Publications by authors named "Markus Schulz"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

D-10-camphorsulfonic acid: Safety evaluation.

Mutat Res 2020 Oct - Dec;858-860:503257. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

DSM Nutritional Products, Wurmisweg 576, 4303 Kaiseraugst, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The safety of D-10-camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) was evaluated by genotoxicity testing and in a subchronic 90-day study in rats. Ames test and in vitro micronucleus test results, either in the absence or the presence of metabolic activation, were negative. Administration of CSA to Wistar rats in the drinking water (0.05, 0.20, or 1.00 mg/mL), for 90 days caused neither test-item-related mortality nor adverse clinical signs. The only macroscopic change seen at necropsy was enlarged testes in the high-dose animals. The 0.20 mg/mL (25 mg/kg bw/day) dose level was considered to be the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). A total intake calculation for consumers was performed, based on the intended maximal amount of 0.5 ppm CSA in feed, published transfer factors, and conservative tissue consumption data, resulting in 0.29 μg/kg bw/day. Therefore, the NOAEL is approximately 80,000 × the maximum estimated human exposure, a margin that is more than adequate to ensure consumer safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2020.503257DOI Listing
March 2021

The rat bone marrow micronucleus test: Statistical considerations on historical negative control data.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2019 Mar 17;102:13-22. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine ITEM, Nikolai-Fuchs-Str. 1, 30625, Hannover, Germany. Electronic address:

Recent updates of the OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals (Section 4: Health Effects) on genotoxicity testing emphasize the use of appropriate statistical methods for data analysis and proficiency proof. Updates also concern the mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus test (OECD 474), as the currently most often performed regulatory in vivo test. As the updated guideline gives high importance to adequate statistical assessment of historical negative control data to estimate validity of experiments and judge results, the present study evaluated statistical methodologies for handling of historical negative control data sets, and comes forward with respective proposals and reference data. Therefore, the working group "Statistics" within the German-speaking "Gesellschaft für Umwelt-Mutationsforschung e.V." (GUM) compiled a data set of 891 negative control rats from valid OECD 474-studies of four laboratories. Based on these data, Analysis-of-Variance (ANOVA) identified "laboratory" and "strain", but not "gender" as relevant stratification parameters, and argued for approximately normally distributed micronucleus frequencies in polychromatic erythrocytes per animal. This assumption provided the basis for further specifying one-sided parametric tolerance intervals for determination of corresponding upper historical negative control limits. Finally, the stability of such limits was investigated as a function of the number of experiments performed, using a simulation-based statistical strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.12.009DOI Listing
March 2019

Validation of the 3D Skin Comet assay using full thickness skin models: Transferability and reproducibility.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2018 Mar 10;827:27-41. Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Procter & Gamble, 8700 Mason-Montgomery Road, Mason, OH 45040, United States.

Recently revised OECD Testing Guidelines highlight the importance of considering the first site-of-contact when investigating the genotoxic hazard. Thus far, only in vivo approaches are available to address the dermal route of exposure. The 3D Skin Comet and Reconstructed Skin Micronucleus (RSMN) assays intend to close this gap in the in vitro genotoxicity toolbox by investigating DNA damage after topical application. This represents the most relevant route of exposure for a variety of compounds found in household products, cosmetics, and industrial chemicals. The comet assay methodology is able to detect both chromosomal damage and DNA lesions that may give rise to gene mutations, thereby complementing the RSMN which detects only chromosomal damage. Here, the comet assay was adapted to two reconstructed full thickness human skin models: the EpiDerm™- and Phenion Full-Thickness Skin Models. First, tissue-specific protocols for the isolation of single cells and the general comet assay were transferred to European and US-American laboratories. After establishment of the assay, the protocol was then further optimized with appropriate cytotoxicity measurements and the use of aphidicolin, a DNA repair inhibitor, to improve the assay's sensitivity. In the first phase of an ongoing validation study eight chemicals were tested in three laboratories each using the Phenion Full-Thickness Skin Model, informing several validation modules. Ultimately, the 3D Skin Comet assay demonstrated a high predictive capacity and good intra- and inter-laboratory reproducibility with four laboratories reaching a 100% predictivity and the fifth yielding 70%. The data are intended to demonstrate the use of the 3D Skin Comet assay as a new in vitro tool for following up on positive findings from the standard in vitro genotoxicity test battery for dermally applied chemicals, ultimately helping to drive the regulatory acceptance of the assay. To expand the database, the validation will continue by testing an additional 22 chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2018.01.003DOI Listing
March 2018

Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS): Past - Present - Future.

