Publications by authors named "Marleen Simon"

35 Publications

Syndromic disorders caused by gain-of-function variants in KCNH1, KCNK4, and KCNN3-a subgroup of K channelopathies.

Eur J Hum Genet 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Decreased or increased activity of potassium channels caused by loss-of-function and gain-of-function (GOF) variants in the corresponding genes, respectively, underlies a broad spectrum of human disorders affecting the central nervous system, heart, kidney, and other organs. While the association of epilepsy and intellectual disability (ID) with variants affecting function in genes encoding potassium channels is well known, GOF missense variants in K channel encoding genes in individuals with syndromic developmental disorders have only recently been recognized. These syndromic phenotypes include Zimmermann-Laband and Temple-Baraitser syndromes, caused by dominant variants in KCNH1, FHEIG syndrome due to dominant variants in KCNK4, and the clinical picture associated with dominant variants in KCNN3. Here we review the presentation of these individuals, including five newly reported with variants in KCNH1 and three additional individuals with KCNN3 variants, all variants likely affecting function. There is notable overlap in the phenotypic findings of these syndromes associated with dominant KCNN3, KCNH1, and KCNK4 variants, sharing developmental delay and/or ID, coarse facial features, gingival enlargement, distal digital hypoplasia, and hypertrichosis. We suggest to combine the phenotypes and define a new subgroup of potassium channelopathies caused by increased K conductance, referred to as syndromic neurodevelopmental K channelopathies due to dominant variants in KCNH1, KCNK4, or KCNN3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-021-00818-9DOI Listing
February 2021

TAOK1 is associated with neurodevelopmental disorder and essential for neuronal maturation and cortical development.

Hum Mutat 2021 Feb 10. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Thousand and one amino-acid kinase 1 (TAOK1) is a MAP3K protein kinase, regulating different mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways, thereby modulating a multitude of processes in the cell. Given the recent finding of TAOK1 involvement in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), we investigated the role of TAOK1 in neuronal function and collected a cohort of 23 individuals with mostly de novo variants in TAOK1 to further define the associated NDD. Here, we provide evidence for an important role for TAOK1 in neuronal function, showing that altered TAOK1 expression levels in the embryonic mouse brain affect neural migration in vivo, as well as neuronal maturation in vitro. The molecular spectrum of the identified TAOK1 variants comprises largely truncating and nonsense variants, but also missense variants, for which we provide evidence that they can have a loss of function or dominant-negative effect on TAOK1, expanding the potential underlying causative mechanisms resulting in NDD. Taken together, our data indicate that TAOK1 activity needs to be properly controlled for normal neuronal function and that TAOK1 dysregulation leads to a neurodevelopmental disorder mainly comprising similar facial features, developmental delay/intellectual disability and/or variable learning or behavioral problems, muscular hypotonia, infant feeding difficulties, and growth problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24176DOI Listing
February 2021

Collodion babies: A 15-year retrospective multicenter study in The Netherlands-Evaluation of severity scores to predict the underlying disease.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2020 Jun 12. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

Department of Dermatology, Erasmus MC Medical Center-Sophia Children's Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.06.021DOI Listing
June 2020

Characterization of SETD1A haploinsufficiency in humans and Drosophila defines a novel neurodevelopmental syndrome.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 Apr 28. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Human Genetics, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behavior, Radboud University Medical Center, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Defects in histone methyltransferases (HMTs) are major contributing factors in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Heterozygous variants of SETD1A involved in histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) methylation were previously identified in individuals with schizophrenia. Here, we define the clinical features of the Mendelian syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of SETD1A by investigating 15 predominantly pediatric individuals who all have de novo SETD1A variants. These individuals present with a core set of symptoms comprising global developmental delay and/or intellectual disability, subtle facial dysmorphisms, behavioral and psychiatric problems. We examined cellular phenotypes in three patient-derived lymphoblastoid cell lines with three variants: p.Gly535Alafs*12, c.4582-2_4582delAG, and p.Tyr1499Asp. These patient cell lines displayed DNA damage repair defects that were comparable to previously observed RNAi-mediated depletion of SETD1A. This suggested that these variants, including the p.Tyr1499Asp in the catalytic SET domain, behave as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles. Previous studies demonstrated a role for SETD1A in cell cycle control and differentiation. However, individuals with SETD1A variants do not show major structural brain defects or severe microcephaly, suggesting that defective proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors is unlikely the single underlying cause of the disorder. We show here that the Drosophila melanogaster SETD1A orthologue is required in postmitotic neurons of the fly brain for normal memory, suggesting a role in post development neuronal function. Together, this study defines a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by dominant de novo LoF variants in SETD1A and further supports a role for H3K4 methyltransferases in the regulation of neuronal processes underlying normal cognitive functioning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0725-5DOI Listing
April 2020

De novo and inherited variants in ZNF292 underlie a neurodevelopmental disorder with features of autism spectrum disorder.

Genet Med 2020 03 14;22(3):538-546. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Division of Genetic Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA, USA.

Purpose: Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are genetically heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorders. We sought to delineate the clinical, molecular, and neuroimaging spectrum of a novel neurodevelopmental disorder caused by variants in the zinc finger protein 292 gene (ZNF292).

