Publications by authors named "Marleen M Rijkeboer"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Schema therapy for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): further explanation about the rationale and study protocol.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2019 7;10(1):1684629. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1684629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6844428PMC
November 2019

Rescripting experimental trauma: Effects of imagery and writing as a way to reduce the development of intrusive memories.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2020 06 12;67:101478. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Utrecht University, Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background And Objectives: Imagery rescripting is an effective treatment strategy for trauma related disorders, but its underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to test whether a) imagery (versus writing) is essential in the process of rescripting, and b) rescripting affects emotional memories on an implicit level.

Methods: Healthy participants were subjected to an experimental trauma ('trauma film'), and randomly allocated to four conditions: recall of film + Imagery Rescripting (ImRs), recall of film + Writing Rescripting (WRs), recall only (ImRE), or no recall + no manipulation (NM). Next, participants recorded intrusion frequency and distress during one week, after which they executed a visual interference task (VIT) including neutral and trauma film stills, to access implicit emotional memory.

Results: Main findings were that ImRs and WRs resulted in fewer intrusions than NM, with no differences between both rescripting conditions. We did not find an effect on intrusion distress and the VIT.

Limitations: Stills in the VIT were distracted from all four film scenes, whereas rescripting was done on one scene only, possibly obscuring the effect. Also, an analogue sample was used, which may limit generalizability to clinical samples.

Conclusions: We replicated previous effects of ImRs on intrusion development. Furthermore, no superior effect of imagery as key modality for rescripting was found; writing seems a viable alternative. Measures for implicit emotional memory such as the VIT may have to be applied relatively soon after the experimental session (e.g., same day as the experimental session).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2019.04.004DOI Listing
June 2020

Schema therapy for Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID): rationale and study protocol.

Eur J Psychotraumatol 2019 14;10(1):1571377. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

: A category of disorders frequently associated with a history of trauma are the dissociative disorders, of which Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the most severe and chronic form. DID is associated with high levels of impairment, treatment utilization, and treatment costs, yet systematic research into treatment effects is scarce. Practice-based clinical guidelines advise a phase-based approach which is lengthy and has rather high reported dropout rates. Therefore, in the current proposal the efficacy of an alternative treatment for DID (i.e. schema therapy) is tested. : The aim of this study is to critically test the effectiveness of schema therapy for DID patients, for whom at present no evidence-based treatment is available. : In light of the low prevalence of DID, and the proposed treatment length of three years, a case series experimental approach is used (non-concurrent multiple baseline design). Ten outpatients are included, who are diagnosed with DID by an independent rater using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D-R), which is double-checked by another independent expert. Primary outcomes are a (bi)weekly assessed state measure of dissociative symptoms, a pre-, post- and follow-up measure of the presence of the DID diagnosis, and drop-out rate. Secondary outcomes include various measures of trait dissociative symptoms, comorbid symptomatology, and global symptomatic distress. : Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR4496.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20008198.2019.1571377DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6383624PMC
February 2019

Correction to: Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors Share a Common Predictor: the Effects of Early Maladaptive Schemas Are Mediated by Coping Responses and Schema Modes.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 07;46(5):921

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Post Box 19268, 1000, GG, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The authors would like to note that one of the co-author's names was displayed incorrectly. Not Arnoud A. Arntz, but Arnoud Arntz co-authored this article as shown above.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-018-0418-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828492PMC
July 2018

Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors Share a Common Predictor: the Effects of Early Maladaptive Schemas Are Mediated by Coping Responses and Schema Modes.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2018 07;46(5):907-920

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam, Post Box 15933, 1001, NK, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

We investigated the relationships of adolescents' internalizing and externalizing behaviors with their early maladaptive schemas (EMS), coping responses, and schema modes. We focused on EMS related to experiences of disconnection and rejection that comprise vulnerable emotions, such as shame, mistrust, deprivation, abandonment, and isolation/alienation. This cross-sectional study included a total of 699 adolescents (combined clinical and non-referred sample) who were 11 to 18 years old (M = 14.6; SD = 1.6), and of which 45% was male. All participants completed self-report questionnaires on EMS, coping responses, schema modes, and behavior problems. We aimed to clarify the relationships between these variables by testing mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation models. In general, coping responses functioned as mediators rather than moderators in the relationships between EMS and schema modes. Furthermore, EMS regarding experiences of disconnection and rejection were related to both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, and coping responses and schema modes mediated these effects. In conclusion, although adolescent internalizing and externalizing behavior problems manifest quite differently, they seem related to the same EMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-017-0386-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010490PMC
July 2018

