Publications by authors named "Markus Perola"

329 Publications

Incidence of liver-related morbidity and mortality in a population cohort of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Liver Int 2021 Jul 5. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Transplantation and Liver Surgery Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background & Aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases morbidity and mortality. However, patients in biopsy-based cohorts are highly selected and the absolute risks of liver- and non-liver outcomes in NAFLD in population remains undefined. We analysed both liver-related and non-liver-related outcomes in Finnish population cohorts of NAFLD.

Methods: We included 10 993 individuals (6707 men, mean age 53.3 ± 12.6 years) with NAFLD (fatty liver index ≥60) from the Finnish population-based FINRISK and Health 2000 studies. Liver fibrosis was assessed by the dAAR score, and genetic risk by a recent polygenic risk score (PRS-5). Incident liver-related outcomes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and chronic kidney disease (CKD) were identified through linkage with national registries.

Results: Mean follow-up was 12.1 years (1128 069 person-years). The crude incidence rate of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD was 0.97/1000 person-years. The cumulative incidence increased with age, being respectively 2.4% and 1.5% at 20 years in men and women aged 60 years at baseline, while the relative risks for CVD and cancer were 9-16 times higher. The risk of CKD exceeded that of liver outcomes at a baseline age around 50 years. 20-year cumulative incidence of liver-related outcomes was 4.3% in the high, and 1.5% in the low PRS-5 group. The dAAR score associated with liver outcomes, but not with extra-hepatic outcomes.

Conclusion: The absolute risk of liver-related outcomes in NAFLD is low, with much higher risk of CVD and cancer, emphasizing the need for more individualized and holistic risk-stratification in NAFLD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/liv.15004DOI Listing
July 2021

A Dynamic Aspartate-to-Alanine Aminotransferase Ratio Provides Valid Predictions of Incident Severe Liver Disease.

Hepatol Commun 2021 Jun 8;5(6):1021-1035. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Unit of Hepatology Division of Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases Karolinska University Hospital Stockholm Sweden.

The aspartate-to-alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR) is associated with liver fibrosis, but its predictive performance is suboptimal. We hypothesized that the association between AAR and liver disease depends on absolute transaminase levels and developed and validated a model to predict liver-related outcomes in the general population. A Cox regression model based on age, AAR, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level (dynamic AAR [dAAR]) using restricted cubic splines was developed in Finnish population-based health-examination surveys (FINRISK, 2002-2012; n = 18,067) with linked registry data for incident liver-related hospitalizations, hepatocellular carcinoma, or liver death. The model was externally validated for liver-related outcomes in a Swedish population cohort (Swedish Apolipoprotein Mortality Risk [AMORIS] subcohort; n = 126,941) and for predicting outcomes and/or prevalent fibrosis/cirrhosis in biopsied patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), chronic hepatitis C, or alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). The dynamic AAR model predicted liver-related outcomes both overall (optimism-corrected C-statistic, 0.81) and in subgroup analyses of the FINRISK cohort and identified persons with >10% risk for liver-related outcomes within 10 years. In independent cohorts, the C-statistic for predicting liver-related outcomes up to a 10-year follow-up was 0.72 in the AMORIS cohort, 0.81 in NAFLD, and 0.75 in ALD. Area-under-the-curve (AUC) for detecting prevalent cirrhosis was 0.80-0.83 in NAFLD, 0.80 in hepatitis C, but only 0.71 in ALD. In ALD, model performance improved when using aspartate aminotransferase instead of ALT in the model (C-statistic, 0.84 for outcome; AUC, 0.82 for prevalent cirrhosis). A dAAR score provides prospective predictions for the risk of incident severe liver outcomes in the general population and helps detect advanced liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. The dAAR score could potentially be used for screening the unselected general population and as a trigger for further liver evaluations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep4.1700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8183175PMC
June 2021

Taxonomic signatures of cause-specific mortality risk in human gut microbiome.

Nat Commun 2021 05 11;12(1):2671. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division of Medicine, Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

The collection of fecal material and developments in sequencing technologies have enabled standardised and non-invasive gut microbiome profiling. Microbiome composition from several large cohorts have been cross-sectionally linked to various lifestyle factors and diseases. In spite of these advances, prospective associations between microbiome composition and health have remained uncharacterised due to the lack of sufficiently large and representative population cohorts with comprehensive follow-up data. Here, we analyse the long-term association between gut microbiome variation and mortality in a well-phenotyped and representative population cohort from Finland (n = 7211). We report robust taxonomic and functional microbiome signatures related to the Enterobacteriaceae family that are associated with mortality risk during a 15-year follow-up. Our results extend previous cross-sectional studies, and help to establish the basis for examining long-term associations between human gut microbiome composition, incident outcomes, and general health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22962-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8113604PMC
May 2021

HDL-Mediated Cholesterol Efflux Associates with Incident Kidney Disease.

