Publications by authors named "Marlene Remely"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of spp. derived from a sheep and cattle slaughterhouse by matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and 16S rDNA sequencing.

J Food Sci Technol 2018 Aug 22;55(8):3232-3240. Epub 2018 Jun 22.

1Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, UZAII;2D541, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Clostridia are widespread and some of them are serious human pathogens. Identification of spp. is important for managing microbiological risks in the food industry. Samples derived from sheep and cattle carcasses from a slaughterhouse in Iran were analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS using direct transfer and extended direct transfer sample preparation methods and 16S rDNA sequencing. MALDI-TOF MS could identify ten species in 224 out of 240 isolates. In comparison to the 16S rDNA sequencing, correct identification rate of the spp. at the species level by MALDI-TOF MS technique was 93.3%. 16 isolates were not identified by MALDI-TOF MS but 16s rDNA sequencing identified them as , , and species. The most frequently identified species were: (13%), (12.5%), (12%) and (10%). Extended direct transfer method [2.26 ± 0.18 log (score)] in comparison to direct transfer method [2.15 ± 0.23 log (score)] improved spp.

Identification: Using a cut-off score of 1.7 was sufficient for accurate identification of species. MALDI-TOF MS identification scores for spp. decreased with longer incubation time. species predominantly were isolated from carcasses after skinning and evisceration steps in the slaughterhouse. MALDI-TOF MS could be an accurate way to identify species. Moreover, continuous improvement of the database and MALDI-TOF MS instrument enhance its performance in food control laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-018-3255-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6046011PMC
August 2018

Bacterial Diversity in Traditional Doogh in Comparison to Industrial Doogh.

Curr Microbiol 2018 Apr 21;75(4):386-393. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Althanstrasse 14, UZAII;2D541, 1090, Vienna, Austria.

Forty-four samples of traditional Doogh and yoghurt were collected from 13 regions of 4 provinces in west of Iran (13 area) and analyzed using molecular methods including PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rDNA, and sequencing. Moreover, collected samples as well as samples from industrially Doogh were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Analyzed 16S rRNA gene sequences of Doogh samples could be allocated to the presence of Lactobacillus spp. The typical yoghurt starter culture bacteria included four different Lactobacillus species with possible probiotic properties, L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. kefiranofaciens, and L. amylovorus. DGGE of traditional Doogh and yoghurt and RT-PCR of traditional Doogh and yoghurt and also industrial Doogh samples demonstrated that traditional Doogh and yoghurt show a higher abundance of total bacteria and lactobacilli and a higher bacterial diversity, respectively. Considering diversity and higher probiotic bacteria content in traditional Doogh, consumers' healthiness in tribes and villages could be promoted with these indigenous products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-017-1392-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5842502PMC
April 2018

Vitamin E Modifies High-Fat Diet-Induced Increase of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice.

Nutrients 2017 Jun 14;9(6). Epub 2017 Jun 14.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria.

Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, increased ROS production and DNA damage. Supplementation with antioxidants might ameliorate DNA damage and support epigenetic regulation of DNA repair. C57BL/6J male mice were fed a high-fat (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without vitamin E supplementation (4.5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) for four months. DNA damage, DNA promoter methylation and gene expression of and a DNA repair gene () were assayed in liver and colon. The HFD resulted in organ specific changes in DNA damage, the epigenetically important gene, and the DNA repair gene . Vitamin E reduced DNA damage and showed organ-specific effects on and gene expression and methylation. These results suggest that interventions with antioxidants and epigenetic active food ingredients should be developed as an effective prevention for obesity-and oxidative stress-induced health risks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9060607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490586PMC
June 2017

EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of and in C57BL/6J Male Mice.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2017 4;2017:3079148. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of , , and were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a control diet (CD) with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of and . HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/3079148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241499PMC
March 2017

The microbial epigenome in metabolic syndrome.

