Publications by authors named "Markus Furger"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Characteristics and sources of hourly elements in PM and PM during wintertime in Beijing.

Environ Pollut 2021 Jun 3;278:116865. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232, Villigen, PSI, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Characteristics and sources of ambient particle elements in urban Beijing were studied by hourly observations in two size fractions (PM and PM) during November and December 2017 using an online multi-element analyzer. The reconstructed oxide concentrations of 24 elements (from Al to Pb) comprise an appreciable fraction of PM and PM accounting for 37% and 17%, respectively on average. We demonstrate the benefit of using high-time-resolution chemical speciation data in achieving robust source apportionment of the total elemental PM (PM) and elemental PM (PM) mass using positive matrix factorization (PMF). Biomass burning, coal combustion, secondary sulfate, industry, non-exhaust traffic and dust were identified in both size fractions (with varying relative concentrations), which accounted on average for 4%, 12%, 5%, 2%, 14%, and 63%, respectively to the total PM, and 14%, 35%, 21%, 6%, 12% and 12%, respectively to the total PM. Biomass burning and coal combustion exhibited higher concentrations during haze episodes of the heating season. In contrast, secondary sulfate and industry contributed more to haze episodes during the non-heating season. The fractional contribution of dust was mostly high during clean days, while the fractional non-exhaust traffic emission contribution was similar throughout the measurement period. The non-exhaust traffic emissions contributed locally, while the remaining sources were dominated by neighboring areas. Furthermore, trajectory analysis showed that the origin of the industrial sources roughly agreed with the locations of the main point sources. Overall, this work provides detailed information on the characteristics of the elements during different haze events during heating and non-heating seasons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2021.116865DOI Listing
June 2021

Real-time measurement and source apportionment of elements in Delhi's atmosphere.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Nov 23;742:140332. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Delhi, the capital of India, suffers from heavy local emissions as well as regional transport of air pollutants, resulting in severe aerosol loadings. To determine the sources of these pollutants, we have quantified the mass concentrations of 26 elements in airborne particles, measured by an online X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with time resolution between 30 min and 1 h. Measurements of PM and PM (particulate matter <10 μm and < 2.5 μm) were conducted during two consecutive winters (2018 and 2019) in Delhi. On average, 26 elements from Al to Pb made up ~25% and ~19% of the total PM mass (271 μg m and 300 μg m) in 2018 and 2019, respectively. Nine different aerosol sources were identified during both winters using positive matrix factorization (PMF), including dust, non-exhaust, an S-rich factor, two solid fuel combustion (SFC) factors and four industrial/combustion factors related to plume events (Cr-Ni-Mn, Cu-Cd-Pb, Pb-Sn-Se and Cl-Br-Se). All factors were resolved in both size ranges (but varying relative concentrations), comprising the following contributions to the elemental PM mass (in % average for 2018 and 2019): Cl-Br-Se (41.5%, 36.9%), dust (27.6%, 28.7%), non-exhaust (16.2%, 13.7%), S-rich (6.9%, 9.2%), SFC1 + SFC2 (4%, 7%), Pb-Sn-Se (2.3%, 1.66%), Cu-Cd-Pb (0.67%, 2.2%) and Cr-Ni-Mn (0.57%, 0.47%). Most of these sources had the highest relative contributions during late night (22:00 local time (LT)) and early morning hours (between 03:00 to 08:00 LT), which is consistent with enhanced emissions into a shallow boundary layer. Modelling of airmass source geography revealed that the Pb-Sn-Se, Cl-Br-Se and SFC2 factors prevailed for northwest winds (Pakistan, Punjab, Haryana and Delhi), while the Cu-Cd-Pb and S-rich factors originated from east (Nepal and Uttar Pradesh) and the Cr-Ni-Mn factor from northeast (Uttar Pradesh). In contrast, SFC1, dust and non-exhaust were not associated with any specific wind direction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.140332DOI Listing
November 2020

Real-world emission factors for antimony and other brake wear related trace elements: size-segregated values for light and heavy duty vehicles.

Environ Sci Technol 2009 Nov;43(21):8072-8

Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, CH-8600 Duebendorf, Switzerland.

Hourly trace element measurements were performed in an urban street canyon and next to an interurban freeway in Switzerland during more than one month each, deploying a rotating drum impactor (RDI) and subsequent sample analysis by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF). Antimony and other brake wear associated elements were detected in three particle size ranges (2.5-10, 1-2.5, and 0.1-1 microm). The hourly measurements revealed that the effect of resuspended road dust has to be taken into account for the calculation of vehicle emission factors. Individual values for light and heavy duty vehicles were obtained for stop-and-go traffic in the urban street canyon. Mass based brake wear emissions were predominantly found in the coarse particle fraction. For antimony, determined emission factors were 11 +/- 7 and 86 +/- 42 microg km(-1) vehicle(-1) for light and heavy duty vehicles, respectively. Antimony emissions along the interurban freeway with free-flowing traffic were significantly lower. Relative patterns for brake wear related elements were very similar for both considered locations. Beside vehicle type specific brake wear emissions, road dust resuspension was found to be a dominant contributor of antimony in the street canyon.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es9006096DOI Listing
November 2009