ALTEX 2018 9;35(1):99-118. Epub 2017 Aug 9.

Division of Physiology, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

The supplementation of culture medium with fetal bovine serum (FBS, also referred to as "fetal calf serum") is still common practice in cell culture applications. Due to a number of disadvantages in terms of quality and reproducibility of in vitro data, animal welfare concerns, and in light of recent cases of fraudulent marketing, the search for alternatives and the development of serum-free medium formulations has gained global attention. Here, we report on the 3rd Workshop on FBS, Serum Alternatives and Serum-free Media, where regulatory aspects, the serum dilemma, alternatives to FBS, case-studies of serum-free in vitro applications, and the establishment of serum-free databases were discussed. The whole process of obtaining blood from a living calf fetus to using the FBS produced from it for scientific purposes is de facto not yet legally regulated despite the existing EU-Directive 2010/63/EU on the use of animals for scientific purposes. Together with the above-mentioned challenges, several strategies have been developed to reduce or replace FBS in cell culture media in terms of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction, Replacement). Most recently, releasates of activated human donor thrombocytes (human platelet lysates) have been shown to be one of the most promising serum alternatives when chemically-defined media are not yet an option. Additionally, new developments in cell-based assay techniques, advanced organ-on-chip and microphysiological systems are covered in this report. Chemically-defined serum-free media are shown to be the ultimate goal for the majority of culture systems, and examples are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14573/altex.1705101DOI Listing
August 2018

Genotoxicity testing of different surface-functionalized SiO, ZrO and silver nanomaterials in 3D human bronchial models.

Arch Toxicol 2017 Dec 22;91(12):3991-4007. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

Department of Chemical and Product Safety, German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Berlin, Germany.

Inhalation is considered a critical uptake route for NMs, demanding for sound toxicity testing using relevant test systems. This study investigates cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in EpiAirway™ 3D human bronchial models using 16 well-characterized NMs, including surface-functionalized 15 nm SiO (4 variants), 10 nm ZrO (4), and nanosilver (3), ZnO NM-110, TiO NM-105, BaSO NM-220, and two AlOOH NMs. Cytotoxicity was assessed by LDH and ATP assays and genotoxicity by the alkaline comet assay. For 9 NMs, uptake was investigated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Most NMs were neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in vitro. ZnO displayed a dose-dependent genotoxicity between 10 and 25 µg/cm. Ag.50.citrate was genotoxic at 50 µg/cm. A marginal but still significant genotoxic response was observed for SiO.unmodified, SiO.phosphate and ZrO.TODS at 50 µg/cm. For all NMs for which uptake in the 3D models could be assessed, the amount taken up was below 5% of the applied mass doses and was furthermore dose dependent. For in vivo comparison, published in vivo genotoxicity data were used and in addition, at the beginning of this study, two NMs were randomly selected for short-term (5-day) rat inhalation studies with subsequent comet and micronucleus assays in lung and bone marrow cells, respectively, i.e., ZrO.acrylate and SiO.amino. Both substances were not genotoxic neither in vivo nor in vitro. EpiAirway™ 3D models appear useful for NM in vitro testing. Using 16 different NMs, this study confirms that genotoxicity is mainly determined by chemical composition of the core material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00204-017-2015-9DOI Listing
December 2017

No genotoxicity in rat blood cells upon 3- or 6-month inhalation exposure to CeO2 or BaSO4 nanomaterials.

Mutagenesis 2017 01 9;32(1):13-22. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany.

