Publications by authors named "Marta Makowska"

14 Publications

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Application of Alanine Scanning to Determination of Amino Acids Essential for Peptide Adsorption at the Solid/Solution Interface and Binding to the Receptor: Surface-Enhanced Raman/Infrared Spectroscopy versus Bioactivity Assays.

J Med Chem 2021 Jun 10;64(12):8410-8422. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland.

The article describes the application of the alanine-scanning technique used in combination with Raman, surface-enhanced Raman, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared, and surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) spectroscopies, which allowed defining the role of individual amino acid residues in the -terminal 6-14 fragment of the bombesin chain (BN) on the path of its adsorption on the surface of Ag (AgNPs) and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs). A reliable analysis of the SEIRA spectra of these peptides was possible, thanks to a curve fitting of these spectra. By combining alanine-scanning with biological activity studies using cell lines overexpressing bombesin receptors and the intracellular inositol monophosphate assay, it was possible to determine which peptide side chains play a significant role in binding a peptide to membrane-bound G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on the analysis of spectral profiles and bioactivity results, conclusions for the specific peptide-metal and peptide-GPCR interactions were drawn and compared.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.1c00397DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8279479PMC
June 2021

Transparency or restricting gifts? Polish medical students' opinions about regulating relationships with pharmaceutical sales representatives.

Monash Bioeth Rev 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kraków, Poland.

Relationships between physicians and pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) often create conflicts of interest, not least because of the various benefits received by physicians. Many countries attempt to control pharmaceutical industry marketing strategies through legal regulation, and this is true in Poland where efforts are underway to eliminate any practices that might be considered corrupt in medicine. The present research considered Polish medical students' opinions about domestic laws restricting doctors' acceptance of expensive gifts from the industry, the idea of compulsory transparency, and the possibility of introducing a Polish Sunshine Law. A qualitative, focus group-based, interview method was used. Data were gathered from nine focus groups involving 92 medical students from three universities located in major Polish cities. The article presents a classification of opposing student views with regard to the consequences of introducing different legal solutions; this should be useful for policy makers deliberating on how to optimally regulate pharmaceutical marketing. The study's results are discussed in the context of the public bioethical debate in Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40592-021-00128-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183325PMC
June 2021

How Polish medical students are socialised to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry: a focus group study of the importance of informal, hidden and null curricula.

Authors:
Marta Makowska

Health Sociol Rev 2021 Mar 30:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Institute of Sociological Sciences and Pedagogy, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

This study analysed how Polish medical students are socialised to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry via informal, hidden, and null curricula. Nine focus groups were run with medical students in their second year and upwards at three Polish medical universities. Initially, most students had difficulty in discerning pharmaceutical companies' presence in their education, but on reflection they all recognised this presence. Students said that they were surrounded by small medical gifts provided by companies, met pharmaceutical representatives, and took part in events for physicians organised and/or sponsored by the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, they did not think they were the main target of the industry's marketing activities, saying that these were largely aimed at practicing doctors, and that they were only targeted as opportunities arose. Students' statements make it clear that their socialisation takes place within a culture which consents to medical professionals' cooperation with the industry. Medical students come to perceive cooperation with the industry as natural, and benefits from the industry as a privilege of doctors. Medical schools can prevent this by introducing guidelines, conflict of interest polices, and changing the formal curriculum, but the need for such measures is not currently recognised in Poland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14461242.2021.1899842DOI Listing
March 2021

A Typology of Poles' Attitudes toward COVID-19 during the First Wave of the Pandemic.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 19;18(4). Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Sociology, Institute of Sociological Sciences and Pedagogy, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska 166 St., 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

(1) Objective: To explore Poles' attitudes during the first wave of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 as a contribution toward the creation of effective health policies. (2) Method: Computer-assisted web interviewing (CAWI) was used to survey a sample of 1001 Poles selected using quota sampling. (3) Results: Using cluster analysis, three types of attitudes were distinguished, people being classified as "involved" (48.1%), "cautious" (27.4%), or "indifferent" (24.6%). The result of greatest interest was the absence of any attitude indicating an extremely dismissive posture toward COVID-19. Three logistic regression analyses, comparing people displaying each attitude with those comparing the other two attitudes combined, showed that an involved attitude was likely to be associated with being female, being in a poorer financial situation, but having relatively high life satisfaction. A cautious attitude was more likely to appear in places with fewer residents and among people in a favorable financial situation, and that an indifferent attitude was more likely to be associated with being male and having lower life satisfaction. (4) Conclusions: The attitudes identified may help to explain why, during the spring of 2020, the virus was spreading slightly more slowly, and on a narrower scale, in Poland than in other countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18042002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922647PMC
February 2021