No Effects of D-Cycloserine Enhancement in Exposure With Response Prevention Therapy in Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

J Clin Psychopharmacol 2017 Oct;37(5):531-539

From the *Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht; †GGZ Centraal, Ermelo; ‡Altrecht Academic Anxiety Disorders Centre, Utrecht; §Department of Psychiatry and EMGO+ Institute VU-MC and GGZ inGeest, Amsterdam; ∥Department of Psychiatry, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam; ¶The Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam; and #University Center Psychiatry, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Purpose/background: D-cycloserine (DCS) is a partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist that potentially augments response to exposure therapy in anxiety disorders by enhancing extinction learning. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled augmentation trial examined (1) the effectiveness of adding 125 mg of DCS to exposure therapy (before or directly after the first 6 treatment sessions) in patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia and (2) the effectiveness of DCS augmentation preceding exposure relative to DCS augmentation directly postexposure.

Methods/procedures: Fifty-seven patients were allocated to 1 of 3 medication conditions (placebo and pre-exposure and postexposure DCS) as an addition to 6 exposure sessions within a 12-session exposure and response prevention protocol. The primary outcome measure was the mean score on the "alone" subscale of the Mobility Inventory (MI).

Findings/results: No differences were found in treatment outcome between DCS and placebo, administered either pre-exposure or postexposure therapy, although at 3-month follow-up, the DCS postexposure group compared with DCS pre-exposure, exhibited greater symptom reduction on the MI-alone subscale. Ancillary analyses in specific subgroups (responders vs nonresponders, early vs late responders, severely vs mildly affected patients) did not reveal any between-group DCS versus placebo differences. Finally, the study did not find an effect of DCS relative to placebo to be specific for successful exposure sessions.

Implications/conclusions: This study does not find an effect of augmentation with DCS in patients with severe panic disorder and agoraphobia administered either pretreatment or directly posttreatment sessions. Moreover, no preferential effects are revealed in specific subgroups nor in successful exposure sessions. Yet, a small effect of DCS administration postexposure therapy cannot be ruled out, given the relatively small sample size of this study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCP.0000000000000757DOI Listing
October 2017

Validation of Schema Coping Inventory and Schema Mode Inventory in Adolescents.

J Pers Disord 2018 04 12;32(2):220-241. Epub 2017 Jun 12.

Conrisq Group, Zetten, the Netherlands.

This study investigated whether the schema therapy constructs of schema coping and schema modes have val dity in adolescents. We examined the validity and reliability of the Schema Coping Inventory (SCI) and an 80-item version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) in a mixed sample of adolescents. Confirmatory factor analyse showed that the first-order factor structures of the SCI and SMI were replicated, but that the hypothesized higher-order models of the SMI were not confirmed. Instead, we proposed an alternative higher-order model of Internalizing, Externalizing, Overachieving, and Healthy modes. In general, the SCI and SMI scales were able o distinguish the clinical sample from the community sample, and meaningful relationships were found between oping styles, schema modes, and behavior problems. In conclusion, our study supports the theorized relations ips between schema coping styles, schema modes, and behavior, problems in adolescents, and provides initial validation for the SCI and the, 80-item SMI in adolescent populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/pedi_2017_31_295DOI Listing
April 2018

The relationship between tics, OC, ADHD and autism symptoms: A cross- disorder symptom analysis in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome patients and family-members.

Psychiatry Res 2016 Mar 22;237:138-46. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Department of Clinical & Health Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, Utrecht University, Netherlands; Altrecht Academic Anxiety Center, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome (GTS) is a disorder in which obsessive-compulsive (OC), Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism symptoms occur in up to 60% of patients, suggesting shared etiology. We explored the phenotypic structure of tic, OC, ADHD, and autism symptoms as measured by the YGTSS,Y-BOCS,CAARS and AQ, in 225 GTS patients and 371 family members. First, Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) were performed on the symptom structure of each separate symptom scale. Second, the symptom dimensions derived from each scale were combined in one model, and correlations between them were calculated. Using the correlation matrix, Exploratory Factor Analyses (EFA) were performed on the symptom dimensions across the scales. EFA revealed a five factor structure: tic/aggression/symmetry; OC symptoms/compulsive tics/ numbers and patterns; ADHD symptoms; autism symptoms; and hoarding/inattention symptoms. The results are partly in line with the traditional categorical boundaries of the symptom scales used, and partly reveal a symptom structure that cuts through the diagnostic categories. This phenotypic structure might more closely reflect underlying etiologies than a structure that classically describes GTS patients according to absence or presence of comorbid OCD, ADHD and autism, and might inform both future genetic and treatment studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.01.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5137472PMC
March 2016

Behavior as information about threat in anxiety disorders: a comparison of patients with anxiety disorders and non-anxious controls.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2014 12 11;45(4):489-95. Epub 2014 Jul 11.