In the course of a 2-year combined chronic toxicity-carcinogenicity study performed according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 453, systemic (blood cell) genotoxicity of two OECD representative nanomaterials, CeO NM-212 and BaSO upon 3- or 6-month inhalation exposure to rats was assessed. DNA effects were analysed in leukocytes using the alkaline Comet assay, gene mutations and chromosome aberrations were measured in erythrocytes using the flow cytometric Pig-a gene mutation assay and the micronucleus test (applying both microscopic and flow cytometric evaluation), respectively. Since nano-sized CeO elicited lung effects at concentrations of 5mg/m (burdens of 0.5mg/lung) in the preceding range-finding study, whereas nano-sized BaSO did not induce any effect, female rats were exposed to aerosol concentrations of 0.1 up to 3mg/m CeO or 50mg/m BaSO nanomaterials (6h/day; 5 days/week; whole-body exposure). The blood of animals treated with clean air served as negative control, whereas blood samples from rats treated orally with three doses of 20mg/kg body weight ethylnitrosourea at 24h intervals were used as positive controls. As expected, ethylnitrosourea elicited significant genotoxicity in the alkaline Comet and Pig-a gene mutation assays and in the micronucleus test. By contrast, 3- and 6-month CeO or BaSO nanomaterial inhalation exposure did not elicit significant findings in any of the genotoxicity tests. The results demonstrate that subchronic inhalation exposure to different low doses of CeO or to a high dose of BaSO nanomaterials does not induce genotoxicity on the rat hematopoietic system at the DNA, gene or chromosome levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gew005DOI Listing
January 2017

In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity investigations of differently sized amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2015 Dec 31;794:57-74. Epub 2015 Oct 31.

Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany. Electronic address:

In vitro and in vivo genotoxic effects of differently sized amorphous SiO2 nanomaterials were investigated. In the alkaline Comet assay (with V79 cells), non-cytotoxic concentrations of 300 and 100-300μg/mL 15nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2, respectively, relevant (at least 2-fold relative to the negative control) DNA damage. In the Alkaline unwinding assay (with V79 cells), only 15nm-SiO2 significantly increased DNA strand breaks (and only at 100μg/mL), whereas neither nanomaterial (up to 300μg/mL) increased Fpg (Formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase)-sensitive sites reflecting oxidative DNA base modifications. In the Comet assay using rat precision-cut lung slices, 15nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2 induced significant DNA damage at ≥100μg/mL. In the Alkaline unwinding assay (with A549 cells), 30nm-SiO2 and 55nm-SiO2 (with larger primary particle size (PPS)) induced significant increases in DNA strand breaks at ≥50μg/mL, whereas 9nm-SiO2 and 15nm-SiO2 (with smaller PPS) induced significant DNA damage at higher concentrations. These two amorphous SiO2 also increased Fpg-sensitive sites (significant at 100μg/mL). In vivo, within 3 days after single intratracheal instillation of 360μg, neither 15nm-SiO2 nor 55nm-SiO2 caused genotoxic effects in the rat lung or in the bone marrow. However, pulmonary inflammation was observed in both test groups with findings being more pronounced upon treatment with 15nm-SiO2 than with 55nm-SiO2. Taken together, the study shows that colloidal amorphous SiO2 with different particle sizes may induce genotoxic effects in lung cells in vitro at comparatively high concentrations. However, the same materials elicited no genotoxic effects in the rat lung even though pronounced pulmonary inflammation evolved. This may be explained by the fact that a considerably lower dose reached the target cells in vivo than in vitro. Additionally, the different time points of investigation may provide more time for DNA damage repair after instillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2015.10.005DOI Listing
December 2015

Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2014 Dec 23;775-776:55-68. Epub 2014 Oct 23.

European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), Systems Toxicology Unit; Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP), European Commission - Joint Research Centre, TP 126, Via E. Fermi 2749, I-21027 Ispra, Va, Italy. Electronic address:

Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian cell test results obtained for Ames-positive compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.10.005DOI Listing
December 2014

Prevalidation study of the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay at pH 7.0 for assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

Mutat Res 2012 Apr 28;744(1):64-75. Epub 2011 Dec 28.

Université Paul Verlaine de Metz, Metz, France.

