortality and morbidity were 0.5% and 32.6% respectively. Risk factors for poor specimen outcome (suboptimal TME specimen, perforation, and/or R1 resection) on multivariate analysis were positive CRM on staging MRI, low rectal tumor <2 cm from anorectal junction, and laparoscopic transabdominal posterior dissection to <4 cm from anal verge.

Conclusions: TaTME appears to be an oncologically safe and effective technique for distal mesorectal dissection with acceptable short-term patient outcomes and good specimen quality. Ongoing structured training and the upcoming randomized controlled trials are needed to assess the technique further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001948DOI Listing
July 2017

Transanal total mesorectal excision: Myths and reality.

World J Clin Oncol 2016 Oct;7(5):337-339

Nicolas C Buchs, Division of Visceral Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospitals of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland.

Transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is a new and promising approach for the treatment of rectal cancer. Whilst the experience is still limited, there are growing evidences that this approach might overcome the limits of standard low anterior resection. TaTME might help to decrease the conversion rate especially in difficult patients, and to improve the pathological results, while preserving the urogenital function. Evaluation of data from large registries and randomized studies should help to draw firmer conclusions. Beyond these technical considerations, the next challenge seems to be clearly the safe introduction of this approach, motivating the development of dedicated courses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5306/wjco.v7.i5.337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5056325PMC
October 2016

Transanal total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer: the journey towards a new technique and its current status.

Expert Rev Anticancer Ther 2016 Nov 8;16(11):1145-1153. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

a Department of Colorectal Surgery, Churchill Hospital , University Hospitals of Oxford , Oxford , UK.

Introduction: The surgical approach to total mesorectal excision (TME) for rectal cancer has undergone a substantial evolution with the adoption of more minimally invasive procedures. Transanal TME (taTME) is the latest advanced technique pioneered to tackle difficult pelvic dissections. Areas covered: The evolution of TME surgery from open to laparoscopic, robotic and transanal techniques was explored in this review. The outcomes to date on the latest approach, taTME, are reviewed and the future direction of rectal cancer surgery proposed. A literature search was performed using Embase, Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane databases for articles published between January 2005 to May 2016 using the keywords 'transanal', 'TME', 'laparoscopy', 'robotics', 'minimally invasive', 'outcomes' and 'training'. Expert commentary: Surgical experience in taTME is growing and randomised controlled trials have been planned and initiated worldwide. However, the learning curve for this procedure remains to be established and a structured training programme is necessary to ensure safe introduction and dissemination of the technique in the clinical setting. Further innovation including stereotactic navigation and more specialised transanal equipment are currently being explored and are likely to enhance the technique further.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737140.2016.1240040DOI Listing
November 2016

Capecitabine-related liver lesions: sinusoidal dilatation mimicking liver metastasis.

Clin Case Rep 2016 Jun 21;4(6):545-8. Epub 2016 Apr 21.

Department of General Surgery Whittington Health Magdala Avenue London N19 5NF UK.

A 30-year-old lady treated with capecitabine for primary colon adenocarcinoma developed liver lesions suspicious for metastasis. Liver biopsies showed sinusoidal dilatation thought to be secondary to capecitabine. This case highlights the importance of differentiating between benign and malignant liver lesions during cancer surveillance preventing unnecessary liver resections for benign disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4891475PMC
June 2016

Pneumatosis coli mimicking colorectal cancer.

Case Rep Surg 2014 7;2014:428989. Epub 2014 Oct 7.

Department of General Surgery, Whittington Health, Magdala Avenue, London N19 5NF, UK.

Pneumatosis coli (PC) is a rare condition of the gastrointestinal tract involving extraluminal gas confined within the bowel wall. We report the case of a 40-year-old gentleman presenting clinically and endoscopically with suspected colorectal cancer. In light of the patient's red flag symptoms, and carpet of polyps seen endoscopically, surgical management by an anterior resection was performed with the patient making a successful recovery. Histological analysis of the resected specimen confirmed pneumatosis coli with no evidence of colonic neoplasia. Although PC can be an incidental finding in asymptomatic patients and considered a benign condition, it can also present as a life-threatening emergency with bowel necrosis and obstruction requiring emergency surgical intervention. Also, when PC mimics malignancy, surgical management is the most appropriate step to ensure that the diagnosis of cancer is not missed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/428989DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4220578PMC
November 2014

Single-incision versus conventional multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery-systematic review and pooled analysis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2014 Dec 13;18(12):2214-27. Epub 2014 Sep 13.

Academic Surgical Unit, 10th Floor, St Mary's Hospital, Praed Street, London, UK,

Background: The aim of this pooled analysis is to determine the effect of single-incision laparoscopic colorectal surgery (SILC) on short-term clinical and oncological outcomes compared with conventional multiport laparoscopic colorectal surgery (CLC).

Methods: An electronic search of Embase, Medline, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases was performed. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were calculated for the effect size of SILC on continuous variables and pooled odds ratios (POR) were calculated for discrete variables.

Results: No significant differences between the groups were noted for mortality or morbidity including anastomotic leak, reoperation, pneumonia, wound infection, port-site hernia, and operative time. The benefits of a SILC approach included reduction in time to return of bowel function (WMD = -1.11 days; 95 % C.I. -2.11 to -0.13; P = 0.03), and length of hospital stay (WMD = -1.9 days; 95 % C.I. -2.73 to -1.07; P < 0.0001). Oncological surgical quality was also shown for SILC for the treatment of colorectal cancer with a similar average lymph node harvest, proximal and distal resection margin length compared to CLC.