Methods: We ascertained a cohort of 28 families with ID due to putatively pathogenic ZNF292 variants that were identified via targeted and exome sequencing. Available data were analyzed to characterize the canonical phenotype and examine genotype-phenotype relationships.

Results: Probands presented with ID as well as a spectrum of neurodevelopmental features including ASD, among others. All ZNF292 variants were de novo, except in one family with dominant inheritance. ZNF292 encodes a highly conserved zinc finger protein that acts as a transcription factor and is highly expressed in the developing human brain supporting its critical role in neurodevelopment.

Conclusion: De novo and dominantly inherited variants in ZNF292 are associated with a range of neurodevelopmental features including ID and ASD. The clinical spectrum is broad, and most individuals present with mild to moderate ID with or without other syndromic features. Our results suggest that variants in ZNF292 are likely a recurrent cause of a neurodevelopmental disorder manifesting as ID with or without ASD.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-019-0693-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7060121PMC
March 2020

De Novo Missense Variants in FBXW11 Cause Diverse Developmental Phenotypes Including Brain, Eye, and Digit Anomalies.

Am J Hum Genet 2019 09 8;105(3):640-657. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Oxford OX3 0BP, UK; West Midlands Regional Clinical Genetics Service and Birmingham Health Partners, Birmingham Women's and Children's National Health Service Foundation Trust, Birmingham, B15 2TG, UK. Electronic address:

The identification of genetic variants implicated in human developmental disorders has been revolutionized by second-generation sequencing combined with international pooling of cases. Here, we describe seven individuals who have diverse yet overlapping developmental anomalies, and who all have de novo missense FBXW11 variants identified by whole exome or whole genome sequencing and not reported in the gnomAD database. Their phenotypes include striking neurodevelopmental, digital, jaw, and eye anomalies, and in one individual, features resembling Noonan syndrome, a condition caused by dysregulated RAS signaling. FBXW11 encodes an F-box protein, part of the Skp1-cullin-F-box (SCF) ubiquitin ligase complex, involved in ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation and thus fundamental to many protein regulatory processes. FBXW11 targets include β-catenin and GLI transcription factors, key mediators of Wnt and Hh signaling, respectively, critical to digital, neurological, and eye development. Structural analyses indicate affected residues cluster at the surface of the loops of the substrate-binding domain of FBXW11, and the variants are predicted to destabilize the protein and/or its interactions. In situ hybridization studies on human and zebrafish embryonic tissues demonstrate FBXW11 is expressed in the developing eye, brain, mandibular processes, and limb buds or pectoral fins. Knockdown of the zebrafish FBXW11 orthologs fbxw11a and fbxw11b resulted in embryos with smaller, misshapen, and underdeveloped eyes and abnormal jaw and pectoral fin development. Our findings support the role of FBXW11 in multiple developmental processes, including those involving the brain, eye, digits, and jaw.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2019.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6731360PMC
September 2019

Deficiency of the human cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin M/E causes hypotrichosis and dry skin.

Genet Med 2019 07 14;21(7):1559-1567. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Department of Dermatology, Radboud Institute for Molecular Life Sciences (RIMLS), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center (Radboudumc), Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: We aimed to assess the biological and clinical significance of the human cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin M/E, encoded by the CTS6 gene, in diseases of human hair and skin.

Methods: Exome and Sanger sequencing was performed to reveal the genetic cause in two related patients with hypotrichosis. Immunohistochemical, biophysical, and biochemical measurements were performed on patient skin and 3D-reconstructed skin from patient-derived keratinocytes.

Results: We identified a homozygous variant c.361C>T (p.Gln121*), resulting in a premature stop codon in exon 2 of CST6 associated with hypotrichosis, eczema, blepharitis, photophobia and impaired sweating. Enzyme assays using recombinant mutant cystatin M/E protein, generated by site-directed mutagenesis, revealed that this p.Gln121* variant was unable to inhibit any of its three target proteases (legumain and cathepsins L and V). Three-dimensional protein structure prediction confirmed the disturbance of the protease/inhibitor binding sites of legumain and cathepsins L and V in the p.Gln121* variant.

Conclusion: The herein characterized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis syndrome indicates an important role of human cystatin M/E in epidermal homeostasis and hair follicle morphogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0355-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752276PMC
July 2019

Correction: IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females: a comparative study including 37 novel patients.

Genet Med 2019 Aug;21(8):1897-1898

INSERM, U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, Paris, France.

This Article was originally published under Nature Research's License to Publish, but has now been made available under a CC BY 4.0 license. The PDF and HTML versions of the Article have been modified accordingly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0327-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7608434PMC
August 2019

IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females: a comparative study including 37 novel patients.

Genet Med 2019 04 12;21(4):837-849. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

INSERM, U 1127, CNRS UMR 7225, Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06 UMR S 1127, Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle epiniere, ICM, Paris, France.

Purpose: Variants in IQSEC2, escaping X inactivation, cause X-linked intellectual disability with frequent epilepsy in males and females. We aimed to investigate sex-specific differences.

Methods: We collected the data of 37 unpublished patients (18 males and 19 females) with IQSEC2 pathogenic variants and 5 individuals with variants of unknown significance and reviewed published variants. We compared variant types and phenotypes in males and females and performed an analysis of IQSEC2 isoforms.