Mol Aspects Med 2017 04 23;54:71-77. Epub 2016 Sep 23.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Dietary habits, lifestyle, medication, and food additives affect the composition and functions of the GI microbiota. Metabolic syndrome is already known to be associated with an aberrant gut microbiota affecting systemic low-grade inflammation, which is also outlined by differing epigenetic patterns. Thus, structural changes and compositional evaluation of gut microbial differences affecting epigenetic patterns in metabolic syndrome are of research interest. In the present review we focus on the disparities in the gut microbiota composition of metabolic syndrome and the resulting aberrant profile of bioactive microbial metabolites known to affect epigenetic modifications such as G-protein coupled receptors and inflammatory pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mam.2016.09.003DOI Listing
April 2017

Gut Microbiota of Obese, Type 2 Diabetic Individuals is Enriched in Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Akkermansia muciniphila and Peptostreptococcus anaerobius after Weight Loss.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2016 ;16(2):99-106

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, Vienna, Austria, Althanstraße 14; UZA II; 2D542; 1090 Vienna, Austria

Background: Beside the influence of nutritional habits and reduced physical activity, metabolic syndrome is associated with alterations in the structure of gut microbiota influencing the inflammatory immune responses. Gut microbiota and microbial metabolic activities are known to affect the lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety and chronic low-grade inflammation in the metabolic syndrome. The aim of the study was to identify genera or even species affecting host metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes beside the common used indicator: Firmicutes/ Bacteroidetes ratio.

Methods: Differences in gut microbiota were investigated in three groups of subjects over a four month intervention period: type 2 diabetics under GLP1-Agonist therapy, obese individuals without established insulin resistance, both receiving nutritional counseling concerning weight reduction, and a lean control group. Collection of fecal samples was accomplished at two time points, before treatment, and after four months of treatment. For identification of bacteria at species-level we used 454 high-throughput sequencing and fragment length polymorphism analysis based on IS-pro (Intergenic-Spacer-profiling). Five bacterial species, two bacterial genera, total bacterial abundance, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio were determined.

Results: Type 2 diabetics showed a higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio even with an increase to the second time point (p=0.07). The abundance of B. thetaiotaomicron remained unaffected, whereas B. vulgatus significantly increased in type 2 diabetics (p=0.07) over the study period. Either Alistipes spp. showed an increase in type 2 diabetics between the time points (p=0.06). The abundance of F. prausnitzii (p=0.03) and A. muciniphila (p=0.03) also increased in type 2 diabetics over study period. In addition, the concentration of P. anaerobius (p=0.03) was significantly higher in type 2 diabetics after intervention compared to lean and obese controls.

Conclusion: Our results clearly show a difference in the gut bacterial composition in type 2 diabetics compared to lean controls or obesity. Therefore, the ratio of Fimicutes/Bacteroidetes might only be an indicator, but a detailed view at species level is even more important in regard to distinction of their functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530316666160831093813DOI Listing
January 2016

Interleukin-6 CpG Methylation and Body Weight Correlate Differently in Type 2 Diabetes Patients Compared to Obese and Lean Controls.

J Nutrigenet Nutrigenomics 2015 10;8(1):26-35. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Background/aims: Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is accompanied by systemic low-grade inflammation with elevated levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), which is encoded by a gene (IL-6) previously shown to be regulated by DNA methylation. We investigated seven CpG sites in IL-6 in individuals with DMT2, obese individuals and lean controls. Further, the DMT2 group received the glucagon-like peptide 1 agonist liraglutide.

Methods: Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the study and after 4 months. The DNA methylation was assessed using pyrosequencing.

Results: Methylation levels at the CpG sites -664, -628 and +13 at the first sampling time point (T1) and at -666 and -664 at the second sampling time point (T2) correlated negatively with initial body weight in the DMT2 group. We found positive correlations for the obese and the lean control group. In the obese group, CpG +27 methylation at T1 correlated with initial body weight (r = 0.685; p = 0.014). In the lean group, CpG -664 at T1 (r = 0.874; p = 0.005) and CpG -628 at T2 (r = 0.632; p = 0.050) correlated with initial body weight.

Conclusion: These findings are an informative basis for further studies to elucidate epigenetic mechanisms underlying DMT2. Additionally, our results might provide starting points for the development of biomarkers for prevention and therapy strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000381714DOI Listing
April 2016

Obesity: epigenetic regulation – recent observations.

