Publications by authors named "Marko Lehtonen"

98 Publications

Metabolomics of Synovial Fluid and Infrapatellar Fat Pad in Patients with Osteoarthritis or Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Inflammation 2022 Jan 18. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Institute of Biomedicine, School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Osteoarthritis (OA) and autoimmune-driven rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are inflammatory joint diseases with complex and insufficiently understood pathogeneses. Our objective was to characterize the metabolic fingerprints of synovial fluid (SF) and its adjacent infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) obtained during the same surgical operation from OA and RA knees. Non-targeted metabolite profiling was performed for 5 non-inflammatory trauma controls, 10 primary OA (pOA) patients, and 10 seropositive RA patients with high-resolution mass spectrometry-based techniques, and metabolites were matched with known metabolite identities. Groupwise differences in metabolic features were analyzed with the univariate Welch's t-test and the multivariate linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Significant discrimination of metabolite profiles was discovered by LDA for both SF and IFP and by PCA for SF based on diagnosis. In addition to a few drug-derived substances, there were 16 and 13 identified metabolites with significant differences between the diagnoses in SF and IFP, respectively. The pathways downregulated in RA included androgen, bile acid, amino acid, and histamine metabolism, and those upregulated included biotin metabolism in pOA and purine metabolism in RA and pOA. The RA-induced downregulation of androgen and bile acid metabolism was observed for both SF and IFP. The levels of 11 lipid metabolites, mostly glycerophospholipids and fatty acid amides, were also altered by these inflammatory conditions. The identified metabolic pathways could be utilized in the future to deepen our understanding of the pathogeneses of OA and RA and to develop not only biomarkers for their early diagnosis but also therapeutic targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-021-01604-xDOI Listing
January 2022

Effect of intravenous ghrelin administration, combined with alcohol, on circulating metabolome in heavy drinking individuals with alcohol use disorder.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2021 Nov 30;45(11):2207-2216. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology Section, Translational Addiction Medicine Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse Intramural Research Program and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Division of Intramural Clinical and Biological Research, Baltimore and Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

Background: Ghrelin may influence several alcohol-related behaviors in animals and humans by modulating central and/or peripheral biological pathways. The aim of this exploratory analysis was to investigate associations between ghrelin administration and the human circulating metabolome during alcohol exposure in nontreatment seeking, heavy drinking individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD).

Methods: We used serum samples from a randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study with intravenous (IV) ghrelin or placebo infusion in two experiments. During each session, participants received a loading dose (3 µg/kg) followed by continuous infusion (16.9 ng/kg/min) of acyl ghrelin or placebo. The first experiment included an IV alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA) session and the second experiment included an IV alcohol clamp (IV-AC) session, both with the counterbalanced infusion of ghrelin or placebo. Serum metabolite profiles were analyzed from repeated blood samples collected during each session.

Results: In both experiments, ghrelin infusion was associated with an altered serum metabolite profile, including significantly increased levels of cortisol (IV-ASA q-value = 0.0003 and IV-AC q < 0.0001), corticosterone (IV-ASA q = 0.0202 and IV-AC q < 0.0001), and glycochenodeoxycholic acid (IV-ASA q = 0.0375 and IV-AC q = 0.0013). In the IV-ASA experiment, ghrelin infusion increased levels of cortisone (q = 0.0352) and fatty acids 18:1 (q = 0.0406) and 18:3 (q = 0.0320). Moreover, in the IV-AC experiment, ghrelin infusion significantly increased levels of glycocholic acid (q < 0.0001) and phenylalanine (q = 0.0458).

Conclusion: IV ghrelin infusion, combined with IV alcohol administration, was associated with increases in the circulating metabolite levels of corticosteroids and glycine-conjugated bile acids, among other changes. Further research is needed to understand the role that metabolomic changes play in the complex interaction between ghrelin and alcohol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14719DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8642277PMC
November 2021

Low-Dose Doxycycline Treatment Normalizes Levels of Some Salivary Metabolites Associated with Oral Microbiota in Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

Metabolites 2021 Sep 3;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 3.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, 70210 Kuopio, Finland.

Saliva is a complex oral fluid, and plays a major role in oral health. Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS), as an autoimmune disease that typically causes hyposalivation. In the present study, salivary metabolites were studied from stimulated saliva samples ( = 15) of female patients with pSS in a group treated with low-dose doxycycline (LDD), saliva samples ( = 10) of non-treated female patients with pSS, and saliva samples ( = 14) of healthy age-matched females as controls. Saliva samples were analyzed with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based on the non-targeted metabolomics method. The saliva metabolite profile differed between pSS patients and the healthy control (HC). In the pSS patients, the LDD treatment normalized saliva levels of several metabolites, including tyrosine glutamine dipeptide, phenylalanine isoleucine dipeptide, valine leucine dipeptide, phenylalanine, pantothenic acid (vitamin B5), urocanic acid, and salivary lipid cholesteryl palmitic acid (CE 16:0), to levels seen in the saliva samples of the HC. In conclusion, the data showed that pSS is associated with an altered saliva metabolite profile compared to the HC and that the LLD treatment normalized levels of several metabolites associated with dysbiosis of oral microbiota in pSS patients. The role of the saliva metabolome in pSS pathology needs to be further studied to clarify if saliva metabolite levels can be used to predict or monitor the progress and treatment of pSS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo11090595DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470364PMC
September 2021