Results: IQSEC2 pathogenic variants mainly led to premature truncation and were scattered throughout the longest brain-specific isoform, encoding the synaptic IQSEC2/BRAG1 protein. Variants occurred de novo in females but were either de novo (2/3) or inherited (1/3) in males, with missense variants being predominantly inherited. Developmental delay and intellectual disability were overall more severe in males than in females. Likewise, seizures were more frequently observed and intractable, and started earlier in males than in females. No correlation was observed between the age at seizure onset and severity of intellectual disability or resistance to antiepileptic treatments.

Conclusion: This study provides a comprehensive overview of IQSEC2-related encephalopathy in males and females, and suggests that an accurate dosage of IQSEC2 at the synapse is crucial during normal brain development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-018-0268-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6752297PMC
April 2019

Expanding the phenotypic spectrum of variants in PDE4D/PRKAR1A: from acrodysostosis to acroscyphodysplasia.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 11 13;26(11):1611-1622. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Medical Genetics, INSERM UMR 1163, Paris Descartes-Sorbonne Paris Cité University, IMAGINE Institute, Necker Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0135-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6189044PMC
November 2018

Biallelic B3GALT6 mutations cause spondylodysplastic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 10;27(20):3475-3487

Center for Medical Genetics Ghent, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Proteoglycans are among the most abundant and structurally complex biomacromolecules and play critical roles in connective tissues. They are composed of a core protein onto which glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains are attached via a linker region. Biallelic mutations in B3GALT6, encoding one of the linker region glycosyltransferases, are known to cause either spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) or a severe pleiotropic form of Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS). This study provides clinical, molecular and biochemical data on 12 patients with biallelic B3GALT6 mutations. Notably, all patients have features of both EDS and SEMD. In addition, some patients have severe and potential life-threatening complications such as aortic dilatation and aneurysm, cervical spine instability and respiratory insufficiency. Whole-exome sequencing, next generation panel sequencing and direct sequencing identified biallelic B3GALT6 mutations in all patients. We show that these mutations reduce the amount of β3GalT6 protein and lead to a complete loss of galactosyltransferase activity. In turn, this leads to deficient GAG synthesis, and ultrastructural abnormalities in collagen fibril organization. In conclusion, this study redefines the phenotype associated with B3GALT6 mutations on the basis of clinical, molecular and biochemical data in 12 patients, and provides an in-depth assessment of β3GalT6 activity and GAG synthesis to better understand this rare condition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy234DOI Listing
October 2018

Integrating glycomics and genomics uncovers SLC10A7 as essential factor for bone mineralization by regulating post-Golgi protein transport and glycosylation.

Hum Mol Genet 2018 09;27(17):3029-3045

Department of Child Health, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff, UK.

Genomics methodologies have significantly improved elucidation of Mendelian disorders. The combination with high-throughput functional-omics technologies potentiates the identification and confirmation of causative genetic variants, especially in singleton families of recessive inheritance. In a cohort of 99 individuals with abnormal Golgi glycosylation, 47 of which being unsolved, glycomics profiling was performed of total plasma glycoproteins. Combination with whole-exome sequencing in 31 cases revealed a known genetic defect in 15 individuals. To identify additional genetic factors, hierarchical clustering of the plasma glycomics data was done, which indicated a subgroup of four patients that shared a unique glycomics signature of hybrid type N-glycans. In two siblings, compound heterozygous mutations were found in SLC10A7, a gene of unknown function in human. These included a missense mutation that disrupted transmembrane domain 4 and a mutation in a splice acceptor site resulting in skipping of exon 9. The two other individuals showed a complete loss of SLC10A7 mRNA. The patients' phenotype consisted of amelogenesis imperfecta, skeletal dysplasia, and decreased bone mineral density compatible with osteoporosis. The patients' phenotype was mirrored in SLC10A7 deficient zebrafish. Furthermore, alizarin red staining of calcium deposits in zebrafish morphants showed a strong reduction in bone mineralization. Cell biology studies in fibroblasts of affected individuals showed intracellular mislocalization of glycoproteins and a defect in post-Golgi transport of glycoproteins to the cell membrane. In contrast to yeast, human SLC10A7 localized to the Golgi. Our combined data indicate an important role for SLC10A7 in bone mineralization and transport of glycoproteins to the extracellular matrix.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddy213DOI Listing
September 2018

Recessive Spondylocarpotarsal Synostosis Syndrome Due to Compound Heterozygosity for Variants in MYH3.

Am J Hum Genet 2018 06 24;102(6):1115-1125. Epub 2018 May 24.