Conclusions: SILC can be performed safely by experienced laparoscopic surgeons with similar short-term clinical and oncological outcomes to CLC. SILC may further enhance some of the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with a reduction in blood loss and length of hospital stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-014-2654-6DOI Listing
December 2014

Laparoscopic approach to appendectomy reduces the incidence of short- and long-term post-operative bowel obstruction: systematic review and pooled analysis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2014 Sep 21;18(9):1683-92. Epub 2014 Jun 21.

Department of Laparoscopic Surgery, Hinchingbrooke Healthcare Trust, Huntingdon, UK,

Background: The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) compared to open appendectomy (OA) on short-term and long-term post-operative bowel obstruction.

Methods: Medline, Embase, trial registries, conference proceedings and reference lists were searched. Subset analysis was performed for paediatric patients, patients who presented with perforated appendicitis and studies with long-term follow-up and surveillance for bowel obstruction and with surgery for bowel obstruction.

Results: Overall, 29 studies comprising 159,729 patients (60,875 LA versus 98,854 OA) were included. LA was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of post-operative bowel obstruction in the general population (pooled odds ratio (POR) = 0.43 [95 %C.I. 0.3-0.63]). Subset analysis demonstrated that LA significantly reduced the incidence of post-operative bowel obstruction in paediatric patients (POR = 0.48 [95 %C.I. 0.3-0.78]) and patients with perforated appendicitis (POR = 0.44 [95 %C.I. 0.26-0.74]). Furthermore, LA was associated with a significantly reduced incidence of long-term bowel obstruction (POR = 0.33 [95 %C.I. 0.19-0.56]) and bowel obstruction requiring surgery (POR = 0.31 [95 %C.I. 0.2-0.48]).

Discussions: This present meta-analysis provides evidence to clearly demonstrate the benefits of a laparoscopic approach to appendectomy as reflected by a reduction in short- and long-term adhesive bowel obstruction. Important future areas for assessment include the influence of surgical approach on long-term quality of life following appendectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-014-2572-7DOI Listing
September 2014

A comparative international study on the management of acute appendicitis between a developed country and a middle income country.

Int J Surg 2014 27;12(4):357-60. Epub 2014 Jan 27.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka.

Background: In the past decade there has been an exponential increase in the use of Computerised Tomography (CT) imaging in the assessment of patients with acute appendicitis. The aim of this study was to compare management approaches and clinical outcomes of acute appendicitis in Sri Lanka and the United Kingdom.

Methods: Data was collected prospectively from 400 patients referred to the General Surgical department with a differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis, 200 at University Kelaniya Sri Lanka (SL group), and 200 at University College London Hospital (UK group).

Results: The groups were similar with respect to gender, but the SL group was younger. Preoperative work-up included ultrasound more commonly in SL patients, and CT more commonly in UK patients. More patients underwent appendicectomy in the SL group, however a laparoscopic approach was utilised more often in the UK group (50.5% vs. 11.9%). Post-operative complications were similarly represented in both groups, but re-admission occurred with greater frequency in the UK group (16.2% vs. 0%). Histologically confirmed appendicitis was seen in a significantly greater proportion of SL patients (93.1% vs. 79.8%). Multivariate analysis confirmed male gender, and diagnosis and treatment in Sri Lanka to be only factors significantly associated with positive appendicitis.

Discussion: Expensive investigations such as CT do not appear to improve the diagnostic accuracy of appendicitis or prevent complications. This study suggests diagnostic and treatment algorithms in the SL hospital are more accurate and efficient in confirming appendicitis than those seen in the UK hospital under investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.01.008DOI Listing
January 2015

Adolescent bariatric surgery--thoughts and perspectives from the UK.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2013 Dec 31;11(1):573-82. Epub 2013 Dec 31.

UCLH Department of Weight Loss, Metabolic and Endocrine Surgery, University College London Hospital, 235 Euston Road, London NW1 2BU, UK.

Opinions of healthcare professionals in the United Kingdom regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents are largely unknown. This study aims to explore the perspectives of medical professionals regarding adolescent bariatric surgery. Members of the British Obesity and Metabolic Surgery Society and groups of primary care practitioners based in London were contacted by electronic mail and invited to complete an anonymous online survey consisting of 21 questions. Ninety-four out of 324 questionnaires were completed. 66% of professionals felt that adolescents with a body mass index (BMI) >40 or BMI >35 with significant co-morbidities can be offered surgery. Amongst pre-requisites, parental psychological counseling was chosen most frequently. 58% stated 12 months as an appropriate period for weight management programs, with 24% regarding 6 months as sufficient. Most participants believed bariatric surgery should only be offered ≥ 16 years of age. However, 17% of bariatric surgeons marked no minimum age limit. Over 80% of the healthcare professionals surveyed consider bariatric surgery in adolescents to be acceptable practice. Most healthcare professionals surveyed feel that adolescent bariatric surgery is an acceptable therapeutic option for adolescent obesity. These views can guide towards a consensus opinion and further development of selection criteria and care pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110100573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3924461PMC
December 2013
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