Ganciclovir and Its Hemocompatible More Lipophilic Derivative Can Enhance the Apoptotic Effects of Methotrexate by Inhibiting Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 20;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 20.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Efflux transporters, namely ATP-binding cassette (ABC), are one of the primary reasons for cancer chemoresistance and the clinical failure of chemotherapy. Ganciclovir (GCV) is an antiviral agent used in herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-TK) gene therapy. In this therapy, HSV-TK gene is delivered together with GCV into cancer cells to activate the phosphorylation process of GCV to active GCV-triphosphate, a DNA polymerase inhibitor. However, GCV interacts with efflux transporters that are responsible for the resistance of HSV-TK/GCV therapy. In the present study, it was explored whether GCV and its more lipophilic derivative () could inhibit effluxing of another chemotherapeutic, methotrexate (MTX), out of the human breast cancer cells. Firstly, it was found that the combination of GCV and MTX was more hemocompatible than the corresponding combination with compound . Secondly, both GCV and compound enhanced the cellular accumulation of MTX in MCF-7 cells, the MTX exposure being 13-21 times greater compared to the MTX uptake alone. Subsequently, this also reduced the number of viable cells (41-56%) and increased the number of late apoptotic cells (46-55%). Moreover, both GCV and compound were found to interact with breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) more effectively than multidrug-resistant proteins (MRPs) in these cells. Since the expression of BCRP was higher in MCF-7 cells than in MDA-MB-231 cells, and the cellular uptake of GCV and compound was smaller but increased in the presence of BCRP-selective inhibitor (Fumitremorgin C) in MCF-7 cells, we concluded that the improved apoptotic effects of higher MTX exposure were raised mainly from the inhibition of BCRP-mediated efflux of MTX. However, the effects of GCV and its derivatives on MTX metabolism and the quantitative expression of MTX metabolizing enzymes in various cancer cells need to be studied more thoroughly in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303380PMC
July 2021

MATERNAL AND FETAL BUPRENORPHINE PHARMACOKINETICS IN PREGNANT SHEEP DURING TRANSDERMAL PATCH DOSING: Buprenorphine pharmacokinetics in pregnant sheep.

Eur J Pharm Sci 2021 Oct 14;165:105936. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Buprenorphine is used in the opioid maintenance treatment for opioid dependent patients, including pregnant women. Despite the wide use, limited data exists on buprenorphine pharmacokinetics and fetal exposure during pregnancy. The aim of our study was to determine the buprenorphine pharmacokinetics during transdermal patch dosing to pregnant sheep and, to determine the extent of transplacental transfer of buprenorphine to the fetus.

Methods: Pregnant sheep in late gestation (n=50) received 20, 25 or 40 µg/h of buprenorphine as a 7-day extended-release transdermal patch. Plasma samples were collected from the ewe and the fetus on days 1 - 6, and buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine concentrations were determined. During the exposure period the sheep had a surgical procedure on the second day, a recovery phase, and an experimental procedure on the sixth day. In the experiment, hypoxia was induced under anesthesia for 18 sheep to investigate if decreased fetal pH would cause ion-trapping of buprenorphine in the fetus. The fetal/maternal plasma concentration ratio was determined on the second and on the sixth exposure day at baseline and during hypoxia. Maternal pharmacokinetics were modelled with a population pharmacokinetic method using the data from this study and our previous intravenous administration study.

Results: The transdermal patch provided an extended release of buprenorphine throughout the exposure period, but the release rate declined approximately 20 h after patch placement. The median fetal/maternal plasma concentration ratio was 13 - 27 % throughout the exposure period at baseline. A ratio over 100 % was observed for four sheep on the sixth exposure day (102 - 269 %). A minor increase was seen in the median fetal/maternal-ratios during maternal hypoxia. Norbuprenorphine was undetected in all plasma samples.

Conclusions: The low transplacental passage of less than one fourth of the ewe's exposure supports buprenorphine as an alternative to methadone in opioid maintenance therapy during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2021.105936DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular characteristics supporting l-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-mediated translocation.