Methodology and Statistics, Utrecht University, The Netherlands.

Background: Gangemi, Mancini, and van den Hout (2012) argued that anxious patients use safety behaviors as information that the situation in which the safety behaviors are displayed is dangerous, even when that situation is objectively safe. This was concluded from a vignette study in which anxious patients and non-clinical controls rated the dangerousness of scripts that were safe or dangerous and in which the protagonist did or did not display safety behaviors. Patients were more likely to take safety behavior as evidence that the situation was dangerous, especially in safe situations. Their non-clinical group may not have been psychologically naïve. We critically replicated the Gangemi et al. study using a psychologically non-informed control group.

Method: The same materials were used and patients (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Panic Disorder, Social Phobia; n = 30 per sub-group) were compared to matched non-patients. Using Bayesian statistics, data from the Gangemi et al. samples and the present groups were (re-)analyzed testing the hypothesis relative to non-patients, patients infer threat from safety behaviors, especially if displayed in safe situations.

Results: The Gangemi et al. data yielded a Bayes factor of 3.31 in support of the hypothesis. The present Bayes Factor was smaller (2.34), but strengthened the support for the hypothesis expressed by an updated Bayes factor of 3.31 × 2.34 = 7.75.

Conclusions: The finding that anxious patients infer threat from safety behaviors, in particular in safe contexts, was corroborated, suggesting one way in which safety behaviors are involved in the maintenance of anxiety disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2014.07.002DOI Listing
December 2014

Does repeated ticking maintain tic behavior? An experimental study of eye blinking in healthy individuals.

Behav Neurol 2014 8;2014:753020. Epub 2014 May 8.

Altrecht Academic Anxiety Center, 3551 DC Utrecht, The Netherlands ; Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80140, 3508 TC Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Tics in Tourette syndrome (TS) are often preceded by "premonitory urges": annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2 × 2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs + blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/753020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4034442PMC
December 2014

Implicit versus explicit measures of self-concept of self-control and their differential predictive power for spontaneous trait-relevant behaviors.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2014 Mar 13;45(1):1-7. Epub 2013 Jul 13.

Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Groningen, Grote Kruisstraat 2/1, 9712 TS Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Objectives: Low trait self-control constitutes a core criterion in various psychiatric disorders. Personality traits such as low self-control are mostly indexed by self-report measures. However, several theorists emphasized the importance of differentiating between explicit and implicit indices of personality traits, Therefore, the present study examined the unique predictive validity of an implicit measure of trait self-control for spontaneous dysfunctional behavior.

Methods: As a measure of implicit trait self-control, we used an irrelevant feature task: a speeded reaction time task comprising a task-relevant stimulus feature (i.e., capital vs. lower case letter type) and a task-irrelevant feature (high vs. low self-control word type). The irrelevant feature had to be ignored, while participants (n = 34) responded to the relevant stimulus feature. However, their response was either congruent or incongruent with the irrelevant stimulus feature, resulting in facilitated or deteriorated task performance. As indicators of trait-related spontaneous dysfunctional behavior, we included indices of frustration tolerance and the preference for short-term reward over meeting long-term goals. We also included two explicit measures of trait self-control: a self-report questionnaire and an explicit self-relevance rating of the implicit task stimuli.

Results: Specifically the implicit measure of trait self-control showed predictive validity for the target self-control behaviors.

Limitations: The predictive validity of implicit measures of personality traits requires further study in larger, non-student samples.

Conclusions: As predicted, the implicit measure of trait self-control showed superior predictive power for spontaneous trait-related behavior. This finding points to the relevance of complementing the routinely used self-report measures with implicit measures of trait self-control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2013.07.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Does repeated ticking maintain tic behavior? An experimental study of eye blinking in healthy individuals.

Behav Neurol 2013 ;27(1):75-82

Altrecht Academic Anxiety Center, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Tics in Tourette Syndrome (TS) are often preceded by 'premonitory urges': annoying feelings or bodily sensations. We hypothesized that, by reducing annoyance of premonitory urges, tic behaviour may be reinforced. In a 2X2 experimental design in healthy participants, we studied the effects of premonitory urges (operationalized as air puffs on the eye) and tic behaviour (deliberate eye blinking after a puff or a sound) on changes in subjective evaluation of air puffs, and EMG responses on the m. orbicularis oculi. The experimental group with air puffs+ blinking experienced a decrease in subjective annoyance of the air puff, but habituation of the EMG response was blocked and length of EMG response increased. In the control groups (air puffs without instruction to blink, no air puffs), these effects were absent. When extrapolating to the situation in TS patients, these findings suggest that performance of tics is reinforced by reducing the subjective annoyance of premonitory urges, while simultaneously preventing habituation or even inducing sensitisation of the physiological motor response.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/BEN-120302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5215664PMC
February 2014

Tones inferior to eye movements in the EMDR treatment of PTSD.