Biomol Concepts 2015 Jun;6(3):163-75

Genetic and environmental factors, especially nutrition and lifestyle, have been discussed in the literature for their relevance to epidemic obesity. Gene-environment interactions may need to be understood for an improved understanding of the causes of obesity, and epigenetic mechanisms are of special importance. Consequences of epigenetic mechanisms seem to be particularly important during certain periods of life: prenatal, postnatal and intergenerational, transgenerational inheritance are discussed with relevance to obesity. This review focuses on nutrients, diet and habits influencing intergenerational, transgenerational, prenatal and postnatal epigenetics; on evidence of epigenetic modifiers in adulthood; and on animal models for the study of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/bmc-2015-0009DOI Listing
June 2015

Nutriepigenomics: the role of nutrition in epigenetic control of human diseases.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2015 Jul;18(4):328-33

aDepartment of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, Vienna, Austria bDepartment of Nutrition Science, Purdue University, West Lafaytte, Indiana, USA cDepartment of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Clinical Institute of Medical Genetics, University Medical Centre Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia.

Purpose Of Review: Nutrients or even diets affect the epigenome by lifelong remodeling. Nutritional imbalances are associated with noncommunicable diseases. Thus, nutriepigenomics is a promising field in the treatment of complex human diseases.

Recent Findings: The epigenome is susceptible to changes and can be shaped by nutritional states, especially in prenatal period through transgenerational mechanisms and in early postnatal life when critical developmental processes are taking place. Although more stable, the epigenetic marks in adulthood are also dynamic and modifiable by environmental factors including diet.

Summary: The present review is focused on the most recent knowledge of epigenetically active nutrients/diets including transgenerational inheritance and prenatal predispositions related to increased risk for cancer, metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCO.0000000000000180DOI Listing
July 2015

Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study.

Wien Klin Wochenschr 2015 May 13;127(9-10):394-8. Epub 2015 Mar 13.

Institute of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, Althahnstraße 14, 1090, Vienna, Austria,

Background: An impaired gut microbiota has been reported as an important factor in the pathogenesis of obesity. Weight reduction has already been mentioned to improve gut microbial subpopulations involved in inflammatory processes, though other subpopulations still need further investigation. Thus, weight reduction in the context of a fasting program together with a probiotic intervention may improve the abundance and diversity of gut microbiota.

Methods: In this pilot study, overweight people underwent a fasting program with laxative treatment for 1 week followed by a 6 week intervention with a probiotic formula. Gut microbiota were analyzed on the basis of 16s rDNA with a quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, a food frequency questionnaire with questions about nutritional behavior, lifestyle, and physical activity was administered before and after the intervention.

Results: We observed an increase in microbial diversity over the study period. No significant changes in abundance of total bacteria, or of Bacteroidetes, Prevotella, Clostridium cluster XIVa, or Clostridium cluster IV were found, although Faecalibacterium prausnitzii showed an increase over the study period. In addition, Akkermanisa and Bifidobacteria increased in abundance due to intervention. The inflammation-associated gut microbes Enterobacteria and Lactobacilli increased during the first week and then declined by the end of the intervention. Two-thirds of the study participants harbored Archaea. No significant improvements of eating habits were reported, although physical activity improved due to the intervention.

Conclusions: Our results show that caloric restriction affects gut microbiota by proliferating mucin-degrading microbial subpopulations. An additional intervention with a probiotic formula increased probiotic-administered gut microbial populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00508-015-0755-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4452615PMC
May 2015

Abundance and diversity of GI microbiota rather than IgG4 levels correlate with abdominal inconvenience and gut permeability in consumers claiming food intolerances.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2014 Mar;14(1):67-75

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Food intolerances are an increasing global health problem. Interactions between genetics and environmental changes such as microbial- and stress factors remain poorly understood. Whereas the analyses of IgE mediated allergic responses is based on solid concepts, the roles of microbiota, gut permeability, and IgG antibodies remain widely unclear and are under fierce discussion for scientific relevance. The present pilot study analyzes forty participants, under consultation of nutritional health professionals, for gastrointestinal discomfort and claimed food intolerances. Food frequency questionnaire addresses nutrition, lifestyle and present discomfort. Feces samples are analyzed for dominant microbiota using 16S rDNA based methods and the fecal marker Calprotectin. Blood samples are analyzed for IgG4 levels. The total microbial abundance significantly correlates with claimed discomfort (R=-0.37; p=0.02). The abundance and diversity of microbiota significantly correlates with low Calprotectin values (R=-0.35; p=0.01) and with higher abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (R=0.78; p<0.01) and Akkermansia (R=0.82; p<0.01). Participants with low discomfort show enhanced Clostridium Cluster XIVa (p=0.008). An increased diversity is also correlating with reduced antibodies against IgG4 of egg white (R=0.68; p<0.01). Data suggest an interaction of low gut permeability and reduced inflammation with an established microbial equilibrium. Self-reported abdominal inconvenience of participants relates mainly to characteristics of microbiota and gut permeability. Anti-inflammatory effects of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii or Lactobacilli and gut barrier functions of Akkermansia may have a key role in food intolerances. The role of IgG4 linking food immune responses with intolerances remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530314666140207103335DOI Listing
March 2014