Double-Headed Cationic Lipopeptides: An Emerging Class of Antimicrobials.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Nov 25;21(23). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdansk, Wita Stwosza 63, 80-308 Gdansk, Poland.

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) constitute a promising tool in the development of novel therapeutic agents useful in a wide range of bacterial and fungal infections. Among the modifications improving pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of natural AMPs, an important role is played by lipidation. This study focuses on the newly designed and synthesized lipopeptides containing multiple Lys residues or their shorter homologues with palmitic acid (C) attached to the side chain of a residue located in the center of the peptide sequence. The approach resulted in the development of lipopeptides representing a model of surfactants with two polar headgroups. The aim of this study is to explain how variations in the length of the peptide chain or the hydrocarbon side chain of an amino acid residue modified with C, affect biological functions of lipopeptides, their self-assembling propensity, and their mode of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21238944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728077PMC
November 2020

Self-Medication-Related Behaviors and Poland's COVID-19 Lockdown.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 11 11;17(22). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Institute of Sociological Sciences and Pedagogy, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynownska 166 St. 02-787 Warsaw, Poland.

(1) Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has changed the functioning of Polish health systems. Telemedicine has been developed and access to prescription drugs (Rx) has been facilitated. This study examined whether these changes and the imposition of a three-month lockdown caused Polish people to engage in more self-medication-related behaviors. (2) Method: After the fourth (final) stage of defrosting the Polish economy, an online survey of a quota sample of 1013 Polish respondents was conducted. (3) Results: Almost half of the respondents (45.6%) indicated that they had engaged in at least one behavior associated with inappropriate self-medication during the lockdown (e.g., 16.6% took medication as a precaution, and 16.8% took an Rx formulation without consultation). Some of these people had never engaged in such behaviors prior to the lockdown. Linear regression showed that higher values of a composite ("lockdown") index of self-medication-related behaviors occurring during lockdown were predicted by greater religiosity and the presence of children in a household. Also, independent samples -tests showed that people who were afraid for their financial future and people who feared for their health obtained higher lockdown index scores than people not having such worries. (4) Conclusions: Self-medication-related behaviors were more common among Poles before lockdown than during the lockdown (which is unsurprising given that the lengths of the periods compared were hugely different), worryingly, many people exhibited such behaviors for the first time during the lockdown.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696561PMC
November 2020

[Characteristic of AMP and the effects of chemical modifications on the modulation of their antimicrobial properties].

Postepy Biochem 2019 Nov 21;65(4):278-288. Epub 2019 Nov 21.

Katedra Chemii Organicznej, Wydział Chemii, Uniwersytet Gdański.

Antibiotics have revolutionized the pharmacology market but their "golden area" passed away. The urgent need to develop new medicins with the mechanism of action different than those already used is constantly growing because of the drug-resistance of pathogenic microorganisms. The observed increasing resistance of microbes motivates scientists to design innovative strategies based on the natural peptides that exhibit antimicrobial activity. In this article we present general characterization of antimicrobial peptides and effects of chemical modifications on the modulation of their antimicrobial properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/pb.2019_280DOI Listing
November 2019

A discussion of the unresolved 2016/17 plans for regulating the Polish dietary supplements market.

Health Policy 2019 06 6;123(6):544-549. Epub 2019 Apr 6.

Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin, Poland.