The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) has organised an interlaboratory prevalidation study on the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (CTA) at pH 7.0 for the detection of rodent carcinogens. The SHE CTA at pH 7.0 has been evaluated for its within-laboratory reproducibility, transferability and between-laboratory reproducibility. Four laboratories using the same basic protocol with minor modifications participated in this study and tested a series of six coded-chemicals: four rodent carcinogens (benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, 2,4-diaminotoluene and o-toluidine HCl) and two non-carcinogens (anthracene and phthalic anhydride). All the laboratories found the expected results with coded chemicals except for phthalic anhydride which resulted in a different call in only one laboratory. Based on the outcome of this study, it can be concluded that a standardised protocol is available that should be the basis for future use. This protocol and the assay system itself are transferable between laboratories and the SHE CTA at pH 7.0 is reproducible within- and between-laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.12.007DOI Listing
April 2012

Recommended protocol for the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay.

Mutat Res 2012 Apr 17;744(1):76-81. Epub 2011 Dec 17.

Université Paul Verlaine de Metz, Metz, France.

The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (CTA) is a short-term in vitro assay recommended as an alternative method for testing the carcinogenic potential of chemicals. SHE cells are "normal" cells since they are diploid, genetically stable, non-tumourigenic, and have metabolic capabilities for the activation of some classes of carcinogens. The CTA, first developed in the 1960s by Berwald and Sachs (1963,1964) [3,4], is based on the change of the phenotypic feature of cell colonies expressing the first steps of the conversion of normal to neoplastic-like cells with oncogenic properties. Pienta et al. (1977) [22] developed a protocol using cryopreserved cells to enhance practicality of the assay and limit sources of variability. Several variants of the assay are currently in use, which mainly differ by the pH at which the assay is performed. We present here the common version of the SHE pH 6.7 CTA and SHE pH 7.0 CTA protocols used in the ECVAM (European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods) prevalidation study on CTA reported in this issue. It is recommended that this protocol, in combination with the photo catalogues presented in this issue, should be used in the future and serve as a basis for the development of the OECD test guideline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.12.010DOI Listing
April 2012

Prevalidation study of the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay at pH 6.7 for assessment of carcinogenic potential of chemicals.

Mutat Res 2012 Apr 13;744(1):54-63. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

BioReliance, Rockville, MD 20850-3349, USA.

The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay (CTA) is an important in vitro method that is highly predictive of rodent carcinogenicity. It is a key method for reducing animal usage for carcinogenicity prediction. The SHE assay has been used for many years primarily to investigate and identify potential rodent carcinogens thereby reducing the number of 2-year bioassays performed in rodents. As for other assays with a long history of use, the SHE CTA has not undergone formal validation. To address this, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) coordinated a prevalidation study. The aim of this study was to evaluate the within-laboratory reproducibility, test method transferability, and between-laboratory reproducibility and to develop a standardised state-of-the-art protocol for the SHE CTA at pH 6.7. Formal ECVAM principles for criteria on reproducibility (including the within-laboratory reproducibility, the transferability and the between-laboratories reproducibility) were applied. In addition to the assessment of reproducibility, this study helped define a standard protocol for use in developing an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline for the SHE CTA. Six compounds were evaluated in this study: benzo(a)pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene, o-toluidine HCl, 2,4-diaminotoluene, phthalic anhydride and anthracene. Results of this study demonstrate that a protocol is available that is transferable between laboratories, and that the SHE CTA at pH 6.7 is reproducible within- and between-laboratories.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.12.005DOI Listing
April 2012

Investigation on the genotoxicity of different sizes of gold nanoparticles administered to the lungs of rats.

Mutat Res 2012 Jun 7;745(1-2):51-7. Epub 2011 Dec 7.

Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, 67056 Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Nanomaterials are already used today and offer even greater use and benefits in the future. The progress of nanotechnology must be accompanied by investigations of their potential harmful effects. For airborne nanomaterials, lung toxicity is a major concern and obviously the particle size is discussed as a critical property directing adverse effects. While standard toxicological test methods are generally capable of detecting the toxic effects, the choice of relevant methods for nanomaterials is still discussed. We have investigated two genotoxic endpoints - alkaline Comet assay in lung tissue and micronucleation in polychromatic erythrocytes of the bone marrow - in a combined study 72 h after a single instillation of 18 μg gold nanoparticles (NP) into the trachea of male adult Wistar rats. The administration of three test materials differing only in their primary particle size (2, 20 and 200 nm) did not lead to relevant DNA damage in the mentioned tests. The measurement of clinical pathology parameters in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood indicated neither relevant local reactions in the animals' lungs nor adverse systemic effects. Minor histopathology findings occurred in the lung of the animals exposed to 20 nm and 200 nm sized nanomaterials. In conclusion, under the conditions of this study the different sized gold NP tested were non-genotoxic and showed no systemic and local adverse effects at the given dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2011.11.016DOI Listing
June 2012

Refinement and reduction of acute oral toxicity testing: a critical review of the use of cytotoxicity data.