Effects of short chain fatty acid producing bacteria on epigenetic regulation of FFAR3 in type 2 diabetes and obesity.

Gene 2014 Mar 8;537(1):85-92. Epub 2013 Dec 8.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University Vienna, Vienna, Austria. Electronic address:

The human gut microbiota and microbial influences on lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation are known to be involved in metabolic syndrome. Fermentation end products, especially short chain fatty acids, are believed to engage the epigenetic regulation of inflammatory reactions via FFARs (free fatty acid receptor) and other short chain fatty acid receptors. We studied a potential interaction of the microbiota with epigenetic regulation in obese and type 2 diabetes patients compared to a lean control group over a four month intervention period. Intervention comprised a GLP-1 agonist (glucagon-like peptide 1) for type 2 diabetics and nutritional counseling for both intervention groups. Microbiota was analyzed for abundance, butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and for diversity by polymerase chain reaction and 454 high-throughput sequencing. Epigenetic methylation of the promoter region of FFAR3 and LINE1 (long interspersed nuclear element 1) was analyzed using bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing. The diversity of the microbiota as well as the abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were significantly lower in obese and type 2 diabetic patients compared to lean individuals. Results from Clostridium cluster IV and Clostridium cluster XIVa showed a decreasing trend in type 2 diabetics in comparison to the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and according to melt curve analysis. During intervention no significant changes were observed in either intervention group. The analysis of five CpGs in the promoter region of FFAR3 showed a significant lower methylation in obese and type 2 diabetics with an increase in obese patients over the intervention period. These results disclosed a significant correlation between a higher body mass index and lower methylation of FFAR3. LINE-1, a marker of global methylation, indicated no significant differences between the three groups or the time points, although methylation of type 2 diabetics tended to increase over time. Our results provide evidence that a different composition of gut microbiota in obesity and type 2 diabetes affect the epigenetic regulation of genes. Interactions between the microbiota and epigenetic regulation may involve not only short chain fatty acids binding to FFARs. Therefore dietary interventions influencing microbial composition may be considered as an option in the engagement against metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2013.11.081DOI Listing
March 2014

Changes in human fecal microbiota due to chemotherapy analyzed by TaqMan-PCR, 454 sequencing and PCR-DGGE fingerprinting.

PLoS One 2011 14;6(12):e28654. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Department of Nutritional Sciences, Vienna, Austria.

Background: We investigated whether chemotherapy with the presence or absence of antibiotics against different kinds of cancer changed the gastrointestinal microbiota.

Methodology/principal Findings: Feces of 17 ambulant patients receiving chemotherapy with or without concomitant antibiotics were analyzed before and after the chemotherapy cycle at four time points in comparison to 17 gender-, age- and lifestyle-matched healthy controls. We targeted 16S rRNA genes of all bacteria, Bacteroides, bifidobacteria, Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa as well as C. difficile with TaqMan qPCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting and high-throughput sequencing. After a significant drop in the abundance of microbiota (p = 0.037) following a single treatment the microbiota recovered within a few days. The chemotherapeutical treatment marginally affected the Bacteroides while the Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa were significantly more sensitive to chemotherapy and antibiotic treatment. DGGE fingerprinting showed decreased diversity of Clostridium cluster IV and XIVa in response to chemotherapy with cluster IV diversity being particularly affected by antibiotics. The occurrence of C. difficile in three out of seventeen subjects was accompanied by a decrease in the genera Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Veillonella and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Enterococcus faecium increased following chemotherapy.

Conclusions/significance: Despite high individual variations, these results suggest that the observed changes in the human gut microbiota may favor colonization with C. difficile and Enterococcus faecium. Perturbed microbiota may be a target for specific mitigation with safe pre- and probiotics.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028654PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3237468PMC
August 2012