Publications by authors named "Marry M van den Heuvel-Eibrink"

330 Publications

Integrative Genomic Analysis of Pediatric Myeloid-Related Acute Leukemias Identifies Novel Subtypes and Prognostic Indicators.

Blood Cancer Discov 2021 Nov 9;2(6):586-599. Epub 2021 Sep 9.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee.

Genomic characterization of pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has led to the discovery of somatic mutations with prognostic implications. Although gene-expression profiling can differentiate subsets of pediatric AML, its clinical utility in risk stratification remains limited. Here, we evaluate gene expression, pathogenic somatic mutations, and outcome in a cohort of 435 pediatric patients with a spectrum of pediatric myeloid-related acute leukemias for biological subtype discovery. This analysis revealed 63 patients with varying immunophenotypes that span a T-lineage and myeloid continuum designated as acute myeloid/T-lymphoblastic leukemia (AMTL). Within AMTL, two patient subgroups distinguished by -ITD and PRC2 mutations have different outcomes, demonstrating the impact of mutational composition on survival. Across the cohort, variability in outcomes of patients within isomutational subsets is influenced by transcriptional identity and the presence of a stem cell-like gene-expression signature. Integration of gene expression and somatic mutations leads to improved risk stratification.

Significance: Immunophenotype and somatic mutations play a significant role in treatment approach and risk stratification of acute leukemia. We conducted an integrated genomic analysis of pediatric myeloid malignancies and found that a combination of genetic and transcriptional readouts was superior to immunophenotype and genomic mutations in identifying biological subtypes and predicting outcomes. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2643-3230.BCD-21-0049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580615PMC
November 2021

Long-Term Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment on Dentition and Oral Health: A Dentist Survey Study from the DCCSS LATER 2 Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Oct 20;13(21). Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Academic Center for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Department of Oral Biochemistry, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of and independent risk factors for long-term effects of childhood cancer treatment on the dentition and oral health in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs).

Methods: This cross-sectional study is part of the Dutch Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (DCCSS) LATER 2. CCSs were diagnosed with cancer between 1963 and 2001. This study focuses on survey data of 154 CCSs on whom information about their oral health was received from their dentists (71.3%). Descriptive statistics and univariable and multivariable Poisson regression analyses were performed to determine the association between treatment characteristics and oral health data.

Results: Of the study group, 36.3% had at least one DDD. The most prevalent DDDs were short-root anomaly (14.6%), agenesis (14.3%), and microdontia (13.6%). Risk factors for at least one DDD were younger age at diagnosis (<3 years) and dose-dependent alkylating agent therapy.

Conclusions: This study provides more insight into risk factors for oral health problems in Dutch CCSs. This information is essential in order to improve early detection, prevention, dental care, and quality of life. Further studies are needed in order to better define dose-related radiotherapy exposure of the developing teeth in correlation with oral health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13215264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8582458PMC
October 2021

Increased health-related quality of life impairments of male and female survivors of childhood cancer: DCCSS LATER 2 psycho-oncology study.

Cancer 2021 Nov 2. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: The objective of this study was to compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of Dutch adult male and female childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) to general population references and to study medical determinants.

Methods: CCSs from the Dutch Childhood Cancer Survivor Study LATER cohort (1963-2001) part 2, who were 18 years old or older (time since diagnosis ≥ 5 years), were invited to complete the TNO-AZL Questionnaire for Adult Health-Related Quality of Life. Domain scores and proportions of CCSs with impaired HRQOL (score < 25th percentile of the reference scores) were compared with references via Mann-Whitney U tests and logistic regression analyses corrected for age and sex (P < .004). Interactions of group with sex were included if they were significant (P < .05). Moreover, medical determinants were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression analyses.

Results: HRQOL scores for 1766 CCSs (mean age, 35.9 years [standard deviation, 9.4 years]; male, 51%; response rate, 71%) differed from references on most domains with small effect sizes. Both male and female CCSs were more often impaired in gross and fine motor functioning, cognitive functioning, sleep, and vitality with odds ratios (ORs) > 1.4. In addition, female CCSs were more often impaired in daily activities, pain, and sexuality (ORs, 1.4-1.9) and were less often aggressive (OR, 0.6). CCCs of central nervous system (CNS) tumors, bone tumors, and retinoblastoma and those with cranial, abdominopelvic, or lower extremity radiotherapy were at increased risk of impairment in 1 or more domains.

Conclusions: Dutch adult CCSs, especially females, have impaired HRQOL in several domains; this is most pronounced in cognitive functioning. The vulnerabilities of subgroups at risk, such as CCSs of CNS tumors, were confirmed. Surveillance of HRQOL and multidisciplinary survivor care are recommended.

Lay Summary: The health-related quality of life in a Dutch nationwide cohort of 1766 survivors of childhood cancer was studied. Survivors of childhood cancer were found to have lower health-related quality of life in several domains (eg, motor functioning and vitality) in comparison with the general population. They most often reported low cognitive functioning (eg, memory and attention). Females had low health-related quality of life in more domains than males. Survivors of brain tumors had low health-related quality of life in most domains. Monitoring health-related quality of life regularly and collaborating between disciplines in survivor care are recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.34003DOI Listing
November 2021

The association between vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy and health-related quality of life in children with cancer.

Cancer Med 2021 Nov 1;10(22):8172-8181. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Emma Children's Hospital, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Pediatric oncology, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Vincristine (VCR) is a chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of pediatric oncology patients, but its main toxicity is VCR-induced peripheral neuropathy (VIPN). However, whether VIPN has an effect on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in children during treatment is unknown. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the association between VIPN and HR-QoL in children starting treatment for cancer.

Methods: Measurements of VIPN were performed using two tools: Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) and pediatric-modified Total Neuropathy Score (ped-mTNS). Assessment of HR-QoL was done with self- and proxy assessment of the Cancer and Generic module of the Pediatric Cancer Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL).