Clin Chem 2021 Mar;67(4):689-691

Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvab024DOI Listing
March 2021

Mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways in blood leukocyte transcriptome decrease after intensive weight loss but are rescued following weight regain in female physique athletes.

FASEB J 2021 04;35(4):e21484

Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, Neuromuscular Research Center, University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland.

Prolonged periods of energy deficit leading to weight loss induce metabolic adaptations resulting in reduced energy expenditure, but the mechanisms for energy conservation are incompletely understood. We examined 42 healthy athletic females (age 27.5 ± 4.0 years, body mass index 23.4 ± 1.7 kg/m ) who volunteered into either a group dieting for physique competition (n = 25) or a control group (n = 17). The diet group substantially reduced their energy intake and moderately increased exercise levels to induce loss of fat mass that was regained during a voluntary weight regain period. The control group maintained their typical lifestyle habits and body mass as instructed. From the diet group, fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline (PRE), after 4- to 5-month weight loss (PRE-MID), and after 4- to 5-month weight regain (MID-POST) as well as from the control group at similar intervals. Blood was analyzed to determine leukocyte transcriptome by RNA-Sequencing and serum metabolome by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) platform. The intensive weight loss period induced several metabolic adaptations, including a prominent suppression of transcriptomic signature for mitochondrial OXPHOS and ribosome biogenesis. The upstream regulator analysis suggested that this reprogramming of cellular energy metabolism may be mediated via AMPK/PGC1-α signaling and mTOR/eIF2 signaling-dependent pathways. Our findings show for the first time that prolonged energy deprivation induced modulation of mitochondrial metabolism can be observed through minimally invasive measures of leukocyte transcriptome and serum metabolome at systemic level, suggesting that adaptation to energy deficit is broader in humans than previously thought.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.202002029RDOI Listing
April 2021

Changes in the fine-scale genetic structure of Finland through the 20th century.

PLoS Genet 2021 03 4;17(3):e1009347. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland, Helsinki Institute of Life Science, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Information about individual-level genetic ancestry is central to population genetics, forensics and genomic medicine. So far, studies have typically considered genetic ancestry on a broad continental level, and there is much less understanding of how more detailed genetic ancestry profiles can be generated and how accurate and reliable they are. Here, we assess these questions by developing a framework for individual-level ancestry estimation within a single European country, Finland, and we apply the framework to track changes in the fine-scale genetic structure throughout the 20th century. We estimate the genetic ancestry for 18,463 individuals from the National FINRISK Study with respect to up to 10 genetically and geographically motivated Finnish reference groups and illustrate the annual changes in the fine-scale genetic structure over the decades from 1920s to 1980s for 12 geographic regions of Finland. We detected major changes after a sudden, internal migration related to World War II from the region of ceded Karelia to the other parts of the country as well as the effect of urbanization starting from the 1950s. We also show that while the level of genetic heterogeneity in general increases towards the present day, its rate of change has considerable differences between the regions. To our knowledge, this is the first study that estimates annual changes in the fine-scale ancestry profiles within a relatively homogeneous European country and demonstrates how such information captures a detailed spatial and temporal history of a population. We provide an interactive website for the general public to examine our results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1009347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7932171PMC
March 2021

Polygenic burden has broader impact on health, cognition, and socioeconomic outcomes than most rare and high-risk copy number variants.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 1. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Copy number variants (CNVs) are associated with syndromic and severe neurological and psychiatric disorders (SNPDs), such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. Although considered high-impact, CNVs are also observed in the general population. This presents a diagnostic challenge in evaluating their clinical significance. To estimate the phenotypic differences between CNV carriers and non-carriers regarding general health and well-being, we compared the impact of SNPD-associated CNVs on health, cognition, and socioeconomic phenotypes to the impact of three genome-wide polygenic risk score (PRS) in two Finnish cohorts (FINRISK, n = 23,053 and NFBC1966, n = 4895). The focus was on CNV carriers and PRS extremes who do not have an SNPD diagnosis. We identified high-risk CNVs (DECIPHER CNVs, risk gene deletions, or large [>1 Mb] CNVs) in 744 study participants (2.66%), 36 (4.8%) of whom had a diagnosed SNPD. In the remaining 708 unaffected carriers, we observed lower educational attainment (EA; OR = 0.77 [95% CI 0.66-0.89]) and lower household income (OR = 0.77 [0.66-0.89]). Income-associated CNVs also lowered household income (OR = 0.50 [0.38-0.66]), and CNVs with medical consequences lowered subjective health (OR = 0.48 [0.32-0.72]). The impact of PRSs was broader. At the lowest extreme of PRS for EA, we observed lower EA (OR = 0.31 [0.26-0.37]), lower-income (OR = 0.66 [0.57-0.77]), lower subjective health (OR = 0.72 [0.61-0.83]), and increased mortality (Cox's HR = 1.55 [1.21-1.98]). PRS for intelligence had a similar impact, whereas PRS for schizophrenia did not affect these traits. We conclude that the majority of working-age individuals carrying high-risk CNVs without SNPD diagnosis have a modest impact on morbidity and mortality, as well as the limited impact on income and educational attainment, compared to individuals at the extreme end of common genetic variation. Our findings highlight that the contribution of traditional high-risk variants such as CNVs should be analyzed in a broader genetic context, rather than evaluated in isolation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01026-zDOI Listing
February 2021

The Role of Inflammatory Cytokines as Intermediates in the Pathway from Increased Adiposity to Disease.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2021 02;29(2):428-437

MRC Integrative Epidemiology Unit at University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the role of cytokines as intermediates in the pathway from increased adiposity to disease.