Bioorg Chem 2021 07 22;112:104921. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address:

l-Type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is an interesting protein due to its peculiar expression profile. It can be utilized not only as a carrier for improved or targeted drug delivery, e.g., into the brain but also as a target protein by which amino acid supply can be restricted, e.g., from the cancer cells. The recognition and binding processes of LAT1-ligands, such as amino acids and clinically used small molecules, including l-dopa, gabapentin, and melphalan, are today well-known. Binding to LAT1 is crucial, particularly when designing the LAT1-inhibitors. However, it will not guarantee effective translocation across the cell membrane via LAT1, which is a definite requirement for LAT1-substrates, such as drugs that elicit their pharmacological effects inside the cells. Therefore, in the present study, the accumulation of known LAT1-utilizing compounds into the selected LAT1-expressing cancer cells (MCF-7) was explored experimentally over a time period. The differences found among the transport efficiency and affinity of the studied compounds for LAT1 were subsequently explained by docking the ligands into the human LAT1 model (based on the recent cryo-electron microscopy structure). Thus, the findings of this study clarify the favorable structural requirements of the size, shape, and polarity of the ligands that support the translocation and effective transport across the cell membrane via LAT1. This knowledge can be applied in future drug design to attain improved or targeted drug delivery and hence, successful LAT1-utilizing drugs with increased therapeutic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104921DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes in the metabolic profile of human male postmortem frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid samples associated with heavy alcohol use.

Addict Biol 2021 11 21;26(6):e13035. Epub 2021 Mar 21.

Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University and Fimlab Laboratories Ltd, Tampere University Hospital Region, Kuopio, Finland.

Heavy alcohol use is one of the top causes of disease and death in the world. The brain is a key organ affected by heavy alcohol use. Here, our aim was to measure changes caused by heavy alcohol use in the human brain metabolic profile. We analyzed human postmortem frontal cortex and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from males with a history of heavy alcohol use (n = 74) and controls (n = 74) of the Tampere Sudden Death Series cohort. We used a nontargeted liquid chromatography mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method. We observed differences between the study groups in the metabolite levels of both frontal cortex and CSF samples, for example, in amino acids and derivatives, and acylcarnitines. There were more significant alterations in the metabolites of frontal cortex than in CSF. In the frontal cortex, significant alterations were seen in the levels of neurotransmitters (e.g., decreased levels of GABA and acetylcholine), acylcarnitines (e.g., increased levels of acylcarnitine 4:0), and in some metabolites associated with alcohol metabolizing enzymes (e.g., increased levels of 2-piperidone). Some of these changes were also significant in the CSF samples (e.g., elevated 2-piperidone levels). Overall, these results show the metabolites associated with neurotransmitters, energy metabolism and alcohol metabolism, were altered in human postmortem frontal cortex and CSF samples of persons with a history of heavy alcohol use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/adb.13035DOI Listing
November 2021

Pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in pregnant sheep after intravenous injection.

Pharmacol Res Perspect 2021 04;9(2):e00726

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio, Finland.

Buprenorphine is a semi-synthetic opioid, widely used in the maintenance treatment for opioid-dependent pregnant women. Limited data exist on the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine in pregnancy. We conducted a pharmacokinetic study to determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous buprenorphine in pregnant sheep. Fourteen pregnant sheep in late gestation received 10 µg/kg of buprenorphine as an intravenous bolus injection. Plasma samples were collected up to 48 h after administration. Buprenorphine and its metabolite, norbuprenorphine, were quantified from plasma using a LC/MS/MS method, with lower limits of quantification of 0.01 µg/L and 0.04 µg/L for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using noncompartmental analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters, median (minimum-maximum), were C 4.31 µg/L (1.93-15.5), AUC 2.89 h*µg/L (1.72-40.2), CL 3.39 L/h/kg (0.25-6.02), terminal t½ 1.75 h (1.07-31.0), V 8.04 L/kg (1.05-49.3). Norbuprenorphine was undetected in all plasma samples. The median clearance in pregnant sheep was higher than previously reported for nonpregnant sheep and human (male) subjects. Our sensitive analytical method was able to detect long terminal half-lives for six subjects, and a wide between-subject variability in the study population. Significance statement: Buprenorphine is widely used for the treatment of opioid use disorder in pregnancy. However, limited data exist on the pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine during pregnancy. As this type of study cannot be done in humans due to ethical reasons, we conducted a study in pregnant sheep. This study provides pharmacokinetic data on buprenorphine in pregnant sheep and helps us to understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/prp2.726DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7899927PMC
April 2021

Species differences in the intra-brain distribution of an L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) -utilizing compound between mice and rats.