Behav Res Ther 2012 May 19;50(5):275-9. Epub 2012 Feb 19.

Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). During EMDR, patients make eye movements (EMs) while recalling traumatic memories, but recently therapists have replaced EMs by alternating beep tones. There are no outcome studies on the effects of tones. In an earlier analogue study, tones were inferior to EMs in the reduction of vividness of aversive memories. In a first EMDR session, 12 PTSD patients recalled trauma memories in three conditions: recall only, recall + tones, and recall + EMs. Three competing hypotheses were tested: 1) EMs are as effective as tones and better than recall only, 2) EMs are better than tones and tones are as effective as recall only, and 3) EMs are better than tones and tones are better than recall only. The order of conditions was balanced, each condition was delivered twice, and decline in memory vividness and emotionality served as outcome measures. The data strongly support hypothesis 2 and 3 over 1: EMs outperformed tones while it remained unclear if tones add to recall only. The findings add to earlier considerations and earlier analogue findings suggesting that EMs are superior to tones and that replacing the former by the latter was premature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2012.02.001DOI Listing
May 2012

EMDR: eye movements superior to beeps in taxing working memory and reducing vividness of recollections.

Behav Res Ther 2011 Feb 22;49(2):92-8. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is effectively treated with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) with patients making eye movements during recall of traumatic memories. Many therapists have replaced eye movements with bilateral beeps, but there are no data on the effects of beeps. Experimental studies suggest that eye movements may be beneficial because they tax working memory, especially the central executive component, but the presence/degree of taxation has not been assessed directly. Using discrimination Reaction Time (RT) tasks, we found that eye movements slow down RTs to auditive cues (experiment I), but binaural beeps do not slow down RTs to visual cues (experiment II). In an arguably more sensitive "Random Interval Repetition" task using tactile stimulation, working memory taxation of beeps and eye movements were directly compared. RTs slowed down during beeps, but the effects were much stronger for eye movements (experiment III). The same pattern was observed in a memory experiment with healthy volunteers (experiment IV): vividness of negative memories was reduced after both beeps and eye movements, but effects were larger for eye movements. Findings support a working memory account of EMDR and suggest that effects of beeps on negative memories are inferior to those of eye movements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2010.11.003DOI Listing
February 2011

Early maladaptive schemas in children: development and validation of the Schema Inventory for Children.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2010 Jun 10;41(2):102-9. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

A Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) was developed, based on Young's schema model. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a non-clinical multi-ethnic sample of children, aged 8-13 years. The latent structure of the SIC was explored using a cross-validation design. Confirmatory factor analyses yielded satisfying fits for a modified model, that included 8 of the original 15 schema factors, as well as 3 new factors, each containing a theoretically meaningful combination of 2 or 3 original schema factors. Our data suggest that, to a certain extent, children present with the same schemas as identified in adolescents and adults, although some unique, children-specific schemas occurred. SIC item loadings were moderate to good, and all factors showed adequate discriminant validity. However, factor reliability estimates were mediocre, but in most cases still acceptable. Furthermore, results suggest adequate stability for all SIC scales. Finally, strong relations between most of the SIC scales and measures of psychopathology were found, although an opposite pattern of associations emerged for two scales (i.e., Enmeshment and Self-Sacrifice), suggesting that these schemas are not maladaptive -yet- at this young age.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2009.11.001DOI Listing
June 2010

Stability and discriminative power of the Young Schema-Questionnaire in a Dutch clinical versus non-clinical population.

J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 2005 Jun;36(2):129-44

Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Clinical Psychology, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

In this study the temporal stability and general discriminative and classifying ability of the Young Schema-Questionnaire (YSQ) was examined in a clinical and non-clinical sample. To be able to cross-validate on the variables, two parallel subtests, drawn from the YSQ item pool, were utilized. Results suggest adequate rank order stability. However, mean scores tended to drop systematically over time, most likely caused by transient error. Therefore, to assess progress in therapy, the alternate utilization of the parallel parts is advised. Findings from discriminant analysis suggest high sensitivity of the YSQ and its subscales in predicting the presence or absence of psychopathology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbtep.2004.08.005DOI Listing
June 2005
-->