Methods: BMI and circulating levels of up to 41 cytokines were measured in individuals from three Finnish cohort studies (n = 8,293). Mendelian randomization (MR) was used to assess the impact of BMI on circulating cytokines and the impact of BMI-driven cytokines on risk of obesity-related diseases.

Results: Observationally, BMI was associated with 19 cytokines. For every SD increase in BMI, causal effect estimates were strongest for hepatocyte growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and were as ratios of geometric means 1.13 (95% CI: 1.08-1.19), 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04-1.14), and 1.13 (95% CI: 1.04-1.21), respectively. TRAIL was associated with a small increase in the odds of coronary artery disease (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.00-1.06). There was inconsistent evidence for a protective role of MCP-1 against inflammatory bowel diseases.

Conclusions: Observational and MR estimates of the effect of BMI on cytokine levels were generally concordant. There was little evidence for an effect of raised levels of BMI-driven cytokines on disease. These findings illustrate the challenges of MR when applied in the context of molecular mediation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.23060DOI Listing
February 2021

Low serum vitamin D level associated with incident advanced liver disease in the general population - a prospective study.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Mar 21;56(3):299-303. Epub 2021 Jan 21.

Transplantation and Liver Surgery Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a common finding in chronic liver disease. It has also been linked to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic fibrogenesis, decompensation and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Aims: We analyzed whether serum vitamin D is associated with incident advanced liver disease in the general population.

Methods: Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was measured in 13807 individuals participating in the Finnish population-based health examination surveys FINRISK 1997 and Health 2000. Data were linked with incident advanced liver disease (hospitalization, cancer or death related to liver disease). During a follow-up of 201444 person-years 148 severe liver events occurred. Analyses were performed using multivariable Cox regression analyses.

Results: Vitamin D level associated with incident advanced liver disease with the hazard ratio of 0.972 (95% confidence interval 0.943-0.976,  < .001), when adjusted for age, sex, blood sampling season and stratified by cohort.The association remained robust and significant in multiple different adjustment models adjusting sequentially for 22 potential confounders.

Conclusion: Low vitamin D level is linked to incident advanced liver disease at population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1873412DOI Listing
March 2021

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

Metabolic profiling of angiopoietin-like protein 3 and 4 inhibition: a drug-target Mendelian randomization analysis.

Eur Heart J 2021 03;42(12):1160-1169

Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu and Biocenter Oulu, Oulu, Finland.

Aims: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3) and 4 (ANGPTL4) inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and represent emerging drug targets to lower circulating triglycerides and reduce cardiovascular risk. To investigate the molecular effects of genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 and ANGPTL4 inhibition and compare them to the effects of genetic mimicry of LPL enhancement.

Methods And Results: Associations of genetic variants in ANGPTL3 (rs11207977-T), ANGPTL4 (rs116843064-A), and LPL (rs115849089-A) with an extensive serum lipid and metabolite profile (208 measures) were characterized in six cohorts of up to 61 240 participants. Genetic associations with anthropometric measures, glucose-insulin metabolism, blood pressure, markers of kidney function, and cardiometabolic endpoints via genome-wide summary data were also explored. ANGPTL4 rs116843064-A and LPL rs115849089-A displayed a strikingly similar pattern of associations across the lipoprotein and lipid measures. However, the corresponding associations with ANGPTL3 rs11207977-T differed, including those for low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein particle concentrations and compositions. All three genotypes associated with lower concentrations of an inflammatory biomarker glycoprotein acetyls and genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition and LPL enhancement were also associated with lower C-reactive protein. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower waist-to-hip ratio, improved insulin-glucose metabolism, and lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, whilst genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 was associated with improved kidney function.

Conclusions: Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement have very similar systemic metabolic effects, whereas genetic mimicry of ANGPTL3 inhibition showed differing metabolic effects, suggesting potential involvement of pathways independent of LPL. Genetic mimicry of ANGPTL4 inhibition and LPL enhancement were associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes. These findings reinforce evidence that enhancing LPL activity (either directly or via upstream effects) through pharmacological approaches is likely to yield benefits to human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7982288PMC
March 2021

Genetic Predisposition to Coronary Artery Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 12 13;13(6):e002769. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

The Usher Institute of Population Health Sciences & Informatics (A.D.M.), University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.

Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is accelerated in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D).

Methods: To test whether this reflects differential genetic influences on CAD risk in subjects with T2D, we performed a systematic assessment of genetic overlap between CAD and T2D in 66 643 subjects (27 708 with CAD and 24 259 with T2D). Variants showing apparent association with CAD in stratified analyses or evidence of interaction were evaluated in a further 117 787 subjects (16 694 with CAD and 11 537 with T2D).

Results: None of the previously characterized CAD loci was found to have specific effects on CAD in T2D individuals, and a genome-wide interaction analysis found no new variants for CAD that could be considered T2D specific. When we considered the overall genetic correlations between CAD and its risk factors, we found no substantial differences in these relationships by T2D background.

Conclusions: This study found no evidence that the genetic architecture of CAD differs in those with T2D compared with those without T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748049PMC
December 2020

Association of circulating metabolites in plasma or serum and risk of stroke: Meta-analysis from seven prospective cohorts.

Neurology 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands;

Objective: To conduct a comprehensive analysis of circulating metabolites and incident stroke in large prospective population-based settings.

Methods: We investigated the association of metabolites with risk of stroke in seven prospective cohort studies including 1,791 incident stroke events among 38,797 participants in whom circulating metabolites were measured by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (H-NMR) technology. The relationship between metabolites and stroke was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The analyses were performed considering all incident stroke events and ischemic and hemorrhagic events separately.

Results: The analyses revealed ten significant metabolite associations. Amino acid histidine (hazard ratio (HR) per standard deviation (SD) = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 0.94; = 4.45×10), glycolysis-related metabolite pyruvate (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.14; = 7.45×10), acute phase reaction marker glycoprotein acetyls (HR per SD = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.15; = 1.27×10), cholesterol in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) 2 and several other lipoprotein particles were associated with risk of stroke. When focusing on incident ischemic stroke, a significant association was observed with phenylalanine (HR per SD = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.19; 4.13×10) and total and free cholesterol in large HDL particles.

Conclusions: We found association of amino acids, glycolysis-related metabolites, acute phase reaction markers, and several lipoprotein subfractions with the risk of stroke. These findings support the potential of metabolomics to provide new insights into the metabolic changes preceding stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011236DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055347PMC
December 2020

Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 - Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results.

N Engl J Med 2021 02 2;384(6):497-511. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

The affiliations of the members of the writing and steering committees are as follows: the Nuffield Department of Population Health and Medical Research Council Population Health Research Unit, University of Oxford, Oxford (H.P., R.P.), and the University of Bristol, Bristol (E.A., S.B., H.B.C.C.-P., D.H., J.K., C.A.R., J.A.C.S.) - both in the United Kingdom; the World Health Organization, Geneva (A.-M.H.-R., M.-P.P., V.S., P. Lydon, M.C.M.-M., K.S., S.S.), the University of Bern, Bern (S.A., M.B., S. McGinty, S.T.), and Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne (O.M.) - all in Switzerland; the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa, Durban (Q.A.K.), and the University of the Witwatersrand (J.N.) and the Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Institute (H.R.), Johannesburg - all in South Africa; the Institute of National Epidemiology, National Institutes of Health, University of the Philippines, Manila (M.M.A.); the Agency of Medicine and Medical Devices (C.H.G.) and Hospital Clínico San Carlos, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spanish Clinical Research Network, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria San Carlos (A.P.), Madrid; INSERM, Paris (M.-P.K.), and Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon (F.A.) - both in France; the Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (R.M.); the University of British Columbia, Vancouver (S. Murthy), and the Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa (M.I.S.) - both in Canada; the Public Health Foundation of India, New Delhi (K.S.R.), and the Indian Council of Medical Research, National AIDS Research Institute, Pune (S.G.) - both in India; the National Academy of Sciences of Buenos Aires (M.R.P.) and Fundación del Centro de Estudios Infectológicos (G.L.), Buenos Aires; Rafic Hariri University Hospital (P.A.H.) and the Ministry of Public Health (R.H.), Beirut, Lebanon; the Ministry of Health (A.M.A.-B.) and Infectious Diseases Hospital (A. Alhasawi), Kuwait City, Kuwait; Universidad Nacional de Colombia and Clinica Colsanitas (C.A.A.-M.) and the Ministry of Health (M.L.M.R.), Bogota, Colombia; the Ministry for Preventive Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (A. Asiri, A. Alotaibi); Oslo University Hospital (P.A., A.B.-D.) and Research Council of Norway (J.-A.R.), Oslo; Secretaria de Salud de Honduras (N. Cerrato) and the National Autonomous University of Honduras (M.T.M.), Tegucigalpa; Penang Hospital, Penang (T.S.C.), and Hospital Sungai Buloh and Jalan Hospital, Selangor (S.K.) - both in Malaysia; University Hospital Center Mother Theresa (N. Como) and the National Agency for Medicines and Medical Devices (N.S.), Tirana, Albania; the HRB Clinical Research Facility, University College Cork, Cork (J.E.), and the Department of Health and Children, Dublin (P. Lennon, T.M.) - both in Ireland; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru (P.J.G., E.G.); Vilnius University Hospital Santaros Klinikos (L.G.) and Vilnius University, Institute of Clinical Medicine (L.J.), Vilnius, Lithuania; Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Lahore, Pakistan (M. Hassan, A.R.); the National Hepatology and Tropical Medicine Research Institute (M. Hassany) and the Ministry of Health and Population (H.Z.), Cairo; the National Institute of Health Research and Development (I.I.) and Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat Persahabatan (M.R.R.), Jakarta, Indonesia; the Italian Medicines Agency, Rome (N.M.), and the University of Verona, Verona (E.T.) - both in Italy; the Ministry of Health (S. Manevska) and the University Clinic of Infectious Diseases and Febrile Conditions (M.S.), Skopje, North Macedonia; the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro (E.P.N., P.P.S.R.); and the Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare and the University of Finland (M.P.) and Helsinki University Hospital (K.A.O.T.), Helsinki, and South Karelian Central Hospital, Lappeenranta (K.A.O.T.) - all in Finland.