Department of Women's and Children's Health, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Electronic address:

Spondylocarpotarsal synostosis syndrome (SCTS) is characterized by intervertebral fusions and fusion of the carpal and tarsal bones. Biallelic mutations in FLNB cause this condition in some families, whereas monoallelic variants in MYH3, encoding embryonic heavy chain myosin 3, have been implicated in dominantly inherited forms of the disorder. Here, five individuals without FLNB mutations from three families were hypothesized to be affected by recessive SCTS on account of sibling recurrence of the phenotype. Initial whole-exome sequencing (WES) showed that all five were heterozygous for one of two independent splice-site variants in MYH3. Despite evidence indicating that three of the five individuals shared two allelic haplotypes encompassing MYH3, no second variant could be located in the WES datasets. Subsequent genome sequencing of these three individuals demonstrated a variant altering a 5' UTR splice donor site (rs557849165 in MYH3) not represented by exome-capture platforms. When the cohort was expanded to 16 SCTS-affected individuals without FLNB mutations, nine had truncating mutations transmitted by unaffected parents, and six inherited the rs557849165 variant in trans, an observation at odds with the population allele frequency for this variant. The rs557849165 variant disrupts splicing in the 5' UTR but is still permissive of MYH3 translational initiation, albeit with reduced efficiency. Although some MYH3 variants cause dominant SCTS, these data indicate that others (notably truncating variants) do not, except in the context of compound heterozygosity for a second hypomorphic allele. These observations make genetic diagnosis challenging in the context of simplex presentations of the disorder.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.04.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5992117PMC
June 2018

De novo mutations in MED13, a component of the Mediator complex, are associated with a novel neurodevelopmental disorder.

Hum Genet 2018 May 8;137(5):375-388. Epub 2018 May 8.

HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology, 601 Genome Way, Huntsville, AL, 35806, USA.

Many genetic causes of developmental delay and/or intellectual disability (DD/ID) are extremely rare, and robust discovery of these requires both large-scale DNA sequencing and data sharing. Here we describe a GeneMatcher collaboration which led to a cohort of 13 affected individuals harboring protein-altering variants, 11 of which are de novo, in MED13; the only inherited variant was transmitted to an affected child from an affected mother. All patients had intellectual disability and/or developmental delays, including speech delays or disorders. Other features that were reported in two or more patients include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, optic nerve abnormalities, Duane anomaly, hypotonia, mild congenital heart abnormalities, and dysmorphisms. Six affected individuals had mutations that are predicted to truncate the MED13 protein, six had missense mutations, and one had an in-frame-deletion of one amino acid. Out of the seven non-truncating mutations, six clustered in two specific locations of the MED13 protein: an N-terminal and C-terminal region. The four N-terminal clustering mutations affect two adjacent amino acids that are known to be involved in MED13 ubiquitination and degradation, p.Thr326 and p.Pro327. MED13 is a component of the CDK8-kinase module that can reversibly bind Mediator, a multi-protein complex that is required for Polymerase II transcription initiation. Mutations in several other genes encoding subunits of Mediator have been previously shown to associate with DD/ID, including MED13L, a paralog of MED13. Thus, our findings add MED13 to the group of CDK8-kinase module-associated disease genes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-018-1887-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5973976PMC
May 2018

De Novo Mutations in YWHAG Cause Early-Onset Epilepsy.

Am J Hum Genet 2017 Aug;101(2):300-310

Centre for Applied Neurogenetics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V5R 6H8, Canada. Electronic address:

Massively parallel sequencing has revealed many de novo mutations in the etiology of developmental and epileptic encephalopathies (EEs), highlighting their genetic heterogeneity. Additional candidate genes have been prioritized in silico by their co-expression in the brain. Here, we evaluate rare coding variability in 20 candidates nominated with the use of a reference gene set of 51 established EE-associated genes. Variants within the 20 candidate genes were extracted from exome-sequencing data of 42 subjects with EE and no previous genetic diagnosis. We identified 7 rare non-synonymous variants in 7 of 20 genes and performed Sanger sequence validation in affected probands and parental samples. De novo variants were found only in SLC1A2 (aka EAAT2 or GLT1) (c.244G>A [p.Gly82Arg]) and YWHAG (aka 14-3-3γ) (c.394C>T [p.Arg132Cys]), highlighting the potential cause of EE in 5% (2/42) of subjects. Seven additional subjects with de novo variants in SLC1A2 (n = 1) and YWHAG (n = 6) were subsequently identified through online tools. We identified a highly significant enrichment of de novo variants in YWHAG, establishing their role in early-onset epilepsy, and we provide additional support for the prior assignment of SLC1A2. Hence, in silico modeling of brain co-expression is an efficient method for nominating EE-associated genes to further elucidate the disorder's etiology and genotype-phenotype correlations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2017.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5544417PMC
August 2017

Phenotype and genotype in 103 patients with tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome.

Eur J Med Genet 2015 May 16;58(5):279-92. Epub 2015 Mar 16.