Int J Pharm 2021 Mar 1;596:120300. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

The prodrug approach targeting influx transporters has been extensively studied as a means of central nervous system drug delivery. Transporter and enzyme expression, localization and activity may contribute to significant species differences in preclinical studies. However, data about the possible species differences in the intra-brain distribution of transporter utilizing compounds is scarce. Here, we investigated the species differences in the intra-brain distribution of an L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1)-utilizing L-lysine analogue of ketoprofen (KPF) (compound 1) and KPF itself by the whole tissue and brain microdialysis methods in mice, and compared the results to those previously reported in rats. Their pharmacodynamic responses in both species were assessed by measuring the brain prostaglandin E (PGE) levels by LC-MS/MS. The intracellular delivery of compound 1 was much lower in mice than in rats. Higher target site concentrations of compound 1 and released KPF were reflected on a more pronounced effect on PGE levels in the rat brain. In conclusion, these results highlight the need for cross-species characterization of prodrug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in preclinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120300DOI Listing
March 2021

A non-targeted LC-MS metabolic profiling of pregnancy: longitudinal evidence from healthy and pre-eclamptic pregnancies.

Metabolomics 2021 01 29;17(2):20. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Maternal metabolism changes substantially during pregnancy. However, few studies have used metabolomics technologies to characterize changes across gestation.

Objectives And Methods: We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of serum differs throughout the pregnancy between pre-eclamptic and healthy women in the FINNPEC (Finnish Genetics of Preeclampsia Consortium) Study. Serum samples were available from early and late pregnancy.

Results: Progression of pregnancy had large-scale effects to the serum metabolite profile. Altogether 50 identified metabolites increased and 49 metabolites decreased when samples of early pregnancy were compared to samples of late pregnancy. The metabolic signatures of pregnancy were largely shared in pre-eclamptic and healthy women, only urea, monoacylglyceride 18:1 and glycerophosphocholine were identified to be increased in the pre-eclamptic women when compared to healthy controls.

Conclusions: Our study highlights the need of large-scale longitudinal metabolomic studies in non-complicated pregnancies before more detailed understanding of metabolism in adverse outcomes could be provided. Our findings are one of the first steps for a broader metabolic understanding of the physiological changes caused by pregnancy per se.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11306-020-01752-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846510PMC
January 2021

Tissue and interspecies comparison of catechol--methyltransferase mediated catalysis of 6--methylation of esculetin to scopoletin and its inhibition by entacapone and tolcapone.

Xenobiotica 2021 Mar 10;51(3):268-278. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Catechol--methyltransferase (COMT) methylates both endogenous and exogenous catechol compounds to inactive and safe metabolites. We first optimised conditions for a convenient and sensitive continuous fluorescence-based 6--methylation assay of esculetin, which we used for investigating the COMT activity in human, mouse, rat, dog, rabbit, and sheep liver cytosols and microsomes and in ten different rat tissues. Furthermore, we compared the inhibition potencies and mechanisms of two clinically used COMT inhibitors, entacapone and tolcapone, in these species. In most tissues, the COMT activity was at least three times higher in cytosol than in microsomes. In the rat, the highest COMT activity was found in the liver, followed by kidney, ileum, thymus, spleen, lung, pancreas, heart, brain, and finally, skeletal muscle. Entacapone and tolcapone were characterised as highly potent mixed type tight-binding inhibitors. The competitive inhibition type dominated over the uncompetitive inhibition with entacapone, whereas uncompetitive inhibition dominated with tolcapone. Rats, dogs, pigs, and sheep are high COMT activity species, in contrast to humans, mice, and rabbits; COMT activity is highest in the liver. Both entacapone and tolcapone are potent COMT inhibitors, but their inhibition mechanisms differ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2020.1853850DOI Listing
March 2021

L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1 Enables the Efficient Brain Delivery of Small-Sized Prodrug across the Blood-Brain Barrier and into Human and Mouse Brain Parenchymal Cells.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2020 12 23;11(24):4301-4315. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

Membrane transporters have long been utilized to improve the oral, hepatic, and renal (re)absorption. In the brain, however, the transporter-mediated drug delivery has not yet been fully achieved due to the complexity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Because L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) is a good candidate to improve the brain delivery, we developed here four novel LAT1-utilizing prodrugs of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. As a result, all the prodrugs were able to cross the BBB and localize into the brain cells. The brain uptake of salicylic acid (SA) was improved five times, not only across the mouse BBB but also into the cultured mouse and human brain cells. The naproxen prodrug was also transported efficiently into the mouse brain achieving less peripheral exposure, but the brain release of naproxen from the prodrug was not improved. Contrarily, the high plasma protein binding of the flurbiprofen prodrug and the premature bioconversion of the ibuprofen prodrug in the mouse blood hindered the efficient brain delivery. Thus, the structure of the parent drug affects the successful brain delivery of the LAT1-utilizing prodrugs, and the small-sized LAT1-utilizing prodrug of SA constituted a successful model to specifically deliver its parent drug across the mouse BBB and into the cultured mouse and human brain cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.0c00564DOI Listing
December 2020

Associations of the serum metabolite profile with a healthy Nordic diet and risk of coronary artery disease.