Altern Lab Anim 2011 Jul;39(3):273-95

BASF SE, Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Acute oral toxicity testing is still required for the classification and labelling of chemicals, agrochemicals and related formulations. There have been increasing efforts over the last two decades to reduce the number of animals needed for this testing, according to the Three Rs concept. To evaluate the utility of an in vitro cytotoxicity test in our routine testing for acute oral toxicity, we have implemented in our laboratory the neutral red uptake (NRU) method, with Balb/c 3T3 fibroblasts after a 48-hour exposure, which was recommended in ICCVAM Report 07-4519, 2006. Initially, we tested 16 substances that had existing in vivo and in vitro data available, to prove our technical proficiency with the in vitro test. Then, testing was performed with 187 test substances, including a broad variety of chemicals, agrochemicals and formulations. The starting dose for acute oral systemic toxicity assays in rats (LD50) was estimated by using the prediction model presented in the ICCVAM validation study, and subsequently compared to the results obtained by in vivo testing performed according to, or similar to, OECD Test Guideline 423. Comparison of all of the 203 predicted LD50 values that were deduced from the in vitro IC50 values, with the in vivo results from oral toxicity studies in rats, resulted in a low overall concordance of 35%. The in vitro cytotoxicity assay achieved a good concordance of 74%, only for the weakly toxic substances (EU-GHS Cat. 4). However, it must be noted that 71% of the substances tested (i.e. 145/203) were classified as being weakly toxic in vitro. We further analysed the utility of the in vitro test for predicting the starting dose for an in vivo study, and the potential reduction in animal usage that this would engender. In this regard, the prediction by the cytotoxicity test was useful for 59% of the substances. However, the use of a standard starting dose of 300 mg/kg bw by default (without previous cytotoxicity testing) would have been almost as useful (50%). In contrast, the prediction by an experienced toxicologist was correct for 95% of the substances. However, this was only performed for 40% of the substances, mainly those of no to low toxicity. Calculating the theoretical animal numbers needed in several scenarios supported these results. The additional analysis, considering some physicochemical data (solubility, molecular weight, log POW), substance class and mode of action, revealed no specific applicability domains. In summary, the use of the 3T3 NRU cytotoxicity data alone did not sufficiently contribute to refinement and reduction in the acute oral toxicity testing of the substance portfolio tested routinely in our laboratory.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026119291103900311DOI Listing
July 2011

Challenges in the development of hydrate phases as active pharmaceutical ingredients--an example.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2011 Jan 10;42(1-2):116-29. Epub 2010 Nov 10.

Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH, Chemical Development, Industriepark Höchst, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

The challenges during pilot plant scale-up of the SAR474832 API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) production in view of crystallization, isolation, drying and micronization are reported. A variety of different solid-state analytical and spectroscopic techniques (also coupled methods) were applied in order to understand the complex phase transition behaviour of the crystallographic phase (form 1) chosen for development: a partially non-stoichiometric channel-hydrate (x (1+1.25) H(2)O) crystallizing from pure water in the crystal habit of fine needles, which tend to agglomerate upon isolation and drying. Processes have been developed for drying, sieving and micronization by jetmilling to avoid non-desired phase transitions (overdrying effects) into other hydrate forms. Special methods have been established to minimize, monitor and control the formation of amorphous content during the particle size reduction steps. By optimizing all production parameters it was possible to produce API batches in 10 kg scale with physical quality suitable for oral formulations (e.g. particle size d 90 value<20 μm, water content and crystallographic phase corresponding to desired form 1 of SAR474832).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2010.11.001DOI Listing
January 2011

Gene toxicity studies on titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials used for UV-protection in cosmetic formulations.