Background: World Health Organization expert groups recommended mortality trials of four repurposed antiviral drugs - remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon beta-1a - in patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).

Methods: We randomly assigned inpatients with Covid-19 equally between one of the trial drug regimens that was locally available and open control (up to five options, four active and the local standard of care). The intention-to-treat primary analyses examined in-hospital mortality in the four pairwise comparisons of each trial drug and its control (drug available but patient assigned to the same care without that drug). Rate ratios for death were calculated with stratification according to age and status regarding mechanical ventilation at trial entry.

Results: At 405 hospitals in 30 countries, 11,330 adults underwent randomization; 2750 were assigned to receive remdesivir, 954 to hydroxychloroquine, 1411 to lopinavir (without interferon), 2063 to interferon (including 651 to interferon plus lopinavir), and 4088 to no trial drug. Adherence was 94 to 96% midway through treatment, with 2 to 6% crossover. In total, 1253 deaths were reported (median day of death, day 8; interquartile range, 4 to 14). The Kaplan-Meier 28-day mortality was 11.8% (39.0% if the patient was already receiving ventilation at randomization and 9.5% otherwise). Death occurred in 301 of 2743 patients receiving remdesivir and in 303 of 2708 receiving its control (rate ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81 to 1.11; P = 0.50), in 104 of 947 patients receiving hydroxychloroquine and in 84 of 906 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.59; P = 0.23), in 148 of 1399 patients receiving lopinavir and in 146 of 1372 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.25; P = 0.97), and in 243 of 2050 patients receiving interferon and in 216 of 2050 receiving its control (rate ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.39; P = 0.11). No drug definitely reduced mortality, overall or in any subgroup, or reduced initiation of ventilation or hospitalization duration.

Conclusions: These remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir, and interferon regimens had little or no effect on hospitalized patients with Covid-19, as indicated by overall mortality, initiation of ventilation, and duration of hospital stay. (Funded by the World Health Organization; ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN83971151; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04315948.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2023184DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7727327PMC
February 2021

An epigenome-wide association study of metabolic syndrome and its components.

Sci Rep 2020 11 25;10(1):20567. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Genomics and Biobank Unit, Department of Public Health Solutions, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Biomedicum 1, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00290, Helsinki, Finland.

The role of metabolic syndrome (MetS) as a preceding metabolic state for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is widely recognised. To accumulate knowledge of the pathological mechanisms behind the condition at the methylation level, we conducted an epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) of MetS and its components, testing 1187 individuals of European ancestry for approximately 470 000 methylation sites throughout the genome. Methylation site cg19693031 in gene TXNIP -previously associated with type 2 diabetes, glucose and lipid metabolism, associated with fasting glucose level (P = 1.80 × 10). Cg06500161 in gene ABCG1 associated both with serum triglycerides (P = 5.36 × 10) and waist circumference (P = 5.21 × 10). The previously identified type 2 diabetes-associated locus cg08309687 in chromosome 21 associated with waist circumference for the first time (P = 2.24 × 10). Furthermore, a novel HDL association with cg17901584 in chromosome 1 was identified (P = 7.81 × 10). Our study supports previous genetic studies of MetS, finding that lipid metabolism plays a key role in pathology of the syndrome. We provide evidence regarding a close interplay with glucose metabolism. Finally, we suggest that in attempts to identify methylation loci linking separate MetS components, cg19693031 appears to represent a strong candidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77506-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688654PMC
November 2020

Genetic predisposition to hypertension is associated with preeclampsia in European and Central Asian women.