Clin Nutr 2021 05 31;40(5):3250-3262. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Division of Food and Nutrition Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Biochemistry, Food Chemistry and Food Development Unit, University of Turku, Turku, Finland. Electronic address:

Background & Aim: A healthy Nordic diet (HND) rich in wholegrain cereals, berries, vegetables, and fish, has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease, but the molecular links remain unclear. Here, we present the application of nontargeted metabolic profiling based on liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to identify metabolites that would potentially reflect the adherence to HND and their relationship with the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: From a Finnish population-based prospective cohort (Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study; KIHD), we collected 364 baseline serum samples in 4 groups: 1) 94 participants with high adherence to HND who developed CAD during the follow-up of 20.4 ± 7.6 years (cases), 2) 88 participants with high adherence who did not develop CAD during follow-up (controls), 3) 93 CAD cases with low adherence, and 4) 89 controls with low adherence.

Results: Indolepropionic acid, proline betaine, vitamin E derivatives, and medium-chain acylcarnitines were associated with adherence to HND after adjustments for age, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), physical activity, and total cholesterol. These metabolites also correlated negatively with blood lipid profiles, BMI, insulin, inflammation marker high-sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as positively with physical activity. Predictors of CAD risk included several lipid molecules, which also indicated lower adherence to HND. But, only the associations with the plasmalogens PC(O-16:0/18:2) and PC(O-16:1/18:2) remained significant after adjusting for age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and WHR. These plasmalogens did not correlate with any investigated risk factors of CAD at baseline, which may highlight their potential as novel predictors of CAD risk. Interestingly, the metabolic profile predicting CAD risk differed based on the adherence to HND. Also, HND adherence was more distinct within CAD cases than controls, which may emphasize the interaction between HND adherence and CAD risk.

Conclusions: The association between higher adherence to HND and a lower risk of CAD likely involves a complex interaction of various endogenous, plant-, and microbial-derived metabolites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2020.10.051DOI Listing
May 2021

Changes in Circulating Metabolome Precede Alcohol-Related Diseases in Middle-Aged Men: A Prospective Population-Based Study With a 30-Year Follow-Up.

Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2020 12 2;44(12):2457-2467. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

From the, School of Pharmacy, (OK, ML, SA, JR), University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Heavy alcohol use has been associated with altered circulating metabolome. We investigated whether changes in the circulating metabolome precede incident diagnoses of alcohol-related diseases.

Methods: This is a prospective population-based cohort study where the participants were 42- to 60-year-old males at baseline (years 1984 to 1989). Subjects who received a diagnosis for an alcohol-related disease during the follow-up were defined as cases (n = 92, mean follow-up of 13.6 years before diagnosis). Diagnoses were obtained through linkage with national health registries. We used 2 control groups: controls who self-reported similar levels of alcohol use as compared to cases at baseline (alcohol-controls, n = 92), and controls who self-reported only light drinking at baseline (control-controls, n = 90). A nontargeted metabolomics analysis of baseline serum samples was performed.

Results: There were significant differences between the study groups in the baseline serum levels of 64 metabolites: in amino acids (e.g., glutamine [FDR-corrected q-value = 0.0012]), glycerophospholipids (e.g., lysophosphatidylcholine 16:1 [q = 0.0008]), steroids (e.g., cortisone [q = 0.00001]), and fatty acids (e.g., palmitoleic acid [q = 0.0031]). The main finding was that after controlling for baseline levels of self-reported alcohol use and the biomarker of alcohol use, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and when compared to both alcohol-control and control-control group, the alcohol-case group had lower serum levels of asparagine (Cohen's d = -0.48 [95% CI -0.78 to -0.19] and d = -0.49 [-0.78 to -0.19], respectively) and serotonin (d = -0.45 [-0.74 to -0.15], and d = -0.46 [-0.75 to -0.16], respectively), with no difference between the two control groups (asparagine d = 0.00 [-0.29 to 0.29] and serotonin d = -0.01 [-0.30 to 0.29]).

Conclusions: Changes in the circulating metabolome, especially lower serum levels of asparagine and serotonin, are associated with later diagnoses of alcohol-related diseases, even after adjustment for the baseline level of alcohol use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/acer.14485DOI Listing
December 2020

Metabolic alterations in Parkinson's disease astrocytes.

Sci Rep 2020 09 2;10(1):14474. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

A.I.Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Neulaniementie 2, 70211, Kuopio, Finland.

