Publications by authors named "Marta Maraver"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A 2-Step Strategy Combining FIB-4 With Transient Elastography and Ultrasound Predicted Liver Cancer After HCV Cure.

Am J Gastroenterol 2021 Sep 9. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.

Introduction: Despite the direct-acting antiviral therapy has dramatically decreased the likelihood of having liver-related complications and extrahepatic outcomes, the risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not totally eliminated after sustained virological response (SVR). We aimed to develop an easy-to-apply strategy to be adopted in clinical practice for accurately classifying the HCC risk in hepatitis C virus patients after SVR.

Methods: Prospective and multicenter study enrolling hepatitis C virus patients with advanced fibrosis (transient elastography [TE] > 10 kPa) or cirrhosis by ultrasound showing SVR. They were followed up until HCC, liver transplantation, death, or until October 2020, which occurred first, with a minimum follow-up period of 6 months after SVR (follow-up: 49 [interquartile range 28-59] months).

Results: Patients with cirrhosis by ultrasound represented 58% (611/1,054) of the overall cohort. During the study, HCC occurrence was 5.3% (56/1,054). Multivariate analyses revealed that Fibrosis-4 (FIB-4) > 3.25 (hazard ratio [HR] 2.26 [1.08-4.73]; P = 0.030), TE (HR 1.02 [1.00-1.04]; P = 0.045) and cirrhosis by ultrasound (HR 3.15 [1.36-7.27]; P = 0.007) predicted HCC occurrence. Baseline HCC screening criteria (TE > 10 kPa or cirrhosis) identified patients at higher risk of HCC occurrence in presence of FIB-4 > 3.25 (8.8%; 44/498) vs FIB-4 < 3.25 (2.4%; 12/506), while those with only FIB > 3.25 had no HCC (0%; 0/50) (logRank 22.129; P = 0.0001). A combination of baseline FIB-4 > 3.25 and HCC screening criteria had an annual incidence >1.5 cases per 100 person-years, while the rest of the groups remained <1 case. Patients who maintained post-treatment FIB-4 > 3.25 and HCC screening criteria remained at the highest risk of HCC occurrence (13.7% [21/153] vs 4.9% [9/184]; logRank 7.396, P = 0.007).

Discussion: We demonstrated that a two-step strategy combining FIB-4, TE, and ultrasound could help stratify HCC incidence risk after SVR.
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September 2021

Impact of comorbidities on patient outcomes after interferon-free therapy-induced viral eradication in hepatitis C.

J Hepatol 2018 05 28;68(5):940-948. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Unit of Digestive Diseases, Virgen del Rocio University Hospital, Sevilla, Spain; Institute of Biomedicine of Seville and University of Sevilla, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Patients with advanced liver fibrosis remain at risk of cirrhosis-related outcomes and those with severe comorbidities may not benefit from hepatitis C (HCV) eradication. We aimed to collect data on all-cause mortality and relevant clinical events within the first two years of direct-acting antiviral therapy, whilst determining the prognostic capability of a comorbidity-based model.

Methods: This was a prospective non-interventional study, from the beginning of direct-acting antiviral therapy to the event of interest (mortality) or up to two years of follow-up, including 14 Spanish University Hospitals. Patients with HCV infection, irrespective of liver fibrosis stage, who received direct-acting antiviral therapy were used to build an estimation and a validation cohort. Comorbidity was assessed according to Charlson comorbidity and CirCom indexes.

Results: A total of 3.4% (65/1,891) of individuals died within the first year, while 5.4% (102/1,891) died during the study. After adjusting for cirrhosis, platelet count, alanine aminotransferase and sex, the following factors were independently associated with one-year mortality: Charlson index (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55; 95% CI 1.29-1.86; p = 0.0001), bilirubin (HR 1.39; 95% CI 1.11-1.75; p = 0.004), age (HR 1.06 95% CI 1.02-1.11; p = 0.005), international normalized ratio (HR 3.49; 95% CI 1.36-8.97; p = 0.010), and albumin (HR 0.18; 95% CI 0.09-0.37; p = 0.0001). HepCom score showed a good calibration and discrimination (C-statistics 0.90), and was superior to the other prognostic scores (model for end-stage liver disease 0.81, Child-Pugh 0.72, CirCom 0.68) regarding one- and two-year mortality. HepCom score identified low- (≤5.7 points: 2%-3%) and high-risk (≥25 points: 56%-59%) mortality groups, both in the estimation and validation cohorts. The distribution of clinical events was similar between groups.