Results: In total, N = 86 children were included. HR-QoL of children with VIPN (n = 67%, 76%) was significantly lower in comparison with children without VIPN: estimated Total score of PedsQL Generic (proxy) 84.57; β = -8.96 and 95% confidence interval (CI) -14.48 to -3.43; p = 0.002, estimated PedsQL Generic Total score (self-reported): 85.16, β = -8.38 (95% CI: -13.76 to -3.00); p = 0.003. Similar results were found in the Pain and Hurt domain of the PedsQL Cancer (pain: estimated score [proxy]: 85.28, β = -9.94 [95%CI: -16.44 to -3.45], p = 0.003; hurt: estimated score [self-report] 97.57, β = -19.15 [95%CI: -26.82 to -11.48], p < 0.001).

Conclusion: VIPN results in a significant reduction of HR-QoL in children under treatment for a malignancy, which means that VIPN is important for the well-being of pediatric oncology patients. Therefore, this study underlines the importance of optimizing treatment with VCR, thereby aiming to reduce VIPN while maintaining efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8607258PMC
November 2021

Prevalence and risk factors of cancer-related fatigue in childhood cancer survivors: A DCCSS LATER study.

Cancer 2021 Nov 1. Epub 2021 Nov 1.

Radboudumc Center of Expertise for Cancer Survivorship, Department of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.

Background: Cancer-related fatigue is a debilitating late effect after treatment for childhood cancer. The prevalence of fatigue in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) and associated factors for fatigue has varied widely in previous studies. Two important aspects of cancer-related fatigue, its severity and chronicity, are often not assessed. This study investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, severe chronic fatigue (CF) in a national cohort of Dutch CCSs.

Methods: In this study, 2810 CCSs (5-year survivors of all childhood malignancies diagnosed between 1963 and 2001 with a current age of 12-65 years) and 1040 sibling controls were included. CF was assessed with the Short Fatigue Questionnaire and was defined as a score ≥ 18 and persistence of fatigue for ≥6 months. Cancer- and treatment-related characteristics, current health problems, and demographic and lifestyle variables were assessed as potential risk factors for CF via multivariable logistic regression analyses.

Results: In adult CCSs and sibling controls (≥18 years old), the prevalence of CF was 26.1% and 14.1%, respectively (P < .001). In adolescent CCSs and sibling controls (<18 years old), the prevalence of CF was 10.9% and 3.2%, respectively. Female gender (odds ratio [OR], 2.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.73-2.62), unemployment (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.67-2.85), having 1 or more health problems (OR for 1-2, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.87; OR for >2, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.50-3.21), and a central nervous system diagnosis (OR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.17-2.60) were significantly associated with CF in adult CCSs.

Conclusions: This study shows that CCSs, regardless of their cancer diagnosis, report CF more often than sibling controls. This study provides new evidence for the prevalence of fatigue in CCSs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33993DOI Listing
November 2021

A Validated Risk Prediction Model for Bone Fragility in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

J Bone Miner Res 2021 Oct 5. Epub 2021 Oct 5.

Canadian Pediatric Bone Health Working Group, Ottawa, ON, Canada.

Although bone fragility may already be present at diagnosis of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), routine performance of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in every child is not universally feasible. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a risk prediction model for low lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS BMD Z-score ≤ -2.0) at diagnosis, as an important indicator for fracture risk and further treatment-related BMD aggravation. Children with ALL (4-18 years), treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group protocol (DCOG-ALL9; model development; n = 249) and children from the Canadian Steroid-Associated Osteoporosis in the Pediatric Population cohort (STOPP; validation; n = 99) were included in this study. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to develop the prediction model and to confirm the association of low LS BMD at diagnosis with symptomatic fractures during and shortly after cessation of ALL treatment. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was used to assess model performance. The prediction model for low LS BMD at diagnosis using weight (β = -0.70) and age (β = -0.10) at diagnosis revealed an AUC of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.63-0.78) in DCOG-ALL9 and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.63-0.84) in STOPP, and resulted in correct identification of 71% of the patients with low LS BMD. We confirmed that low LS BMD at diagnosis is associated with LS BMD at treatment cessation (OR 5.9; 95% CI, 3.2-10.9) and with symptomatic fractures (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.4) that occurred between diagnosis and 12 months following treatment cessation. In meta-analysis, LS BMD at diagnosis (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.4) and the 6-month cumulative glucocorticoid dose (OR 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) were associated with fractures that occurred in the first year of treatment. In summary, a prediction model for identifying pediatric ALL patients with low LS BMD at diagnosis, as an important indicator for bone fragility, was successfully developed and validated. This can facilitate identification of future bone fragility in individual pediatric ALL patients. © 2021 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbmr.4442DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Genetic Variation in CYP450 on Gonadal Impairment in a European Cohort of Female Childhood Cancer Survivors, Based on a Candidate Gene Approach: Results from the PanCareLIFE Study.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Sep 13;13(18). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Brandenburg Medical School Theodor Fontane, Immanuel Klinik Rüdersdorf, 16816 Neuruppin, Germany.

Background: Female childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) carry a risk of therapy-related gonadal dysfunction. Alkylating agents (AA) are well-established risk factors, yet inter-individual variability in ovarian function is observed. Polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes may explain this variability in AA-induced ovarian damage. We aimed to evaluate associations between previously identified genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes and AA-related ovarian function among adult CCSs.

Methods: Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels served as a proxy for ovarian function in a discovery cohort of adult female CCSs, from the pan-European PanCareLIFE cohort ( = 743; age (years): median 25.8, interquartile range (IQR) 22.1-30.6). Using two additive genetic models in linear and logistic regression, nine genetic variants in three CYP450 enzymes were analyzed in relation to cyclophosphamide equivalent dose (CED) score and their impact on AMH levels. The main model evaluated the effect of the variant on AMH and the interaction model evaluated the modifying effect of the variant on the impact of CED score on log-transformed AMH levels. Results were validated, and meta-analysis performed, using the USA-based St. Jude Lifetime Cohort ( = 391; age (years): median 31.3, IQR 26.6-37.4).