In Parkinson`s disease (PD), the loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta is associated with Lewy bodies arising from the accumulation of alpha-synuclein protein which leads ultimately to movement impairment. While PD has been considered a disease of the DA neurons, a glial contribution, in particular that of astrocytes, in PD pathogenesis is starting to be uncovered. Here, we report findings from astrocytes derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of LRRK2 G2019S mutant patients, with one patient also carrying a GBA N370S mutation, as well as healthy individuals. The PD patient astrocytes manifest the hallmarks of the disease pathology including increased expression of alpha-synuclein. This has detrimental consequences, resulting in altered metabolism, disturbed Ca homeostasis and increased release of cytokines upon inflammatory stimulation. Furthermore, PD astroglial cells manifest increased levels of polyamines and polyamine precursors while lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels are decreased, both of these changes have been reported also in PD brain. Collectively, these data reveal an important role for astrocytes in PD pathology and highlight the potential of iPSC-derived cells in disease modeling and drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71329-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468111PMC
September 2020

L-Type Amino Acid Transporter 1-Utilizing Prodrugs of Ketoprofen Can Efficiently Reduce Brain Prostaglandin Levels.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Apr 11;12(4). Epub 2020 Apr 11.

School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211 Kuopio, Finland.

In order to efficiently combat neuroinflammation, it is essential to deliver the anti-inflammatory drugs to their target sites in the brain. Pro-drugs utilizing the L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) can be transported across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the cellular barriers of the brain's parenchymal cells. In this study, we evaluated, for the first time, the efficacy of LAT1-utilizing prodrugs of ketoprofen (KPF) on cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes in vitro and prostaglandin E2 production in vivo by using an enzymatic assay and liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry method, respectively. Aliphatic amino acid-conjugated pro-drugs inhibited the peroxidase activity of COX in vitro in their intact form (85% inhibition, IC50 ≈ 1.1 µM and 79%, IC50 ≈ 2.3 µM), which was comparable to KPF (90%, IC50 ≈ 0.9). Thus, these compounds acted more as KPF derivatives rather than pro-drugs. In turn, aromatic amino acid-conjugated pro-drugs behaved differently. The ester pro-drug inhibited the COX peroxidase activity in vitro (90%, IC50 ≈ 0.6 µM) due to its bioconversion to KPF, whereas the amide pro-drug was inactive toward COX enzymes in vitro. However, the amide pro-drug released KPF in the mouse brain in sufficient and effective amounts measured as reduced PGE2 levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12040344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238114PMC
April 2020

Caffeine content in newborn hair correlates with maternal dietary intake.

Eur J Nutr 2021 Feb 3;60(1):193-201. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

LC-MS Metabolomics Center, Biocenter, Kuopio, Finland.

Purpose: High-maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy may be harmful for perinatal outcomes and future child health, but the level of fetal cumulative exposure has been difficult to measure thus far. Here, we present maternal dietary caffeine intake during the last trimester and its correlation to caffeine content in newborn hair after birth.

Methods: Maternal third trimester diets and dietary caffeine intake were prospectively collected in Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) using a 160-item food frequency questionnaire (n = 2840). Newborn hair was collected within 48 h after birth and analyzed by high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) for caffeine (n = 316). Correlation between dietary caffeine intake and neonatal hair caffeine content was evaluated from 203 mother-child pairs.

Results: Mean dietary caffeine intake was 167 mg/days (95% CI 162-172  mg/days), of which coffee comprised 81%. Caffeine in the maternal diet and caffeine content in newborn hair correlated significantly (r = 0.50; p < 0.001). Older, multiparous, overweight women, and smokers had the highest caffeine levels in the maternal diet, as well as in their newborn babies' hair.

Conclusion: Caffeine exposure, estimated from newborn hair samples, reflects maternal third trimester dietary caffeine intake and introduces a new method to assess fetal cumulative caffeine exposure. Further studies to evaluate the effects of caffeine exposure on both perinatal and postnatal outcomes are warranted, since over 40% of pregnant women consume caffeine more than the current suggested recommendations (European Food Safety Association, EFSA recommendations).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00394-020-02231-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867507PMC
February 2021

Inhibition of human CYP1 enzymes by a classical inhibitor α-naphthoflavone and a novel inhibitor N-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)cyclopropanecarboxamide: An in vitro and in silico study.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2020 05 9;95(5):520-533. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.

Enzymes in the cytochrome P450 family 1 (CYP1) catalyze metabolic activation of procarcinogens and deactivation of certain anticancer drugs. Inhibition of these enzymes is a potential approach for cancer chemoprevention and treatment of CYP1-mediated drug resistance. We characterized inhibition of human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1 enzymes by the novel inhibitor N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)cyclopropanecarboxamide (DCPCC) and α-naphthoflavone (ANF). Depending on substrate, IC values of DCPCC for CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 were 10-95 times higher than for CYP1A2. IC of DCPCC for CYP1A2 was 100-fold lower than for enzymes in CYP2 and CYP3 families. DCPCC IC values were 10-680 times higher than the ones of ANF. DCPCC was a mixed-type inhibitor of CYP1A2. ANF was a competitive tight-binding inhibitor of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, and CYP1B1. CYP1A1 oxidized DCPCC more rapidly than CYP1A2 or CYP1B1 to the same metabolite. Molecular dynamics simulations and binding free energy calculations explained the differences of binding of DCPCC and ANF to the active sites of all three CYP1 enzymes. We conclude that DCPCC is a more selective inhibitor for CYP1A2 than ANF. DCPCC is a candidate structure to modulate CYP1A2-mediated metabolism of procarcinogens and anticancer drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cbdd.13669DOI Listing
May 2020

Quantitative assessment of betainized compounds and associations with dietary and metabolic biomarkers in the randomized study of the healthy Nordic diet (SYSDIET).