Department of Paediatrics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Clinical Genetics, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Tricho-rhino-phalangeal syndrome (TRPS) is characterized by craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities, and subdivided in TRPS I, caused by mutations in TRPS1, and TRPS II, caused by a contiguous gene deletion affecting (amongst others) TRPS1 and EXT1. We performed a collaborative international study to delineate phenotype, natural history, variability, and genotype-phenotype correlations in more detail. We gathered information on 103 cytogenetically or molecularly confirmed affected individuals. TRPS I was present in 85 individuals (22 missense mutations, 62 other mutations), TRPS II in 14, and in 5 it remained uncertain whether TRPS1 was partially or completely deleted. Main features defining the facial phenotype include fine and sparse hair, thick and broad eyebrows, especially the medial portion, a broad nasal ridge and tip, underdeveloped nasal alae, and a broad columella. The facial manifestations in patients with TRPS I and TRPS II do not show a significant difference. In the limbs the main findings are short hands and feet, hypermobility, and a tendency for isolated metacarpals and metatarsals to be shortened. Nails of fingers and toes are typically thin and dystrophic. The radiological hallmark are the cone-shaped epiphyses and in TRPS II multiple exostoses. Osteopenia is common in both, as is reduced linear growth, both prenatally and postnatally. Variability for all findings, also within a single family, can be marked. Morbidity mostly concerns joint problems, manifesting in increased or decreased mobility, pain and in a minority an increased fracture rate. The hips can be markedly affected at a (very) young age. Intellectual disability is uncommon in TRPS I and, if present, usually mild. In TRPS II intellectual disability is present in most but not all, and again typically mild to moderate in severity. Missense mutations are located exclusively in exon 6 and 7 of TRPS1. Other mutations are located anywhere in exons 4-7. Whole gene deletions are common but have variable breakpoints. Most of the phenotype in patients with TRPS II is explained by the deletion of TRPS1 and EXT1, but haploinsufficiency of RAD21 is also likely to contribute. Genotype-phenotype studies showed that mutations located in exon 6 may have somewhat more pronounced facial characteristics and more marked shortening of hands and feet compared to mutations located elsewhere in TRPS1, but numbers are too small to allow firm conclusions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2015.03.002DOI Listing
May 2015

A study of the clinical and radiological features in a cohort of 93 patients with a COL2A1 mutation causing spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita or a related phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2015 Mar 21;167A(3):461-75. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Department of Medical Genetics, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Type 2 collagen disorders encompass a diverse group of skeletal dysplasias that are commonly associated with orthopedic, ocular, and hearing problems. However, the frequency of many clinical features has never been determined. We retrospectively investigated the clinical, radiological, and genotypic data in a group of 93 patients with molecularly confirmed SEDC or a related disorder. The majority of the patients (80/93) had short stature, with radiological features of SEDC (n = 64), others having SEMD (n = 5), Kniest dysplasia (n = 7), spondyloperipheral dysplasia (n = 2), or Torrance-like dysplasia (n = 2). The remaining 13 patients had normal stature with mild SED, Stickler-like syndrome or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia. Over 50% of the patients had undergone orthopedic surgery, usually for scoliosis, femoral osteotomy or hip replacement. Odontoid hypoplasia was present in 56% (95% CI 38-74) and a correlation between odontoid hypoplasia and short stature was observed. Atlanto-axial instability, was observed in 5 of the 18 patients (28%, 95% CI 10-54) in whom flexion-extension films of the cervical spine were available; however, it was rarely accompanied by myelopathy. Myopia was found in 45% (95% CI 35-56), and retinal detachment had occurred in 12% (95% CI 6-21; median age 14 years; youngest age 3.5 years). Thirty-two patients complained of hearing loss (37%, 95% CI 27-48) of whom 17 required hearing aids. The ophthalmological features and possibly also hearing loss are often relatively frequent and severe in patients with splicing mutations. Based on clinical findings, age at onset and genotype-phenotype correlations in this cohort, we propose guidelines for the management and follow-up in this group of disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36922DOI Listing
March 2015

Myhre and LAPS syndromes: clinical and molecular review of 32 patients.

Eur J Hum Genet 2014 Nov 15;22(11):1272-7. Epub 2014 Jan 15.

INSERM U781 Unit, Department of Genetics, Institut Imagine, Paris Descartes University-Sorbonne Paris Cité, Necker Enfants-Malades Hospital, Paris, France.

Myhre syndrome is characterized by short stature, brachydactyly, facial features, pseudomuscular hypertrophy, joint limitation and hearing loss. We identified SMAD4 mutations as the cause of Myhre syndrome. SMAD4 mutations have also been identified in laryngotracheal stenosis, arthropathy, prognathism and short stature syndrome (LAPS). This study aimed to review the features of Myhre and LAPS patients to define the clinical spectrum of SMAD4 mutations. We included 17 females and 15 males ranging in age from 8 to 48 years. Thirty were diagnosed with Myhre syndrome and two with LAPS. SMAD4 coding sequence was analyzed by Sanger sequencing. Clinical and radiological features were collected from a questionnaire completed by the referring physicians. All patients displayed a typical facial gestalt, thickened skin, joint limitation and muscular pseudohypertrophy. Growth retardation was common (68.7%) and was variable in severity (from -5.5 to -2 SD), as was mild-to-moderate intellectual deficiency (87.5%) with additional behavioral problems in 56.2% of the patients. Significant health concerns like obesity, arterial hypertension, bronchopulmonary insufficiency, laryngotracheal stenosis, pericarditis and early death occurred in four. Twenty-nine patients had a de novo heterozygous SMAD4 mutation, including both patients with LAPS. In 27 cases mutation affected Ile500 and in two cases Arg496. The three patients without SMAD4 mutations had typical findings of Myhre syndrome. Myhre-LAPS syndrome is a clinically homogenous condition with life threatening complications in the course of the disease. Our identification of SMAD4 mutations in 29/32 cases confirms that SMAD4 is the major gene responsible for Myhre syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2013.288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4200423PMC
November 2014

Osteoporotic vertebral fractures during pregnancy: be aware of a potential underlying genetic cause.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Apr 13;99(4):1107-11. Epub 2014 Jan 13.