Results: was significantly associated with AMH levels in the discovery and replication cohort. Meta-analysis revealed a significant main deleterious effect (Beta (95% CI): -0.706 (-1.11--0.298), -value = 7 × 10) of (rs4986910) on log-transformed AMH levels. (rs8192709) showed a significant protective interaction effect (Beta (95% CI): 0.527 (0.126-0.928), -value = 0.01) on log-transformed AMH levels in CCSs receiving more than 8000 mg/m CED.

Conclusions: Female CCSs carriers had significantly lower AMH levels, and may have a protective effect on AMH levels. Identification of risk-contributing variants may improve individualized counselling regarding the treatment-related risk of infertility and fertility preservation options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13184598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470074PMC
September 2021

Bone Mineral Density in Adult Survivors of Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study.

Thyroid 2021 Nov 8;31(11):1707-1714. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Internal Medicine, Department of Endocrinology; Departments of University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Survivors of pediatric differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) receive thyrotropin-suppressive therapy to minimize disease recurrence. However, knowledge about long-term effects of subclinical hyperthyroidism on bone mineral density (BMD) in pediatric DTC survivors is scarce, as is the information regarding long-term consequences of permanent hypoparathyroidism on BMD. We evaluated BMD in pediatric DTC survivors and investigated if BMD was affected by subclinical hyperthyroidism and/or permanent hypoparathyroidism during long-term follow-up. In this nationwide longitudinal study, we determined BMD in the lumbar spine and femur by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 65 pediatric DTC survivors. Measurements were repeated after minimal 5 years of follow-up in 46 pediatric DTC survivors. BMD results were evaluated according to the recommendations of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry (ISCD) and WHO. At both visits, we determined biochemical parameters and markers of bone resorption (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen [β-CTX]) and formation (N-propeptide of type I collagen [PINP] and osteocalcin). First and second BMD measurements were done after a median follow-up of 17.0 (interquartile range [IQR] 8.0-25.0) and 23.5 (IQR 14.0-30.0) years after diagnosis, respectively. Median age at diagnosis was 15 years (IQR 13.0-17.0). Twenty-nine percent of the survivors had subclinical hyperthyroidism. In most survivors, BMD T- and Z-scores were within the reference range during both BMD evaluations. However, after 23.5 years of follow-up, a low BMD was found in 13.0%. In the 13 survivors with permanent hypoparathyroidism, BMD values did not differ after 5 years of follow-up compared with baseline values or in comparison with the 33 survivors without permanent hypoparathyroidism. During follow-up, turnover markers β-CTX and PINP remained stable. This longitudinal study of pediatric DTC survivors demonstrated normal and stable median lumbar spine and femur BMD values after a median time of 17 and 23.5 years after diagnosis. However, compared with controls, a lower BMD was still found in 13.0% after prolonged follow-up despite intensive follow-up. Based on the studied follow-up period, these data do not provide convincing evidence in support of standard monitoring of bone mass among DTC survivors, but may be restricted to individual cases at low frequency. This follow-up study was registered in The Netherlands Trial Register under no. NL3280 (www.trialregister.nl/trial/3280).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2021.0179DOI Listing
November 2021

The cumulative incidence of cisplatin-induced hearing loss in young children is higher and develops at an early stage during therapy compared with older children based on 2052 audiological assessments.

Cancer 2021 Sep 7. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

British Columbia Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: Ototoxicity is a common adverse event of cisplatin treatment. The authors investigated the development of cisplatin-induced hearing loss (CIHL) over time in children with cancer by age and examined the influence of other clinical characteristics on the course of CIHL.

Methods: Data from Canadian patients with childhood cancer were retrospectively reviewed. Hearing loss was graded according to International Society of Pediatric Oncology criteria. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to estimate the cumulative incidence of CIHL for the total cohort and according to age. Cox regression models were used to explore the effects of independent variables on CIHL development up to 3 years after the start of therapy.

Results: In total, 368 patients with 2052 audiological assessments were included. Three years after initiating therapy, the cumulative incidence of CIHL was highest in patients aged ≤5 years (75%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 66%-84%), with a rapid increase observed to 27% (95% CI, 21%-35%) at 3 months and to 61% (95% CI, 53%-69%) at 1 year, compared with patients aged >5 years (48%; 95% CI, 37%-62%; P < .001). The total cumulative dose of cisplatin at 3 months (per 100 mg/m increase: hazard ratio [HR], 1.20; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41) vincristine (HR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.89-4.36) and the total duration of concomitantly administered antibiotics (>30 days: HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.17-2.95) further influenced CIHL development over time.

Conclusions: In young children, the cumulative incidence of CIHL is higher compared with that in older children and develops early during therapy. The course of CIHL is further influenced by the total cumulative dose of cisplatin and other ototoxic (co-)medication. These results highlight the need for audiological monitoring at each cisplatin cycle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33848DOI Listing
September 2021

Organoid-based drug screening reveals neddylation as therapeutic target for malignant rhabdoid tumors.

Cell Rep 2021 Aug;36(8):109568

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, the Netherlands; Oncode Institute, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Malignant rhabdoid tumors (MRTs) represent one of the most aggressive childhood malignancies. No effective treatment options are available, and prognosis is, therefore, dismal. Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor organoids capture the heterogeneity of patient tumors and can be used to predict patient response to therapy. Here, we perform drug screening on patient-derived normal and tumor organoids to identify MRT-specific therapeutic vulnerabilities. We identify neddylation inhibitor MLN4924 as a potential therapeutic agent. Mechanistically, we find increased neddylation in MRT organoids and tissues and show that MLN4924 induces a cytotoxic response via upregulation of the unfolded protein response. Lastly, we demonstrate in vivo efficacy in an MRT PDX mouse model, in which single-agent MLN4924 treatment significantly extends survival. Our study demonstrates that organoids can be used to find drugs selectively targeting tumor cells while leaving healthy cells unharmed and proposes neddylation inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in MRT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109568DOI Listing
August 2021

Interobserver variability between experienced and inexperienced observers in the histopathological analysis of Wilms tumors: a pilot study for future algorithmic approach.