Conclusions: The HepCom score, a combination of Charlson comorbidity index, age, and liver function (international normalized ratio, albumin, and bilirubin) enables detection of a group at high risk of one- and two-year mortality, and relevant clinical events, after starting direct-acting antiviral therapy.

Lay Summary: The prognosis of patients with severe comorbidities may not benefit from HCV viral clearance. An algorithm to decide who will benefit from the treatment is needed to manage the chronic HCV infection better.
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May 2018

Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity and protects against hepatic encephalopathy.

PLoS One 2012 15;7(11):e49279. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Unit for Clinical Management of Digestive Diseases and CIBERehd, Hospital Universitario de Valme, University of Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain.

Aim: To investigate the influence of metformin use on liver dysfunction and hepatic encephalopathy in a retrospective cohort of diabetic cirrhotic patients. To analyze the impact of metformin on glutaminase activity and ammonia production in vitro.

Methods: Eighty-two cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes were included. Forty-one patients were classified as insulin sensitizers experienced (metformin) and 41 as controls (cirrhotic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus without metformin treatment). Baseline analysis included: insulin, glucose, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, TNFr2, AST, ALT. HOMA-IR was calculated. Baseline HE risk was calculated according to minimal hepatic encephalopathy, oral glutamine challenge and mutations in glutaminase gene. We performed an experimental study in vitro including an enzymatic activity assay where glutaminase inhibition was measured according to different metformin concentrations. In Caco2 cells, glutaminase activity inhibition was evaluated by ammonia production at 24, 48 and 72 hours after metformina treatment.

Results: Hepatic encephalopathy was diagnosed during follow-up in 23.2% (19/82): 4.9% (2/41) in patients receiving metformin and 41.5% (17/41) in patients without metformin treatment (logRank 9.81; p=0.002). In multivariate analysis, metformin use [H.R.11.4 (95% CI: 1.2-108.8); p=0.034], age at diagnosis [H.R.1.12 (95% CI: 1.04-1.2); p=0.002], female sex [H.R.10.4 (95% CI: 1.5-71.6); p=0.017] and HE risk [H.R.21.3 (95% CI: 2.8-163.4); p=0.003] were found independently associated with hepatic encephalopathy. In the enzymatic assay, glutaminase activity inhibition reached 68% with metformin 100 mM. In Caco2 cells, metformin (20 mM) decreased glutaminase activity up to 24% at 72 hours post-treatment (p<0.05).

Conclusions: Metformin was found independently related to overt hepatic encephalopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high risk of hepatic encephalopathy. Metformin inhibits glutaminase activity in vitro. Therefore, metformin use seems to be protective against hepatic encephalopathy in diabetic cirrhotic patients.
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May 2013

Genes and hepatitis C: susceptibility, fibrosis progression and response to treatment.

Liver Int 2011 Apr 30;31(4):443-60. Epub 2011 Jan 30.

Unit for the Clinical Management of Digestive Diseases and Ciberehd, Hospital Universitario de Valme, Sevilla, Spain.

Hepatitis C virus contact and infection show three different phenotypes: spontaneous viral clearance (SVC), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and sustained virological response (SVR) following antiviral treatment. Many factors, including genetics, influence the evolution of these three phenotypes. We performed a literature search (PubMed) up to 31 January 2010 without language restriction to identify relevant studies on genes and hepatitis C. Additional studies were sought by reviewing the reference lists of the identified articles. Meta-analysis (using Meta-disk 1.4) was conducted to evaluate the association of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL28B region and SVR. The candidate gene approach showed strong relationships between human leucocyte antigen class II (DQB1(*) 0301 and DRB1(*) 1101) and SVC. A cirrhosis risk score involving 7 SNPs has been validated recently. The set of odds ratios of studies demonstrated an association between SNP (rs12987960/rs8099917) in the IL28B and SVR in CHC treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin (OR: 4.6; 95% CI: 2.9-7.3). The overall distribution of protective allele correlated with ethnic differences in SVR (Asians, Europeans, Hispanic and Afro-Americans) together with SVC, but not with fibrosis stage or viral load. These polymorphisms did not influence SVR in very-easy-to-treat patients such as genotype 2/3, rapid virological responders or patients with acute hepatitis C. While the genetic fingerprint for fibrosis progression remains elusive, IL28b polymorphism predicts SVC and SVR. However, nearly half of patients achieving SVR did not show favourable genotype. Further genetic signals are warranted to complete the puzzle of factors influencing hepatitis C.
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April 2011