Department of Internal Medicine (N.C.-O., L.O., M.C.Z.), Erasmus MC, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Human Genetics (L.H.H.), Radboud Medical Center, 6500 HC Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Department of Internal Medicine (R.M.K.), Albert Schweitzer Hospital, 3318 AT Dordrecht, The Netherlands; and Departments of Ophthalmology (C.C.W.K.) and Clinical Genetics (M.E.H.S.), Erasmus MC, 3015 CE Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Context: Although the baby growing in its mother's womb needs calcium for skeletal development, osteoporosis and fractures very rarely occur during pregnancy.

Case Presentation: A 27-year-old woman in the seventh month of her first pregnancy contracted midthoracic back pain after lifting an object. The pain was attributed to her pregnancy, but it remained postpartum. Her past medical history was uneventful, except for severely reduced vision of her left eye since birth. Family history revealed that her maternal grandmother had postmenopausal osteoporosis and her half-brother had three fractures during childhood after minor trauma. Her height was 1.58 m; she had no blue sclerae or joint hyperlaxity. Laboratory examination including serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, β-carboxyterminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and TSH was normal. Multiple thoracic vertebral fractures were diagnosed on x-ray examination, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning showed severe osteoporosis (Z-scores: L2-L4, -5.6 SD; femur neck, -3.9 SD). DNA analyses revealed two compound heterozygous missense mutations in LRP5. The patient's mother carried one of the LRP5 mutations and was diagnosed with osteoporosis. Her half-brother, treated with cabergoline for a microprolactinoma, also had osteoporosis of the lumbar spine on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and carried the same LRP5 mutation. The patient was treated with risedronate for 2.5 years. Bone mineral density and back pain improved. She stopped bisphosphonate use 6 months before planning a second pregnancy.

Conclusion: Our patient was diagnosed with osteoporosis pseudoglioma syndrome/familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Potential underlying genetic causes should be considered in pregnancy-associated osteoporosis with implications for patients and relatives. More studies regarding osteoporosis treatment preceding conception are desirable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2013-3238DOI Listing
April 2014

Weaver syndrome and EZH2 mutations: Clarifying the clinical phenotype.

Am J Med Genet A 2013 12 8;161A(12):2972-80. Epub 2013 Nov 8.

Division of Genetics & Epidemiology, Institute of Cancer Research, Sutton, UK.

Weaver syndrome, first described in 1974, is characterized by tall stature, a typical facial appearance, and variable intellectual disability. In 2011, mutations in the histone methyltransferase, EZH2, were shown to cause Weaver syndrome. To date, we have identified 48 individuals with EZH2 mutations. The mutations were primarily missense mutations occurring throughout the gene, with some clustering in the SET domain (12/48). Truncating mutations were uncommon (4/48) and only identified in the final exon, after the SET domain. Through analyses of clinical data and facial photographs of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals, we have shown that the facial features can be subtle and the clinical diagnosis of Weaver syndrome is thus challenging, especially in older individuals. However, tall stature is very common, reported in >90% of affected individuals. Intellectual disability is also common, present in ~80%, but is highly variable and frequently mild. Additional clinical features which may help in stratifying individuals to EZH2 mutation testing include camptodactyly, soft, doughy skin, umbilical hernia, and a low, hoarse cry. Considerable phenotypic overlap between Sotos and Weaver syndromes is also evident. The identification of an EZH2 mutation can therefore provide an objective means of confirming a subtle presentation of Weaver syndrome and/or distinguishing Weaver and Sotos syndromes. As mutation testing becomes increasingly accessible and larger numbers of EZH2 mutation-positive individuals are identified, knowledge of the clinical spectrum and prognostic implications of EZH2 mutations should improve.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36229DOI Listing
December 2013

PLS3 mutations in X-linked osteoporosis with fractures.

N Engl J Med 2013 Oct 2;369(16):1529-36. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Plastin 3 (PLS3), a protein involved in the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) bundles, appears to be important in human bone health, on the basis of pathogenic variants in PLS3 in five families with X-linked osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures that we report here. The bone-regulatory properties of PLS3 were supported by in vivo analyses in zebrafish. Furthermore, in an additional five families (described in less detail) referred for diagnosis or ruling out of osteogenesis imperfecta type I, a rare variant (rs140121121) in PLS3 was found. This variant was also associated with a risk of fracture among elderly heterozygous women that was two times as high as that among noncarriers, which indicates that genetic variation in PLS3 is a novel etiologic factor involved in common, multi-factorial osteoporosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1308223DOI Listing
October 2013

The phenotype of Floating-Harbor syndrome: clinical characterization of 52 individuals with mutations in exon 34 of SRCAP.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2013 Apr 27;8:63. Epub 2013 Apr 27.

Background: Floating-Harbor syndrome (FHS) is a rare condition characterized by short stature, delays in expressive language, and a distinctive facial appearance. Recently, heterozygous truncating mutations in SRCAP were determined to be disease-causing. With the availability of a DNA based confirmatory test, we set forth to define the clinical features of this syndrome.