Diagn Pathol 2021 Aug 21;16(1):77. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Histopathological classification of Wilms tumors determines treatment regimen. Machine learning has been shown to contribute to histopathological classification in various malignancies but requires large numbers of manually annotated images and thus specific pathological knowledge. This study aimed to assess whether trained, inexperienced observers could contribute to reliable annotation of Wilms tumor components for classification performed by machine learning.

Methods: Four inexperienced observers (medical students) were trained in histopathology of normal kidneys and Wilms tumors by an experienced observer (pediatric pathologist). Twenty randomly selected scanned Wilms tumor-slides (from n = 1472 slides) were annotated, and annotations were independently classified by both the inexperienced observers and two experienced pediatric pathologists. Agreement between the six observers and for each tissue element was measured using kappa statistics (κ).

Results: Pairwise interobserver agreement between all inexperienced and experienced observers was high (range: 0.845-0.950). The interobserver variability for the different histological elements, including all vital tumor components and therapy-related effects, showed high values for all κ-coefficients (> 0.827).

Conclusions: Inexperienced observers can be trained to recognize specific histopathological tumor and tissue elements with high interobserver agreement with experienced observers. Nevertheless, supervision by experienced pathologists remains necessary. Results of this study can be used to facilitate more rapid progress for supervised machine learning-based algorithm development in pediatric pathology and beyond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13000-021-01136-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380406PMC
August 2021

Parent-Child Dyadic Coping and Quality of Life in Chronically Diseased Children.

Front Psychol 2021 28;12:701540. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatrics, Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Different forms of dyadic coping are associated with positive outcomes in partner relationships, yet little is known about dyadic coping in parent-child relationships. The current research explored the association between parent-child dyadic coping and children's quality of life in 12-18-year old children with a chronic disease (i.e., cystic fibrosis, autoimmune diseases, and children post-cancer treatment). In a sample of 105 parent-child dyads, self-reported forms of dyadic coping (i.e., stress communication, problem-oriented, emotion-oriented, and negative dyadic coping) and children's quality of life were assessed. Children reported more stress communication and negative dyadic coping than their parents, while parents reported more problem-oriented dyadic coping and emotion-oriented dyadic coping than their children. More stress communication of the child was associated with more emotion-oriented dyadic coping and less negative dyadic coping of the parent. More negative dyadic coping of the child was associated with less stress communication, problem-oriented dyadic coping and emotion-oriented dyadic coping of the parent. Additionally, both children's and parents' negative dyadic coping were associated with lower self-reported pediatric quality of life and parents' emotion-oriented dyadic coping was associated with higher pediatric quality of life. These findings emphasize that children and their parents mutually influence each other and that dyadic coping is associated with children's quality of life. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.701540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8355494PMC
July 2021

Recommendations for Age-Appropriate Testing, Timing, and Frequency of Audiologic Monitoring During Childhood Cancer Treatment: An International Society of Paediatric Oncology Supportive Care Consensus Report.

JAMA Oncol 2021 Oct;7(10):1550-1558

Department of Audiovestibular Medicine and Cochlear Implant, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children National Health Service Trust, London, United Kingdom.

Importance: Ototoxicity is an irreversible direct and late effect of certain childhood cancer treatments. Audiologic surveillance during therapy as part of the supportive care pathway enables early detection of hearing loss, decision-making about ongoing cancer treatment, and, when applicable, the timely use of audiologic interventions. Pediatric oncologic clinical practice and treatment trials have tended to be driven by tumor type and tumor-specific working groups. Internationally accepted standardized recommendations for monitoring hearing during treatment have not previously been agreed on.

Objective: To provide standard recommendations on hearing loss monitoring during childhood cancer therapy for clinical practice.

Methods: An Ototoxicity Task Force was formed under the umbrella of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology, consisting of international audiologists, otolaryngologists, and leaders in the field of relevant pediatric oncology tumor groups. Consensus meetings conducted by experts were organized, aimed at providing standardized recommendations on age-directed testing, timing, and frequency of monitoring during cancer treatment based on literature and consensus. Consensus statements were prepared by the core group, adapted following several videoconferences, and finally agreed on by the expert panel.

Findings: The consensus reached was that children who receive ototoxic cancer treatment (platinum agents, cranial irradiation, and/or brain surgery) require a baseline case history, monitoring of their middle ear and inner ear function, and assessment of tinnitus at each audiologic follow-up. As a minimum, age-appropriate testing should be performed before and at the end of treatment. Ideally, audiometry with counseling before each cisplatin cycle should be considered in the context of the individual patient, specific disease, feasibility, and available resources.

Conclusions And Relevance: This is an international multidisciplinary consensus report providing standardized supportive care recommendations on hearing monitoring in children undergoing potentially ototoxic cancer treatment. The recommendations are intended to improve the care of children with cancer and facilitate comparative research on the timing and development of hearing loss caused by different cancer treatment regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.2697DOI Listing
October 2021

MRI Characteristics of Pediatric Renal Tumors: A SIOP-RTSG Radiology Panel Delphi Study.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht/Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: The SIOP-Renal Tumor Study Group (RTSG) does not advocate invasive procedures to determine histology before the start of therapy. This may induce misdiagnosis-based treatment initiation, but only for a relatively small percentage of approximately 10% of non-Wilms tumors (non-WTs). MRI could be useful for reducing misdiagnosis, but there is no global consensus on differentiating characteristics.

Purpose: To identify MRI characteristics that may be used for discrimination of newly diagnosed pediatric renal tumors.

Study Type: Consensus process using a Delphi method.

Population: Not applicable.

Field Strength/sequence: Abdominal MRI including T1- and T2-weighted imaging, contrast-enhanced MRI, and diffusion-weighted imaging at 1.5 or 3 T.

Assessment: Twenty-three radiologists from the SIOP-RTSG radiology panel with ≥5 years of experience in MRI of pediatric renal tumors and/or who had assessed ≥50 MRI scans of pediatric renal tumors in the past 5 years identified potentially discriminatory characteristics in the first questionnaire. These characteristics were scored in the subsequent second round, consisting of 5-point Likert scales, ranking- and multiple choice questions.

