Publications by authors named "Marlene Torres"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of clinical dehydration using point of care ultrasound for pediatric patients in rural Panama.

World J Emerg Med 2019 ;10(1):46-50

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA 92868, USA.

Background: Dehydration and its associated symptoms are among the most common chief complaints of children in rural Panama. Previous studies have shown that intravascular volume correlates to the ratio of the diameters of the inferior vena cava (IVC) to the aorta (Ao). Our study aims to determine if medical students can detect pediatric dehydration using ultrasound on patients in rural Panama.

Methods: This was a prospective, observational study conducted in the Bocas del Toro region of rural Panama. Children between the ages of 1 to 15 years presenting with diarrhea, vomiting, or parasitic infection were enrolled in the study. Ultrasound measurements of the diameters of the IVC and abdominal aorta were taken to assess for dehydration.

Results: A total of 59 patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-four patients were clinically diagnosed with dehydration and 35 were classified to have normal hydration status. Of the 24 patients with dehydration, half (=12) of these patients had an IVC/Ao ratio below the American threshold of 0.8. Of the remaining asymptomatic subjects, about half (=18) of these subjects also had an IVC/Ao ratio below the American threshold of 0.8.

Conclusion: Our study did not support previous literature showing that the IVC/Ao ratio is lower in children with dehydration. It is possible that the American standard for evaluating clinical dehydration is not compatible with the rural pediatric populations of Panama.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2019.01.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264979PMC
January 2019

Feasibility study of minimally trained medical students using the Rural Obstetrical Ultrasound Triage Exam (ROUTE) in rural Panama.

World J Emerg Med 2018 ;9(3):216-222

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California Irvine, Orange, CA 92868, USA.

Background: Maternal and infant mortality rates reported in rural Panama are greater than those in urban regions. Bocas del Toro is a region of Panama inhabited by indigenous people at greater risk for pregnancy-related complications and deaths due to geographic isolation and limited access to health care. Portable ultrasound training programs have recently been implemented in low-resource settings to increase access to diagnostic imaging. The goal of this study is to determine the feasibility of teaching first-year medical students the Rural Obstetrical Ultrasound Triage Exam (ROUTE) to help identify pathology in pregnant women of the Bocas del Toro region of Panama.

Methods: Eight first-year medical students completed ROUTE training sessions. After training, the students were compared to professional sonographers to evaluate their accuracy in performing the ROUTE. Students then performed the ROUTE in mobile clinics within Bocas del Toro. They enrolled women pregnant in their 2nd or 3rd trimesters and measured biparietal diameter, head circumference, amniotic fluid index, fetal lie and placental position. Any abnormal measurement would be further analyzed by the lead physician for a potential hospital referral.

Results: A total of 60 women were enrolled in the study. Four women were detected as having a possible high-risk pregnancy and thus referred to a hospital for further evaluation.

Conclusion: Based on our data, first-year medical students with additional training can use the ROUTE to identify complications in pregnancy using ultrasound in rural Panama. Additional studies are required to determine the optimal amount of training required for proficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2018.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5962457PMC
January 2018
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