Methods And Results: Clinical information on fifty-two individuals with SRCAP mutations was collected using standardized questionnaires. Twenty-four males and twenty-eight females were studied with ages ranging from 2 to 52 years. The facial phenotype and expressive language impairments were defining features within the group. Height measurements were typically between minus two and minus four standard deviations, with occipitofrontal circumferences usually within the average range. Thirty-three of the subjects (63%) had at least one major anomaly requiring medical intervention. We did not observe any specific phenotype-genotype correlations.

Conclusions: This large cohort of individuals with molecularly confirmed FHS has allowed us to better delineate the clinical features of this rare but classic genetic syndrome, thereby facilitating the development of management protocols.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-8-63DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659005PMC
April 2013

Severe neurologic manifestations from cervical spine instability in spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012 Aug 12;160C(3):230-7. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Spondylo-megaepiphyseal-metaphyseal dysplasia (SMMD; OMIM 613330) is a dysostosis/dysplasia caused by recessive mutations in the homeobox-containing gene, NKX3-2 (formerly known as BAPX1). Because of the rarity of the condition, its diagnostic features and natural course are not well known. We describe clinical and radiographic findings in six patients (five of which with homozygous mutations in the NKX3-2 gene) and highlight the unusual and severe changes in the cervical spine and the neurologic complications. In individuals with SMMD, the trunk and the neck are short, while the limbs, fingers and toes are disproportionately long. Radiographs show a severe ossification delay of the vertebral bodies with sagittal and coronal clefts, missing ossification of the pubic bones, large round "balloon-like" epiphyses of the long bones, and presence of multiple pseudoepiphyses at all metacarpals and phalanges. Reduced or absent ossification of the cervical vertebrae leads to cervical instability with anterior or posterior kinking of the cervical spine (swan neck-like deformity, kyknodysostosis). As a result of the cervical spine instability or deformation, five of six patients in our series suffered cervical cord injury that manifested clinically as limb spasticity. Although the number of individuals observed is small, the high incidence of cervical spine deformation in SMMD is unique among skeletal dysplasias. Early diagnosis of SMMD by recognition of the radiographic pattern might prevent of the neurologic complications via prophylactic cervical spine stabilization.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31339DOI Listing
August 2012

Mutation-based growth charts for SEDC and other COL2A1 related dysplasias.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 2012 Aug 12;160C(3):205-16. Epub 2012 Jul 12.

Department of Biomedical Genetics, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

From data collected via a large international collaborative study, we have constructed a growth chart for patients with molecularly confirmed congenital spondylo-epiphyseal dysplasia (SEDC) and other COL2A1 related dysplasias. The growth chart is based on longitudinal height measurements of 79 patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical domain of COL2A1. In addition, measurements of 27 patients with other molecular defects, such as arginine to cysteine substitutions, splice mutations, and mutations in the C-terminal propeptide have been plotted on the chart. Height of the patients progressively deviate from that of normal children: compared to normal WHO charts, the mean length/height is -2.6 SD at birth, -4.2 SD at 5 years, and -5.8 SD in adulthood. The mean adult height (male and female combined) of patients with glycine substitutions in the triple-helical region is 138.2 cm but there is a large variation. Patients with glycine to cysteine substitutions tend to cluster within the upper part of the chart, while patients with glycine to serine or valine substitutions are situated between +1 SD and -1 SD. Patients with carboxy-terminal glycine substitutions tend to be shorter than patients with amino-terminal substitutions, while patients with splice mutations are relatively tall. However, there are exceptions and specific mutations can have a strong or a relatively mild negative effect on growth. The observation of significant difference in adult height between affected members of the same family indicates that height remains a multifactorial trait even in the presence of a mutation with a strong dominant effect.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.c.31332DOI Listing
August 2012

17q24.2 microdeletions: a new syndromal entity with intellectual disability, truncal obesity, mood swings and hallucinations.

Eur J Hum Genet 2012 May 14;20(5):534-9. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Center for Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium.

Although microdeletions of the long arm of chromosome 17 are being reported with increasing frequency, deletions of chromosome band 17q24.2 are rare. Here we report four patients with a microdeletion encompassing chromosome band 17q24.2 with a smallest region of overlap of 713 kb containing five Refseq genes and one miRNA. The patients share the phenotypic characteristics, such as intellectual disability (4/4), speech delay (4/4), truncal obesity (4/4), seizures (2/4), hearing loss (3/4) and a particular facial gestalt. Hallucinations and mood swings were also noted in two patients. The PRKCA gene is a very interesting candidate gene for many of the observed phenotypic features, as this gene plays an important role in many cellular processes. Deletion of this gene might explain the observed truncal obesity and could also account for the hallucinations and mood swings seen in two patients, whereas deletion of a CACNG gene cluster might be responsible for the seizures observed in two patients. In one of the patients, the PRKAR1A gene responsible for Carney Complex and the KCNJ2 gene causal for Andersen syndrome are deleted. This is the first report of a patient with a whole gene deletion of the KCNJ2 gene.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2011.239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330218PMC
May 2012

Mutations at a single codon in Mad homology 2 domain of SMAD4 cause Myhre syndrome.