Statistical Tests: The cut-off value for consensus and agreement among the majority was ≥75% and ≥60%, respectively, with a median of ≥4 on the Likert scale.

Results: Consensus on specific characteristics mainly concerned the discrimination between WTs and non-WTs, and WTs and nephrogenic rest(s) (NR)/nephroblastomatosis. The presence of bilateral lesions (75.0%) and NR/nephroblastomatosis (65.0%) were MRI characteristics indicated as specific for the diagnosis of a WT, and 91.3% of the participants agreed that MRI is useful to distinguish NR/nephroblastomatosis from WT. Furthermore, all participants agreed that age influenced their prediction in the discrimination of pediatric renal tumors.

Data Conclusion: Although the discrimination of pediatric renal tumors based on MRI remains challenging, this study identified some specific characteristics for tumor subtypes, based on the shared opinion of experts. These results may guide future validation studies and innovative efforts.

Level Of Evidence: 3 Technical Efficacy Stage: 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.27878DOI Listing
August 2021

Bone mineral density surveillance for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: evidence-based recommendations from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group.

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol 2021 09 30;9(9):622-637. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department for Pediatric Hematology and Oncology CHU Nord, University Hospital Saint-Etienne, Saint-Priest en Jarez, France; 28U1059 Sainbiose, University Jean Monnet, Saint-Etienne, France.

Childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density. Clinical practice surveillance guidelines are important for timely diagnosis and treatment of these survivors, which could improve bone mineral density parameters and prevent fragility fractures. Discordances across current late effects guidelines necessitated international harmonisation of recommendations for bone mineral density surveillance. The International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group therefore established a panel of 36 experts from ten countries, representing a range of relevant medical specialties. The evidence of risk factors for very low and low bone mineral density and fractures, surveillance modality, timing of bone mineral density surveillance, and treatment of very low and low bone mineral density were evaluated and critically appraised, and harmonised recommendations for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors were formulated. We graded the recommendations based on the quality of evidence and balance between potential benefits and harms. Bone mineral density surveillance is recommended for survivors treated with cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy and is reasonable for survivors treated with total body irradiation. Due to insufficient evidence, no recommendation can be formulated for or against bone mineral density surveillance for survivors treated with corticosteroids. This surveillance decision should be made by the survivor and health-care provider together, after careful consideration of the potential harms and benefits and additional risk factors. We recommend to carry out bone mineral density surveillance using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at entry into long-term follow-up, and if normal (Z-score > -1), repeat when the survivor is aged 25 years. Between these measurements and thereafter, surveillance should be done as clinically indicated. These recommendations facilitate evidence-based care for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors internationally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00173-XDOI Listing
September 2021

Recent perspectives on the association between osteonecrosis and bone mineral density decline in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Fac Rev 2021 23;10:57. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, the Netherlands.

The attention to treatment-related toxicity has increased since the survival of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has improved significantly over the past few decades. Intensive ALL treatment schedules including corticosteroids and asparaginase have been shown to give rise to skeletal abnormalities such as osteonecrosis and low bone mineral density (BMD), which may lead to debilitating sequelae in survivors. Although osteonecrosis and low BMD are different entities with suggested separate pathophysiological mechanisms, recent studies indicate that osteonecrosis is associated with accelerated BMD decline. Common underlying mechanisms for osteonecrosis and BMD decline are considered, such as an enhanced sensitivity to corticosteroids in children who suffer from both osteonecrosis and low BMD. In addition, restriction of weight-bearing activities, which is generally advised in patients with osteonecrosis, could aggravate BMD decline. This induces a clinical dilemma, since bone stimulation is important to maintain BMD but alternative interventions for osteonecrosis are limited. Furthermore, this recent finding of accelerated BMD decline in children with osteonecrosis emphasizes the need to develop effective preventive measures for osteonecrosis, which may include targeting BMD decline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12703/r/10-57DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8265561PMC
June 2021

Response to upfront azacitidine in juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in the AZA-JMML-001 trial.

Blood Adv 2021 07;5(14):2901-2908

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, IRCCS Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, Rome, Italy; and.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only curative therapy for most children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Novel therapies controlling the disorder prior to HSCT are needed. We conducted a phase 2, multicenter, open-label study to evaluate the safety and antileukemic activity of azacitidine monotherapy prior to HSCT in newly diagnosed JMML patients. Eighteen patients enrolled from September 2015 to November 2017 were treated with azacitidine (75 mg/m2) administered IV once daily on days 1 to 7 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was the number of patients with clinical complete remission (cCR) or clinical partial remission (cPR) after 3 cycles of therapy. Pharmacokinetics, genome-wide DNA-methylation levels, and variant allele frequencies of leukemia-specific index mutations were also analyzed. Sixteen patients completed 3 cycles and 5 patients completed 6 cycles. After 3 cycles, 11 patients (61%) were in cPR and 7 (39%) had progressive disease. Six of 16 patients (38%) who needed platelet transfusions were transfusion-free after 3 cycles. All 7 patients with intermediate- or low-methylation signatures in genome-wide DNA-methylation studies achieved cPR. Seventeen patients received HSCT; 14 (82%) were leukemia-free at a median follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 7.0-39.3 months) after HSCT. Azacitidine was well tolerated and plasma concentration--time profiles were similar to observed profiles in adults. In conclusion, azacitidine monotherapy is a suitable option for children with newly diagnosed JMML. Although long-term safety and efficacy remain to be fully elucidated in this population, these data demonstrate that azacitidine provides valuable clinical benefit to JMML patients prior to HSCT. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02447666.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020004144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8341358PMC
July 2021

Bariatric Surgery for Hypothalamic Obesity in Craniopharyngioma Patients: A Retrospective, Matched Case-Control Study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 10;106(11):e4734-e4745

Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.

Context: Craniopharyngioma is a sellar tumor associated with high rates of pituitary deficiencies (~ 98%) and hypothalamic obesity (~ 50%).