Nanotoxicology 2010 Dec;4:364-81

Experimental Toxicology and Ecology, BASF SE, Ludwigshafen, Germany.

Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanomaterials, used as UV protecting agents in sunscreens, were investigated for their potential genotoxicity in in vitro and in vivo test systems. Since standard OECD test methods are designed for soluble materials and genotoxicity testing for nanomaterials is still under revision, a battery of standard tests was used, covering different endpoints. Additionally, a procedure to disperse the nanomaterials in the test media and careful characterization of the dispersed test item was added to the testing methods. No genotoxicity was observed in vitro (Ames' Salmonella gene mutation test and V79 micronucleus chromosome mutation test) or in vivo (mouse bone marrow micronucleus test and Comet DNA damage assay in lung cells from rats exposed by inhalation). These results add to the still limited data base on genotoxicity test results with nanomaterials and provide congruent results of a battery of standard OECD test methods applied to nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/17435390.2010.506694DOI Listing
December 2010

Genotoxicity investigations on nanomaterials: methods, preparation and characterization of test material, potential artifacts and limitations--many questions, some answers.

Mutat Res 2009 Mar-Jun;681(2-3):241-258. Epub 2008 Nov 11.

Institute of Toxicology, University of Mainz, 55131 Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Nanomaterials display novel properties to which most toxicologists have not consciously been exposed before the advent of their practical use. The same properties, small size and particular shape, large surface area and surface activity, which make nanomaterials attractive in many applications, may contribute to their toxicological profile. This review describes what is known about genotoxicity investigations on nanomaterials published in the openly available scientific literature to-date. The most frequently used test was the Comet assay: 19 studies, 14 with positive outcome. The second most frequently used test was the micronucleus test: 14 studies, 12 of them with positive outcome. The Ames test, popular with other materials, was less frequently used (6 studies) and was almost always negative, the bacterial cell wall possibly being a barrier for many nanomaterials. Recommendations for improvements emerging from analyzing the reports summarized in this review are: Know what nanomaterial has been tested (and in what form); Consider uptake and distribution of the nanomaterial; Use standardized methods; Recognize that nanomaterials are not all the same; Use in vivo studies to correlate in vitro results; Take nanomaterials specific properties into account; Learn about the mechanism of nanomaterials genotoxic effects. It is concluded that experiences with other, non-nano, substances (molecules and larger particles) taught us that mechanisms of genotoxic effects can be diverse and their elucidation can be demanding, while there often is an immediate need to assess the genotoxic hazard. Thus a practical, pragmatic approach is the use of a battery of standard genotoxicity testing methods covering a wide range of mechanisms. Application of these standard methods to nanomaterials demands adaptations and the interpretation of results from the genotoxicity tests may need additional considerations. This review should help to improve standard genotoxicity testing as well as investigations on the underlying mechanism and the interpretation of genotoxicity data on nanomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrrev.2008.10.002DOI Listing
April 2009

[Toxicity assessment of waste water samples with fish cell lines]

ALTEX 1995 ;12(4):188-195

Technische Hochschule Darmstadt, Laboratorium für Mutagenitätsprüfung (LMP), D-Darmstadt.

An in vitro cytotoxicity assay with fish cell lines was established in order to reduce the number of animals used in fish tests with the golden orfe (leuciscus idus melanotus). In three co-ordinated working laboratories the toxicity of seven chemicals was determined according to a standardized protocol using the permanent cell lines D11 and RTG-2. There was an almost linear correlation (r=0.99) between the IC50 values after neutral red uptake and crystal violet staining of the chemically treated RTG-2 cells. These cells were more sensitive than D11 cells (r=0.93) with regard to chemically induced cytotoxicity. The test protocol was adapted for the testing of waste water (ten samples). Two samples induced cytotoxic effects in RTG-2 cells while in none of the three laboratories the same samples were found cytotoxic in D11 cells. The data with the seven chemicals and the still limited number of waste water samples (10) lend strong support to the assumption that the fish cell line RTG-2 can be regarded as well suited for detecting toxic properties of waste water.
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January 1995