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 11;110(5):1108-1118

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: Recently, a group of betainized compounds have been suggested to play a role in health effects in relation to a whole-grain-rich diet.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to develop a quantitative mass spectrometric method for selected betainized compounds in human plasma, and to investigate their association with nutrient intake and measures of metabolic health in participants of the SYSDIET study.

Methods: The SYSDIET study was a controlled randomized intervention including individuals with metabolic syndrome, where the healthy Nordic diet (HND) group increased intakes of whole grains, canola oil, berries, and fish, whereas the control diet (CD) group consumed low-fiber cereal products, milk fat, and restricted amounts of fish and berries. A quantitative LC combined with triple quadrupole MS method for betainized compounds was developed and applied to fasting plasma samples from baseline (week 0) and the end of the intervention (week 18 or 24). Concentrations of betainized compounds were correlated with intakes of selected nutrients and fiber and measures of metabolic health.

Results: Pipecolic acid betaine (PAB) concentrations were significantly higher in the HND group than in the CD group (P = 0.00032) at the end of the intervention and correlated directly (P < 0.0001) with intakes of dietary fiber (r = 0.376) and a biomarker related to whole-grain rye intake, namely the ratio of alkylresorcinol C17:0 to C21:0 (r = 0.442). PAB was associated inversely with fasting plasma insulin consistently at the beginning and at the end of the intervention (P < 0.001, r = -0.300; P < 0.01, r = -0.250, respectively), as well as IL-1 receptor antagonist (P < 0.01, r = -0.232 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.236 at the end) and serum LDL/HDL cholesterol (P < 0.01, r = -0.239 at the beginning; P < 0.01, r = -0.241 at the end).

Conclusions: Among adults with the metabolic syndrome, PAB plasma concentrations were associated with fasting insulin, inflammation, and lipids and were significantly increased with adoption of the HND. Further studies are needed to clarify the biological functions of betainized compounds. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00992641.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz179DOI Listing
November 2019

In Vitro Human Metabolism and Inhibition Potency of Verbascoside for CYP Enzymes.

Molecules 2019 Jun 11;24(11). Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa.

Verbascoside is found in many medicinal plant families such as Verbenaceae. Important biological activities have been ascribed to verbascoside. Investigated in this study is the potential of verbascoside as an adjuvant during tuberculosis treatment. The present study reports on the in vitro metabolism in human hepatic microsomes and cytosol incubations as well as the presence and quantity of verbascoside within . Additionally, studied are the inhibitory properties on human hepatic CYP enzymes together with antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. The results yielded no metabolites in the hydrolysis or cytochrome P450 (CYP) oxidation incubations. However, five different methylated conjugates of verbascoside could be found in S-adenosylmethionine incubation, three different sulphate conjugates with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) incubation with human liver samples, and very low levels of glucuronide metabolites after incubation with recombinant human uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A7, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. Additionally, verbascoside showed weak inhibitory potency against CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 with IC values of 83 µM and 86 µM, respectively. Potent antioxidant and low cytotoxic potential were observed. Based on these data, verbascoside does not possess any clinically relevant CYP-mediated interaction potential, but it has effective biological activity. Therefore, verbascoside could be considered as a lead compound for further drug development and as an adjuvant during tuberculosis treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112191DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6600574PMC
June 2019

Gender- and dose-related metabolome alterations in rat offspring after in utero and lactational exposure to PCB 180.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2019 05 14;370:56-64. Epub 2019 Mar 14.

Department of Environmental, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; School of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland; Environmental Health Unit, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Kuopio, Finland.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that are still causing potentially harmful effects to humans and wildlife. While the adverse health effects of PCBs have been extensively studied for decades, little is known about the effects specifically caused by the less potent, yet abundant non-dioxin-like congeners (NDL-PCBs). Here a non-targeted metabolic profiling of rat offspring exposed in utero and lactationally to total doses of 0, 300 or 1000 mg/kg body weight of ultrapure PCB 180 is reported. Serum samples from 5 male, and 5 female offspring from each group taken 12 weeks after birth were analyzed using UHPLC-qTOF-MS system, and subsequent metabolite alterations were studied. Statistical analysis revealed gender and dose-dependent alterations in serum metabolite levels at doses that did not adversely influence maternal or offspring body weight development. Male rats exhibited a higher number of altered metabolites, as well as stronger dose-dependency. A total of 51 metabolites were identified based on spectral matching. Most notably, 20 of these were glycerophospholipids, mainly lysophosphocholines with systematically decreased concentrations especially in the high-dose males. Other major metabolite groups include amino acids, their derivatives and carnitines. Our findings are consistent with the earlier reported liver effects, as well as neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral effects of PCB 180. They also emphasize the potential value of metabolomics in characterizing toxic effects and in identifying sensitive biomarkers with potential future use in health risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2019.03.013DOI Listing
May 2019