The Polish dietary supplement market is growing steadily. However, even though these products may have an impact on health they are not as strongly regulated as pharmaceuticals. In 2016/17 the introduction of new regulations covering the marketing of dietary supplements in Poland was proposed. This article briefly describes the Polish market for dietary supplements and assesses the benefits and risks associated with its development. A range of potential legislative changes, such as a total ban on dietary supplements, a ban on using the images and recommendations of authoritative entities, increased fines for breaking the law, and other measures are under consideration. We describe the advantages (e.g., better customer protection, and the limitation of inappropriate, misleading advertising) and disadvantages (e.g., a decrease in product innovation, deterioration in product offerings, and rises in product prices) of the proposed changes. As a European Union member, Poland adopts EU law, but EU directives have only harmonized some issues relating to dietary supplement marketing, other key aspects remaining within the competence of member states, but it is noted that some proposed changes in Polish law (e.g., an advertising ban) are so strict that they are unlikely to be acceptable to the EU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2019.04.001DOI Listing
June 2019

[The role of proprotein convertases in cancer diseases with particular focus on PACE4].

Postepy Biochem 2017;63(3):179-184

Laboratory of Peptide Chemistry, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Gdańsk, 63 Wita Stwosza St., 80-308 Gdansk, Poland.

Cancer is one of the most common cause of death nowadays. Thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of tumorigenesis and invasiveness of tumor cells is crucial for the development of molecular targeted therapies, which are believed to be future treatment of this type of diseases. Proteolytic enzymes are one of the factors involved in the development of cancer cells, very often used as markers of tumor progression. In this paper we describe the role of enzymes termed proprotein convertases (PCs) in pathogenesis and progress of cancer diseases. Furthermore, we indicate potential directions for the development of therapeutic strategies designed based on PCs inhibitors.
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May 2019

Polish physicians' cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry and its potential impact on public health.

Authors:
Marta Makowska

PLoS One 2017 19;12(9):e0184862. Epub 2017 Sep 19.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Objective: This article aims to describe how Polish physicians cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry and show how this relationship may pose a threat to public health.

Methods: It considers the results of an online survey of 379 physicians. The survey was hosted by surveymonkey.com with links from a Polish physicians' website (Medycyna Praktyczna) between 29 October 2013 and 31 December 2013. The sample was purposive, respondents having to be physicians working in Poland.

Results: The majority of respondents (96.8%) said that they had talked with pharmaceutical sales representatives (PSRs) in their practice, with 85% saying that they had had regular contact with them. Despite the existing legal ban in Poland, 35% of respondents admitted that they had usually met with PSRs in their office during working hours. As many as 81.8% of surveyed doctors said that they had taken part in an educational meeting organized by the pharmaceutical industry at least once during the 12 months preceding the study. A majority of the respondents (72.3%) said they trusted the information provided by PSRs. Over one third of respondents (36.4%) claimed that Polish doctors accepted gifts of a type that they should not accept according to Polish law.

Conclusions: The study showed that Polish physicians cooperate in different ways with pharmaceutical companies and have frequent contact with them. This can influence their knowledge and doctors whose knowledge of drugs is based mainly on information from pharmaceutical industry materials may prescribe medicines in a biased way, possibly exposing their patients to sub-optimal treatments and burdening both their patients and the state budget with unnecessary costs. Lack of trust in doctors and pharmaceutical companies have other implications too: there may be a decline of faith in the efficacy of therapy and patients may be encouraged to engage in self-diagnosis and self-treatment. For these reasons it is necessary to increase transparency and strengthen the ethical guidelines surrounding the physician-pharmaceutical industry relationship in Poland. The present findings also have implications for public health policy.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0184862PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5604986PMC
October 2017

Does growing up with a physician influence the ethics of medical students' relationships with the pharmaceutical industry? The cases of the US and Poland.

Authors:
Marta Makowska

BMC Med Ethics 2017 Aug 10;18(1):49. Epub 2017 Aug 10.

Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Ul. Nowoursynowska 166, 02-787, Warsaw, Poland.

Background: Medical schools have a major impact on future doctors' ethics and their attitudes towards cooperation with the pharmaceutical industry. From childhood, medical students who are related to a physician are exposed to the characteristics of a medical career and learn its professional ethics not only in school but also in the family setting. The present paper sought to answer the research question: 'How does growing up with a physician influence medical students' perceptions of conflicts of interest in their relationships with industry?'

Methods: An anonymous questionnaire was completed by 451 medical students from four Philadelphia medical schools and 554 medical students from Warsaw Medical University during 2013. Medical schools in these two cities were chosen because they are both university cities with similar population sizes. Students who had and who did not have a family member working as a physician were compared using chi-square analysis. Data were analysed for each country separately.