Nat Commun 2020 11 25;11(1):5976. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Preeclampsia is a serious complication of pregnancy, affecting both maternal and fetal health. In genome-wide association meta-analysis of European and Central Asian mothers, we identify sequence variants that associate with preeclampsia in the maternal genome at ZNF831/20q13 and FTO/16q12. These are previously established variants for blood pressure (BP) and the FTO variant has also been associated with body mass index (BMI). Further analysis of BP variants establishes that variants at MECOM/3q26, FGF5/4q21 and SH2B3/12q24 also associate with preeclampsia through the maternal genome. We further show that a polygenic risk score for hypertension associates with preeclampsia. However, comparison with gestational hypertension indicates that additional factors modify the risk of preeclampsia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19733-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688949PMC
November 2020

Discovery of rare variants associated with blood pressure regulation through meta-analysis of 1.3 million individuals.

Nat Genet 2020 12 23;52(12):1314-1332. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Herlev and Gentofte Hospital, Copenhagen University Hospital, Herlev, Denmark.

Genetic studies of blood pressure (BP) to date have mainly analyzed common variants (minor allele frequency > 0.05). In a meta-analysis of up to ~1.3 million participants, we discovered 106 new BP-associated genomic regions and 87 rare (minor allele frequency ≤ 0.01) variant BP associations (P < 5 × 10), of which 32 were in new BP-associated loci and 55 were independent BP-associated single-nucleotide variants within known BP-associated regions. Average effects of rare variants (44% coding) were ~8 times larger than common variant effects and indicate potential candidate causal genes at new and known loci (for example, GATA5 and PLCB3). BP-associated variants (including rare and common) were enriched in regions of active chromatin in fetal tissues, potentially linking fetal development with BP regulation in later life. Multivariable Mendelian randomization suggested possible inverse effects of elevated systolic and diastolic BP on large artery stroke. Our study demonstrates the utility of rare-variant analyses for identifying candidate genes and the results highlight potential therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00713-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610439PMC
December 2020

A data-driven medication score predicts 10-year mortality among aging adults.

Sci Rep 2020 09 25;10(1):15760. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Institute for Molecular Medicine Finland FIMM, HiLIFE, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Health differences among the elderly and the role of medical treatments are topical issues in aging societies. We demonstrate the use of modern statistical learning methods to develop a data-driven health measure based on 21 years of pharmacy purchase and mortality data of 12,047 aging individuals. The resulting score was validated with 33,616 individuals from two fully independent datasets and it is strongly associated with all-cause mortality (HR 1.18 per point increase in score; 95% CI 1.14-1.22; p = 2.25e-16). When combined with Charlson comorbidity index, individuals with elevated medication score and comorbidity index had over six times higher risk (HR 6.30; 95% CI 3.84-10.3; AUC = 0.802) compared to individuals with a protective score profile. Alone, the medication score performs similarly to the Charlson comorbidity index and is associated with polygenic risk for coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72045-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519677PMC
September 2020

Diabetes is associated with familial idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus: a case-control comparison with family members.

Fluids Barriers CNS 2020 Sep 15;17(1):57. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Neurosurgery, Kuopio University Hospital, P.O.Box 100, 70029, Kuopio, KYS, Finland.

Background: The pathophysiological basis of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is still unclear. Previous studies have shown a familial aggregation and a potential heritability when it comes to iNPH. Our aim was to conduct a novel case-controlled comparison between familial iNPH (fNPH) patients and their elderly relatives, involving multiple different families.

Methods: Questionnaires and phone interviews were used for collecting the data and categorising the iNPH patients into the familial (fNPH) and the sporadic groups. Identical questionnaires were sent to the relatives of the potential fNPH patients. Venous blood samples were collected for genetic studies. The disease histories of the probable fNPH patients (n = 60) were compared with their ≥ 60-year-old relatives with no iNPH (n = 49). A modified Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was used to measure the overall disease burden. Fisher's exact test (two-tailed), the Mann-Whitney U test (two-tailed) and a multivariate binary logistic regression analysis were used to perform the statistical analyses.

Results: Diabetes (32% vs. 14%, p = 0.043), arterial hypertension (65.0% vs. 43%, p = 0.033), cardiac insufficiency (16% vs. 2%, p = 0.020) and depressive symptoms (32% vs. 8%, p = 0.004) were overrepresented among the probable fNPH patients compared to their non-iNPH relatives. In the age-adjusted multivariate logistic regression analysis, diabetes remained independently associated with fNPH (OR = 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-12.9, p = 0.030).

Conclusions: Diabetes is associated with fNPH and a possible risk factor for fNPH. Diabetes could contribute to the pathogenesis of iNPH/fNPH, which motivates to further prospective and gene-environmental studies to decipher the disease modelling of iNPH/fNPH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12987-020-00217-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493374PMC
September 2020

A cross-omics integrative study of metabolic signatures of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

BMC Pulm Med 2020 Jul 16;20(1):193. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common lung disorder characterized by persistent and progressive airflow limitation as well as systemic changes. Metabolic changes in blood may help detect COPD in an earlier stage and predict prognosis.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive study of circulating metabolites, measured by proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, in relation with COPD and lung function. The discovery sample consisted of 5557 individuals from two large population-based studies in the Netherlands, the Rotterdam Study and the Erasmus Rucphen Family study. Significant findings were replicated in 12,205 individuals from the Lifelines-DEEP study, FINRISK and the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) studies. For replicated metabolites further investigation of causality was performed, utilizing genetics in the Mendelian randomization approach.