Nat Genet 2011 Dec 11;44(1):85-8. Epub 2011 Dec 11.

Département de Génétique, Unité INSERM U781, Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, Paris, France.

Myhre syndrome (MIM 139210) is a developmental disorder characterized by short stature, short hands and feet, facial dysmorphism, muscular hypertrophy, deafness and cognitive delay. Using exome sequencing of individuals with Myhre syndrome, we identified SMAD4 as a candidate gene that contributes to this syndrome on the basis of its pivotal role in the bone morphogenetic pathway (BMP) and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling. We identified three distinct heterozygous missense SMAD4 mutations affecting the codon for Ile500 in 11 individuals with Myhre syndrome. All three mutations are located in the region of SMAD4 encoding the Mad homology 2 (MH2) domain near the site of monoubiquitination at Lys519, and we found a defect in SMAD4 ubiquitination in fibroblasts from affected individuals. We also observed decreased expression of downstream TGF-β target genes, supporting the idea of impaired TGF-β-mediated transcriptional control in individuals with Myhre syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.1016DOI Listing
December 2011

Abnormal facial appearance, body asymmetry, limb deformities, and internal malformations.

Am J Med Genet A 2012 Feb 2;158A(2):292-7. Epub 2011 Dec 2.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Erasmus Medical Center, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

We describe a newborn girl with multiple congenital anomalies and abnormal phenotype comprising underdeveloped corpus callosum with ventriculomegaly, chorioretinal atrophy, pulmonary arterial hypertension, annular pancreas, horseshoe kidney, asymmetric limb and chest anomalies, spinal segmentation defects, hypertrichosis, and unusual face with large anterior fontanel, high anterior hairline, broad forehead, mildly underdeveloped midface, hypertelorism, depressed nasal bridge, short and upturned nose, large mouth, retrognathia, and large and malformed ears. Work-up included cytogenetic studies of lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts, subtelomere Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA), whole-genome oligo-array, and molecular analysis of SETBP1 and NSDHL: no abnormalities were found. Mucopolysaccharide urinary excretion was elevated. Results of metabolic studies for sterol and peroxisomal abnormalities in fibroblasts were normal. Additional electronic microscopy studies in skin fibroblasts did not show evidence for storage in fibroblasts or lysosomal changes. Nosologic considerations allowed exclusion of Schinzel-Giedion and Urioste syndrome. This condition seems not to have been described before; a segregating Mendelian mutation is assumed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.34396DOI Listing
February 2012

Autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome in two families is caused by mutations in the COL9A1 gene.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2011 Jul 1;52(7):4774-9. Epub 2011 Jul 1.

Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: To investigate COL9A1 in two families suggestive of autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome and to delineate the associated phenotype.

Methods: The probands of two consanguineous autosomal recessive Stickler families were evaluated for homozygosity using SNP microarray in one and haplotype analysis in the other. Subsequently, the entire COL9A1 open reading frame was analyzed by DNA sequencing in all members of the respective families. Several family members were investigated for dysmorphic features as well as ophthalmic, audiologic, and radiologic abnormalities.

Results: A novel homozygous COL9A1 mutation (p.R507X) was identified in two affected Turkish sisters, and the previously published mutation (p.R295X) was found in a Moroccan boy. Ophthalmic assessment revealed myopia, cataracts, distinct vitreous changes, progressive chorioretinal degeneration, and exudative and rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. All three had sensorineural hearing loss and epiphyseal dysplasia. Intervertebral disc bulging was observed in one patient and in two heterozygous carriers of the p.R507X mutation.

Conclusions: A second, novel mutation was identified in COL9A1, causing autosomal recessive Stickler syndrome together with the previously described nucleotide change in two separate families. Although the overall phenotype was comparable to autosomal dominant Stickler, vitreous changes that may enable recognition of patients who are likely to carry mutations in COL9A1 were identified, and exudative retinal detachment was observed as a new finding in Stickler syndrome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-7128DOI Listing
July 2011

Deletions of the RUNX2 gene are present in about 10% of individuals with cleidocranial dysplasia.

Hum Mutat 2010 Aug;31(8):E1587-93

Institut für Medizinische Genetik, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

Cleidocranial Dysplasia (CCD) is an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by hypoplastic or absent clavicles, increased head circumference, large fontanels, dental anomalies, and short stature. Hand malformations are also common. Mutations in RUNX2 cause CCD, but are not identified in all CCD patients. In this study we screened 135 unrelated patients with the clinical diagnosis of CCD for RUNX2 mutations by sequencing analysis and demonstrated 82 mutations 48 of which were novel. By quantitative PCR we screened the remaining 53 unrelated patients for copy number variations in the RUNX2 gene. Heterozygous deletions of different size were identified in 13 patients, and a duplication of the exons 1 to 4 of the RUNX2 gene in one patient. Thus, heterozygous deletions or duplications affecting the RUNX2 gene may be present in about 10% of all patients with a clinical diagnosis of CCD which corresponds to 26% of individuals with normal results on sequencing analysis. We therefore suggest that screening for intragenic deletions and duplications by qPCR or MLPA should be considered for patients with CCD phenotype in whom DNA sequencing does not reveal a causative RUNX2 mutation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.21298DOI Listing
August 2010