Results: For both the US and Poland, there were statistically significant differences (p < .05) between medical students with a physician as a family member and other students with respect to views regarding relationship with the pharmaceutical industry. In both groups, this difference occurred for three important dimensions: students' relationship with the pharmaceutical industry; students' views on physicians' rights to cooperate with the pharmaceutical industry; trust in the pharmaceutical industry. In the US, students related to a doctor were characterized by more restrictive opinions on all three dimensions than other students (e.g., 27.8% of the former students vs. 31.4% of the latter students thought doctors had unrestricted rights to cooperate with the industry). However, the contrary was observed in Poland: students with a physician in the family had less strict views than their colleagues (e.g., 56.8% of the former vs. 39.7% of the latter thought that doctors should have unrestricted rights of cooperation).

Conclusions: In Poland, a former communist country, physicians transmit a more liberal approach towards collaboration with the pharmaceutical industry to their student relatives than those in the US.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12910-017-0208-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5553794PMC
August 2017

TELEVISION ADVERTISING OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PRODUCTS IN POLAND AND IN THE UNITED STATES - A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SELECTED TELEVISION COMMERCIALS.

Acta Pol Pharm 2016 07;73(4):1083-1097

The aim of the analysis was to establish the differences between television commercials of OTC drugs broadcast in Poland and in the U.S. The study covered 100 commercials of medicinal products of various producers applied to treat a variety of symptoms and diseases. The analysis demonstrated that there are both similarities and differences. The differences concerned e.g., spot length, the time of placement of a brand name and the diversity of advertising slogans. The most significant similarities concerned applied manipulation techniques, locations featured in commercials and the choice of actors.
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July 2016

Interactions between doctors and pharmaceutical sales representatives in a former communist country. The ethical issues.

Authors:
Marta Makowska

Camb Q Healthc Ethics 2014 Jul 27;23(3):349-55. Epub 2014 May 27.

An anonymous survey distributed to doctors in Poland revealed the troublesome relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical sale representatives in terms of the frequency of visits, the trust of physicians in information supplied by sales reps, gifts accepted, and the general influence of marketing strategies on physician decisions. Challenges remain, despite laws enacted to address the problem.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0963180113000960DOI Listing
July 2014

What can public endorsement for a smoking ban policy mean? Preliminary findings from a qualitative study.

Cent Eur J Public Health 2013 Sep;21(3):128-33

Faculty of Social Science, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Warsaw, Poland.

Objectives: The aim of the study is to describe attitudes which underlie Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places.

Methods: The qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews was conducted. The 30 IDI-s (in depth interviews) being a part of a larger research project entitled 'Lay meanings of health and life orientation of Polish society versus prevention and health promotion attitudes' were realized between 2007-2009. People belonging to all key socio-demographic categories identified by variables such as sex, age, education, and place of domicile were interviewed. The resulting material was subjected to content analysis. In the study the structural concept of 'attitude' was adopted. In order to identify the attitudes towards smoking bans in public places statements related to all three components of attitudes were analysed, but the typology of attitudes was constructed mainly on the basis of the emotional-evaluative component.

Results: The study identified as many as four attitudes behind the declared support for a smoking ban in public places. Those attitudes were labelled 'supportive', 'accepting', 'conditionally accepting', and 'ambivalent'. They differ as regards degree of acceptance for the ban, conviction about harmfulness of passive smoking, setting great store by other regulators of smoking like cultural norms or healthy consciousness, and propensity to observe and execute the smoking ban. The 'supportive' attitude can be characterized not only by total support for the smoking ban in public places but also by insistence on the need for its extension. The 'accepting' attitude means approval for the smoking ban, and the 'conditionally accepting' attitude is distinguished from the others by the stress put on the right of smokers to have an access to places where smoking is permitted. The 'ambivalent' attitude can be typified by underlining other than legal ways of influencing smoking in public places.

Conclusions: The study suggests that the attitudes underlying the Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places can be differentiated. However, because of the low number of participants in the study the results should be verified thus the further research is needed. Therefore, there is a need not only to study people's declaration of support or objection for the smoking ban in public places but also to examine their attitudes including cognitive and behavioural components using both qualitative and quantitative methods of social research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21101/cejph.a3781DOI Listing
September 2013
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