Objective: This work aims to determine the efficacy regarding long-term weight loss after bariatric surgery in obese craniopharyngioma patients with hypothalamic dysfunction.

Methods: This retrospective, case-control, multicenter, international study included obese craniopharyngioma patients (N = 16; of whom 12 are women) with a history of bariatric surgery (12 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 4 sleeve gastrectomy; median age 21 years [range, 15-52 years], median follow-up 5.2 years [range, 2.0-11.3 years]) and age/sex/surgery/body mass index-matched obese controls (N = 155). Weight loss and obesity-related comorbidities up to 5 years after bariatric surgery were compared and changes in hormonal replacement therapy evaluated.

Results: Mean weight loss at 5-year follow-up was 22.0% (95% CI, 16.1%-27.8%) in patients vs 29.5% (95% CI, 28.0%-30.9%) in controls (P = .02), which was less after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (22.7% [16.9%-28.5%] vs 32.0% [30.4%-33.6%]; P = .003) but at a similar level after sleeve gastrectomy (21.7% [-1.8% to 45.2%] vs 21.8% [18.2%-25.5%]; P = .96). No major changes in endocrine replacement therapy were observed after surgery. One patient died (unknown cause). One patient had long-term absorptive problems.

Conclusion: Obese patients with craniopharyngioma had a substantial mean weight loss of 22% at 5-year follow-up after bariatric surgery, independent of type of bariatric surgery procedure. Weight loss was lower than in obese controls after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Bariatric surgery appears to be effective and relatively safe in the treatment of obese craniopharyngioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgab518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8530717PMC
October 2021

Can biomarkers be used to improve diagnosis and prediction of metabolic syndrome in childhood cancer survivors? A systematic review.

Obes Rev 2021 11 13;22(11):e13312. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk to develop metabolic syndrome (MetS), diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Common criteria underestimate adiposity and possibly underdiagnose MetS, particularly after abdominal radiotherapy. A systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the diagnostic and predictive value of nine newer MetS related biomarkers (adiponectin, leptin, uric acid, hsCRP, TNF-alpha, IL-1, IL-6, apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein(a) [lp(a)]) in survivors and adult non-cancer survivors was performed by searching PubMed and Embase. Evidence was summarized with GRADE after risk of bias evaluation (QUADAS-2/QUIPS). Eligible studies on promising biomarkers were pooled. We identified 175 general population and five CCS studies. In the general population, valuable predictive biomarkers are uric acid, adiponectin, hsCRP and apoB (high level of evidence), and leptin (moderate level of evidence). Valuable diagnostic biomarkers are hsCRP, adiponectin, uric acid, and leptin (low, low, moderate, and high level of evidence, respectively). Meta-analysis showed OR for hyperuricemia of 2.94 (age-/sex-adjusted), OR per unit uric acid increase of 1.086 (unadjusted), and AUC for hsCRP of 0.71 (unadjusted). Uric acid, adiponectin, hsCRP, leptin, and apoB can be alternative biomarkers in the screening setting for MetS in survivors, to enhance early identification of those at high risk of subsequent complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/obr.13312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596408PMC
November 2021

Prognostic Factors for Wilms Tumor Recurrence: A Review of the Literature.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 23;13(13). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS Utrecht, The Netherlands.

In high-income countries, the overall survival of children with Wilms tumors (WT) is ~90%. However, overall, 15% of patients experience tumor recurrence. The adverse prognostic factors currently used for risk stratification (advanced stage, high risk histology, and combined loss of heterozygosity at 1p and 16q in chemotherapy-naïve WTs) are present in only one third of these cases, and the significance of these factors is prone to change with advancing knowledge and improved treatment regimens. Therefore, we present a comprehensive, updated overview of the published prognostic variables for WT recurrence, ranging from patient-, tumor- and treatment-related characteristics to geographic and socioeconomic factors. Improved first-line treatment regimens based on clinicopathological characteristics and advancing knowledge on copy number variations unveil the importance of further investigating the significance of biological markers for WT recurrence in international collaborations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13133142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268923PMC
June 2021

Single cell derived mRNA signals across human kidney tumors.

Nat Commun 2021 06 23;12(1):3896. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge, UK.

Tumor cells may share some patterns of gene expression with their cell of origin, providing clues into the differentiation state and origin of cancer. Here, we study the differentiation state and cellular origin of 1300 childhood and adult kidney tumors. Using single cell mRNA reference maps of normal tissues, we quantify reference "cellular signals" in each tumor. Quantifying global differentiation, we find that childhood tumors exhibit fetal cellular signals, replacing the presumption of "fetalness" with a quantitative measure of immaturity. By contrast, in adult cancers our assessment refutes the suggestion of dedifferentiation towards a fetal state in most cases. We find an intimate connection between developmental mesenchymal populations and childhood renal tumors. We demonstrate the diagnostic potential of our approach with a case study of a cryptic renal tumor. Our findings provide a cellular definition of human renal tumors through an approach that is broadly applicable to human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23949-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8222373PMC
June 2021

A comparison of genotyping arrays.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Nov 18;29(11):1611-1624. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Array technology to genotype single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) is widely used in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), clinical diagnostics, and linkage studies. Arrays have undergone a tremendous growth in both number and content over recent years making a comprehensive comparison all the more important. We have compared 28 genotyping arrays on their overall content, genome-wide coverage, imputation quality, presence of known GWAS loci, mtDNA variants and clinically relevant genes (i.e., American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG) actionable genes, pharmacogenetic genes, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes and SNV density). Our comparison shows that genome-wide coverage is highly correlated with the number of SNVs on the array but does not correlate with imputation quality, which is the main determinant of GWAS usability. Average imputation quality for all tested arrays was similar for European and African populations, indicating that this is not a good criterion for choosing a genotyping array. Rather, the additional content on the array, such as pharmacogenetics or HLA variants, should be the deciding factor. As the research question of a study will in large part determine which class of genes are of interest, there is not just one perfect array for all different research questions. This study can thus help as a guideline to determine which array best suits a study's requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00917-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8560858PMC
November 2021

Wilms tumour surveillance in at-risk children: Literature review and recommendations from the SIOP-Europe Host Genome Working Group and SIOP Renal Tumour Study Group.