Results: There were 602 cases of COPD and 4955 controls used in the discovery meta-analysis. Our logistic regression results showed that higher levels of plasma Glycoprotein acetyls (GlycA) are significantly associated with COPD (OR = 1.16, P = 5.6 × 10 in the discovery and OR = 1.30, P = 1.8 × 10 in the replication sample). A bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis suggested that circulating blood GlycA is not causally related to COPD, but that COPD causally increases GlycA levels. Using the prospective data of the same sample of Rotterdam Study in Cox-regression, we show that the circulating GlycA level is a predictive biomarker of COPD incidence (HR = 1.99, 95%CI 1.52-2.60, comparing those in the highest and lowest quartile of GlycA) but is not significantly associated with mortality in COPD patients (HR = 1.07, 95%CI 0.94-1.20).

Conclusions: Our study shows that circulating blood GlycA is a biomarker of early COPD pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12890-020-01222-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7364599PMC
July 2020

Identification, Heritability, and Relation With Gene Expression of Novel DNA Methylation Loci for Blood Pressure.

Hypertension 2020 07 10;76(1):195-205. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Endocrinology (B.H.R.W., J.V.v.V.-O.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with <1×10. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (<1×10) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with <0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 () and cg00716257 () determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295009PMC
July 2020

Rare protein-altering variants in ANGPTL7 lower intraocular pressure and protect against glaucoma.

PLoS Genet 2020 05 5;16(5):e1008682. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Biomedical Data Science, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Protein-altering variants that are protective against human disease provide in vivo validation of therapeutic targets. Here we use genotyping data from UK Biobank (n = 337,151 unrelated White British individuals) and FinnGen (n = 176,899) to conduct a search for protein-altering variants conferring lower intraocular pressure (IOP) and protection against glaucoma. Through rare protein-altering variant association analysis, we find a missense variant in ANGPTL7 in UK Biobank (rs28991009, p.Gln175His, MAF = 0.8%, genotyped in 82,253 individuals with measured IOP and an independent set of 4,238 glaucoma patients and 250,660 controls) that significantly lowers IOP (β = -0.53 and -0.67 mmHg for heterozygotes, -3.40 and -2.37 mmHg for homozygotes, P = 5.96 x 10-9 and 1.07 x 10-13 for corneal compensated and Goldman-correlated IOP, respectively) and is associated with 34% reduced risk of glaucoma (P = 0.0062). In FinnGen, we identify an ANGPTL7 missense variant at a greater than 50-fold increased frequency in Finland compared with other populations (rs147660927, p.Arg220Cys, MAF Finland = 4.3%), which was genotyped in 6,537 glaucoma patients and 170,362 controls and is associated with a 29% lower glaucoma risk (P = 1.9 x 10-12 for all glaucoma types and also protection against its subtypes including exfoliation, primary open-angle, and primary angle-closure). We further find three rarer variants in UK Biobank, including a protein-truncating variant, which confer a strong composite lowering of IOP (P = 0.0012 and 0.24 for Goldman-correlated and corneal compensated IOP, respectively), suggesting the protective mechanism likely resides in the loss of interaction or function. Our results support inhibition or down-regulation of ANGPTL7 as a therapeutic strategy for glaucoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1008682DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7199928PMC
May 2020

Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G is regulated by a large network of genes pleiotropic with inflammatory diseases.

Sci Adv 2020 02 19;6(8):eaax0301. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.

Effector functions of immunoglobulin G (IgG) are regulated by the composition of a glycan moiety, thus affecting activity of the immune system. Aberrant glycosylation of IgG has been observed in many diseases, but little is understood about the underlying mechanisms. We performed a genome-wide association study of IgG N-glycosylation ( = 8090) and, using a data-driven network approach, suggested how associated loci form a functional network. We confirmed in vitro that knockdown of decreases the expression of fucosyltransferase FUT8, resulting in increased levels of fucosylated glycans, and suggest that RUNX1 and RUNX3, together with SMARCB1, regulate expression of glycosyltransferase MGAT3. We also show that variants affecting the expression of genes involved in the regulation of glycoenzymes colocalize with variants affecting risk for inflammatory diseases. This study provides new evidence that variation in key transcription factors coupled with regulatory variation in glycogenes modifies IgG glycosylation and has influence on inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aax0301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7030929PMC
February 2020

Apolipoprotein A-I concentrations and risk of coronary artery disease: A Mendelian randomization study.

Atherosclerosis 2020 04 14;299:56-63. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Computational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Center for Life Course Health Research, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland; National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) infusions represent a potential novel therapeutic approach for the prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Although circulating apoA-I concentrations inversely associate with risk of CAD, the evidence base of this representing a causal relationship is lacking. The aim was to assess the causal role of apoA-I using human genetics.

Methods: We identified a variant (rs12225230) in APOA1 locus that associated with circulating apoA-I concentrations (p < 5 × 10) in 20,370 Finnish participants, and meta-analyzed our data with a previous GWAS of apoA-I. We obtained genetic estimates of CAD from UK Biobank and CARDIoGRAMplusC4D (totaling 122,733 CAD cases) and conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization analysis. We compared our genetic findings to observational associations of apoA-I with risk of CAD in 918 incident CAD cases among 11,535 individuals from population-based prospective cohorts.

Results: ApoA-I was associated with a lower risk of CAD in observational analyses (HR 0.81; 95%CI: 0.75, 0.88; per 1-SD higher apoA-I), with the association showing a dose-response relationship. Rs12225230 associated with apoA-I concentrations (per-C allele beta 0.076 SD; SE: 0.013; p = 1.5 × 10) but not with confounders. In Mendelian randomization analyses, apoA-I was not related to risk of CAD (OR 1.13; 95%CI: 0.98,1.30 per 1-SD higher apoA-I), which was different from the observational association. Similar findings were observed using an independent ABCA1 variant in sensitivity analysis.

Conclusions: Genetic evidence fails to support a cardioprotective role for apoA-I. This is in line with the cumulative evidence showing that HDL-related phenotypes are unlikely to have a protective role in CAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2020.02.002DOI Listing
April 2020

Genome-wide Association Analysis in Humans Links Nucleotide Metabolism to Leukocyte Telomere Length.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 03 27;106(3):389-404. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, University of Leicester, LE3 9QP, United Kingdom; NIHR Leicester Biomedical Research Centre, Glenfield Hospital, Leicester, LE3 9QP, United Kingdom.

Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a heritable biomarker of genomic aging. In this study, we perform a genome-wide meta-analysis of LTL by pooling densely genotyped and imputed association results across large-scale European-descent studies including up to 78,592 individuals. We identify 49 genomic regions at a false dicovery rate (FDR) < 0.05 threshold and prioritize genes at 31, with five highlighting nucleotide metabolism as an important regulator of LTL. We report six genome-wide significant loci in or near SENP7, MOB1B, CARMIL1, PRRC2A, TERF2, and RFWD3, and our results support recently identified PARP1, POT1, ATM, and MPHOSPH6 loci. Phenome-wide analyses in >350,000 UK Biobank participants suggest that genetically shorter telomere length increases the risk of hypothyroidism and decreases the risk of thyroid cancer, lymphoma, and a range of proliferative conditions. Our results replicate previously reported associations with increased risk of coronary artery disease and lower risk for multiple cancer types. Our findings substantially expand current knowledge on genes that regulate LTL and their impact on human health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7058826PMC
March 2020

Serum lipopolysaccharides predict advanced liver disease in the general population.

JHEP Rep 2019 Nov 23;1(5):345-352. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Transplantation and Liver Surgery Clinic, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background & Aims: Gut-derived endotoxemia has been implicated in the development of chronic liver disease, but its relevance at the population level remains unclear. We analyzed whether endotoxemia is associated with incident advanced liver disease in the general population.

Methods: Serum lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured in 6,727 (3,455 male and 3,272 female, mean age 53.4 ± 10.9 years, mean body mass index 27.2 ± 4.5) individuals participating in the Finnish population-based health examination survey FINRISK 1997. Data were linked with electronic health registers for incident advanced liver disease (hospitalization, cancer or death related to liver disease). During a mean follow-up of 16.3 ± 3.8 years (109,282 person-years), 86 liver events occurred. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier analyses were performed.

Results: Serum LPS predicted incident advanced liver disease with a hazard ratio per 1 SD of 1.41 (95% CI 1.24-1.59; ≪0.001) when adjusted for age, sex, gamma-glutamyltransferase, metabolic syndrome, alcohol use, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 () I148M, waist-hip ratio and type 2 diabetes. This association remained robustly significant in additional multivariate analyses with various levels of adjustment. The association was accentuated among carriers of the risk variant. The population attributable fraction of the highest LPS tertile for liver events was 29.7%. However, LPS was not associated with all-cause mortality.

Conclusion: Serum LPS is associated with hospitalization, cancer or death related to liver disease in the general population, with the highest tertile potentially accounting for 30% of the risk of liver disease.

Lay Summary: Lipopolysaccharide, a gut-derived bacterial endotoxin, has been implicated in the development of chronic liver disease, but its relevance at the population level remains unclear. We found that serum lipopolysaccharide levels were associated with incident advanced liver disease in the general population, with the highest tertile accounting for up to 30% of the risk of hospitalization, cancer or death related to liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhepr.2019.09.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7005654PMC
November 2019