Eur J Cancer 2021 08 13;153:51-63. Epub 2021 Jun 13.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Genetics, University Medical Center Utrecht / Wilhelmina Children's Hospital, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Since previous consensus-based Wilms tumour (WT) surveillance guidelines were published, novel genes and syndromes associated with WT risk have been identified, and diagnostic molecular tests for previously known syndromes have improved. In view of this, the International Society of Pediatric Oncology (SIOP)-Europe Host Genome Working Group and SIOP Renal Tumour Study Group hereby present updated WT surveillance guidelines after an extensive literature review and international consensus meetings. These guidelines are for use by clinical geneticists, pediatricians, pediatric oncologists and radiologists involved in the care of children at risk of WT. Additionally, we emphasise the need to register all patients with a cancer predisposition syndrome in national or international databases, to enable the development of better tumour risk estimates and tumour surveillance programs in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.05.014DOI Listing
August 2021

Vitamin D supplementation for children with cancer: A systematic review and consensus recommendations.

Cancer Med 2021 07 8;10(13):4177-4194. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Prevalent vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and low bone mineral density (BMD) have led to vitamin D supplementation for children with cancer, regardless vitamin D status. However, it remains unsettled whether this enhances bone strength. We sought to address this issue by carrying out a systematic review of the literature.

Methods: We conducted a literature search using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Studies including children up to 5 years after cancer therapy were assessed for the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and BMD Z-scores or fractures, and the effect of vitamin D supplementation on BMD or fractures. Evidence quality was assessed using the GRADE methodology.

Results: Nineteen studies (16 observational and 3 interventional, mainly involving children with hematologic malignancies) were included. One study which analyzed 25OHD as a threshold variable (≤10 ng/ml) found a significant association between 25OHD levels and BMD Z-scores, while 25OHD as a continuous variable was not significantly associated with BMD Z-scores in 14 observational studies. We found neither a significant association between lower 25OHD levels and fractures (2 studies), nor between vitamin D (and calcium) supplementation and BMD or fracture frequency (3 studies) (very low quality evidence).

Conclusion: There is a lack of evidence for an effect of vitamin D (and calcium) supplementation on BMD or fractures in children with cancer. Further research is needed; until then, we recommend dietary vitamin D/calcium intake in keeping with standard national guidelines, and periodic 25OHD monitoring to detect levels <20 ng/ml. Vitamin D/calcium supplementation is recommended in children with low levels, to maintain levels ≥20 ng/ml year-long.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cam4.4013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8267124PMC
July 2021

Estimated clinical benefit of combining highly conformal target volumes with Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) versus conventional flank irradiation in pediatric renal tumors.

Clin Transl Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 3;29:20-26. Epub 2021 May 3.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Heidelberglaan 25, 3584 CS, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: For decades, Anterior-Posterior/Posterior-Anterior (AP/PA) photon beams were standard-of-care for flank irradiation in children with renal cancer. Recently, highly conformal flank target volumes were defined correcting for postoperative organ shift and intra-fraction motion.By radiotherapy treatment plan comparison, this study aims to estimate the clinical benefits and potential risks of combining highly conformal target volumes with Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT) versus conventional target volumes with AP/PA beams for flank irradiation.

Materials And Methods: Twenty consecutive renal tumor cases (left/right-sided:10/10; median age:3.2 years) were selected. Highly conformal flank target volumes were generated for VMAT, while conventional target volumes were used for AP/PA. For each case, the dose to the organs at risk (OARs) and Total Body Volume (TBV) was calculated to compare VMAT with AP/PA treatment plans for a prescribed dose (PD) of 14.4/1.8 Gy. Dose constraint violation of the tail of the pancreas and spleen (D < 10 Gy), heart (D < 5 Gy) or mammary buds (D < 10 Gy) were prioritized as potentially beneficial for clinics.

Results: Highly conformal Planning Target Volumes (PTV) were smaller than conventional volumes (mean ΔPTV-PTV: 555 mL, Δ60%, p=<0.01). A mean dose reduction favoring VMAT was observed for almost all OARs. Dose constraints to the tail of the pancreas, spleen, heart and mammary buds were fulfilled in 8/20, 12/20, 16/20 and 19/20 cases with AP/PA, versus 14/20, 17/20, 20/20 and 20/20 cases with VMAT, respectively. In 12/20 cases, VMAT prevented the dose constraint violation of one or more OARs otherwise exceeded by AP/PA. VMAT increased the TBV receiving 10% of the PD, but reduced the amount of irradiated TBV for all higher doses.

Conclusion: Compared to 14.4 Gy flank irradiation using conventional AP/PA photon beams, an estimated clinical benefit by dose reduction to the OARs can be expected in 60% of the pediatric renal tumor cases using highly conformal flank target volumes combined with VMAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctro.2021.04.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8134033PMC
July 2021

Echocardiography protocol for early detection of cardiac dysfunction in childhood cancer survivors in the multicenter DCCSS LATER 2 CARD study: Design, feasibility, and reproducibility.

Echocardiography 2021 06 20;38(6):951-963. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Cardiology Unit, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.

Background: Cardiotoxicity is a well-known side effect after anthracyclines and chest radiotherapy in childhood cancer survivors (CCS). The DCCSS LATER 2 CARD (cardiology) study includes evaluation of echocardiographic measurements for early identification of CCS at highest risk of developing heart failure. This paper describes the design, feasibility, and reproducibility of the echocardiography protocol.

Methods: Echocardiograms from CCS and sibling controls were prospectively obtained at the participating centers and centrally analyzed. We describe the image acquisition, measurement protocol, and software-specific considerations for myocardial strain analyses. We report the feasibility of the primary outcomes of systolic and diastolic function, as well as reproducibility analyses in 30 subjects.

Results: We obtained 1,679 echocardiograms. Biplane ejection fraction (LVEF) measurement was feasible in 91% and 96% of CCS and siblings, respectively, global longitudinal strain (GLS) in 80% and 91%, global circumferential strain (GCS) in 86% and 89%, and ≥2 diastolic function parameters in 99% and 100%, right ventricle free wall strain (RVFWS) in 57% and 65%, and left atrial reservoir strain (LASr) in 72% and 79%. Intra-class correlation coefficients for inter-observer variability were 0.85 for LVEF, 0.76 for GLS, 0.70 for GCS, 0.89 for RVFWS and 0.89 for LASr. Intra-class correlation coefficients for intra-observer variability were 0.87 for LVEF, 0.82 for GLS, 0.82 for GCS, 0.85 for RVFWS and 0.79 for LASr.

Conclusion: The DCCSS LATER 2 CARD study includes a protocolized echocardiogram, with feasible and reproducible primary outcome measurements. This ensures high-quality outcome data for prevalence estimates and for reliable comparison of cardiac function parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.15081DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8251836PMC
June 2021

Methodology of the DCCSS later fatigue study: a model to investigate chronic fatigue in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 05 16;21(1):106. Epub 2021 May 16.

Department of Hematology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Background: A debilitating late effect for childhood cancer survivors (CCS) is cancer-related fatigue (CRF). Little is known about the prevalence and risk factors of fatigue in this population. Here we describe the methodology of the Dutch Childhood Cancer Survivor Late Effect Study on fatigue (DCCSS LATER fatigue study). The aim of the DCCSS LATER fatigue study is to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with CRF, proposing a model which discerns predisposing, triggering, maintaining and moderating factors. Triggering factors are related to the cancer diagnosis and treatment during childhood and are thought to trigger fatigue symptoms. Maintaining factors are daily life- and psychosocial factors which may perpetuate fatigue once triggered. Moderating factors might influence the way fatigue symptoms express in individuals. Predisposing factors already existed before the diagnosis, such as genetic factors, and are thought to increase the vulnerability to develop fatigue. Methodology of the participant inclusion, data collection and planned analyses of the DCCSS LATER fatigue study are presented.

Results: Data of 1955 CCS and 455 siblings was collected. Analysis of the data is planned and we aim to start reporting the first results in 2022.

Conclusion: The DCCSS LATER fatigue study will provide information on the epidemiology of CRF and investigate the role of a broad range of associated factors in CCS. Insight in associated factors for fatigue in survivors experiencing severe and persistent fatigue may help identify individuals at risk for developing CRF and may aid in the development of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01298-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127233PMC
May 2021

Clinical characteristics of subsequent histologically confirmed meningiomas in long-term childhood cancer survivors: A Dutch LATER study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 06 30;150:240-249. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Background: Meningiomas are the most frequent brain tumours occurring after pediatric cranial radiotherapy (CrRT). Data on course of disease, to inform clinical management of meningiomas, are sparse. This study reports the clinical characteristics of histologically confirmed meningiomas in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) in the Netherlands.

Methods: In total, 6015 CCS from the Dutch Long-Term Effects After Childhood Cancer (LATER) cohort were eligible, including 1551 with prior CrRT. These CCS were diagnosed with cancer age <18 y (between 1963 and 2002) and are not subject to brain tumour screening. We identified histologically confirmed meningiomas by record linkage with the Dutch Pathology Registry (PALGA; 1991-2018), and in the Dutch LATER registry. We extracted details regarding diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up from medical records.

Results: We described 93 CCS with meningioma, of whom 89 (95.7%) were treated with CrRT (5.7% of 1551 with prior CrRT; OR = 68). Median age at diagnosis was 31.8 y (range: 13.2-50.5). Thirty survivors (32.3%) had synchronous meningiomas; 84 (90.3%) presented with symptoms. Only 16.1% of meningioma was detected at late effects clinics. Over time, all survivors had surgery; one-third also received radiotherapy. During follow-up 38 (40.9%), survivors developed new meningiomas, 22(23.7%) recurrences and at least four died due to the meningioma.

Conclusions: Histologically confirmed meningiomas after childhood cancer are mostly diagnosed with symptoms and not during routine follow-up at late effects clinics. The meningiomas occur at a median of 20-25 y younger age than incidental meningiomas, are frequently multiple and recurrence after treatment is high. It is crucial to inform CCS and healthcare providers about risk and symptoms of subsequent meningiomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.021DOI Listing
June 2021

[Formula: see text]Long-term neurodevelopmental outcome after prenatal exposure to maternal hematological malignancies with or without cytotoxic treatment.

Child Neuropsychol 2021 08 20;27(6):822-833. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Center for Gynecologic Oncology Amsterdam, the Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Data on the long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children exposed to hematological maternal cancer with or without treatment during pregnancy are lacking. A total of 57 children, of whom 33 males and 24 females, prenatally exposed to hematological malignancies and its treatment, were invited for neuropsychological and physical examinations at 18 months, 36 months, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 years of age. Oncological, obstetrical, neonatal and follow-up data of these children were collected. Parents were asked to complete questionnaires on their child's general health, school performances, social situation, behavioral development, executive functioning, and if their child receives supportive care. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma was diagnosed in 35.1%, Hodgkin lymphoma in 28.1%, acute myeloid leukemia in 15.8%, chronic myeloid leukemia in 12.3%, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 8.8%. Cognitive development at a median age of 10.7 years was within the normal range. In subgroup analyses of children in early childhood, the gestational age at birth was correlated with the cognitive outcome at a median age of 1.7 years. Scores for language development, intelligence, attention, memory and behavior, as well as clinical neurological and general pediatric examinations were within normal ranges. In subgroup analyses, the need for supportive care in the child was associated with the loss of the mother. Prenatal exposure to hematological maternal malignancies with or without treatment did not affect the neurodevelopment of the child in the long term. Yet, caution is indicated and surveillance of the emotional development of the child is needed, especially when the mother is deceased to cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09297049.2021.1902489DOI Listing
August 2021
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