Metabolic Profiling of High Egg Consumption and the Associated Lower Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Middle-Aged Finnish Men.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2019 03 18;63(5):e1800605. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, 70210, Finland.

Scope: Higher egg intake was previously associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) in the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study (KIHD) in eastern Finland. Potential compounds that can explain this association are explored using nontargeted LC-MS-based metabolic profiling.

Methods And Results: Two hundred and thirty-nine baseline serum samples from the KIHD are analyzed in four groups: subjects with higher (mean intake one egg per day) or lower (mean intake two eggs per week) egg intake who developed T2D (cases) or remained heatlhy (controls) during the mean follow-up of 19.3 years. Different serum profiles of subjects who had either higher or lower egg intakes, and of those who developed type 2 diabetes or remained healthy, are observed. The higher baseline tyrosine level predicts higher odds of T2D (OR 1.94; 95% CI 1.45, 2.60; p < 0.001; FDR 0.023) along with an unknown hexose-containing compound (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.57, 2.88; p < 0.001; FDR 0.005). Certain predominant metabolites in T2D cases are correlated positively with ones in the lower-egg-intake group and negatively with ones in the higher-egg-intake group.

Conclusion: Our current findings may underline some potential metabolites that can explain how egg intake is associated with a lower risk of T2D.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201800605DOI Listing
March 2019

Fearful dogs have increased plasma glutamine and γ-glutamyl glutamine.

Sci Rep 2018 10 29;8(1):15976. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Anxiety-related disorders, including fearfulness are common and leading welfare problems among the worldwide dog population. The etiology of anxieties is complex and affected by genetic and environmental factors. Thus, there is a need for more comprehensive approaches, such as metabolomics, to understand the causes of anxiety and to identify anxiety-related biomarkers for more efficient diagnostic and treatment options. To study metabolic alterations related to canine fearfulness, a non-targeted plasma metabolite profiling was performed in a cohort of 20 fearful and 21 non-fearful dogs. The results showed that nine metabolic features were significantly associated with fearfulness. The most prominent change included increased plasma glutamine and γ-glutamyl glutamine (γ-Glu Gln) in fearful dogs across breeds. Alterations in glutamine metabolism have previously been associated with several psychiatric disorders, indicating the relevance of this finding also in dogs. In addition, we describe a novel breed-specific association between renal biomarker symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and canine fearfulness. These observed metabolic alterations may result from high levels of prolonged psychological stress in fearful dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-34321-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6206014PMC
October 2018

A Non-Targeted LC-MS Profiling Reveals Elevated Levels of Carnitine Precursors and Trimethylated Compounds in the Cord Plasma of Pre-Eclamptic Infants.

Sci Rep 2018 10 2;8(1):14616. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Medical and Clinical Genetics, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Preeclampsia (PE) is a complex pregnancy disorder. It is not extensively known how the metabolic alterations of PE women contribute to the metabolism of newborn. We applied liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based non-targeted metabolomics to determine whether the metabolic profile of plasma from umbilical cord differs between infants born to PE and non-PE pregnancies in the FINNPEC study. Cord plasma was available from 42 newborns born from PE and 53 from non-PE pregnancies. 133 molecular features differed between PE and non-PE newborns after correction for multiple testing. Decreased levels of 4-pyridoxic acid were observed in the cord plasma samples of PE newborns when compared to non-PE newborns. Compounds representing following areas of metabolism were increased in the cord plasma of PE newborns: urea and creatine metabolism; carnitine biosynthesis and acylcarnitines; putrescine metabolites; tryptophan metabolism and phosphatidylcholines. To our knowledge, this study is the first one to apply LC-MS based metabolomics in cord plasma of PE newborns. We demonstrate that this strategy provides a global picture of the widespread metabolic alterations associated with PE and particularly the elevated levels of carnitine precursors and trimethylated compounds appear to be associated with PE at birth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-32804-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168522PMC
October 2018

Diets rich in whole grains increase betainized compounds associated with glucose metabolism.

Am J Clin Nutr 2018 11;108(5):971-979

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition.

Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests that diets rich in whole grains are associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases and all-cause mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these beneficial metabolic effects are poorly understood.

Objective: Our aim was to investigate novel trimethylated (betainized) compounds from mice and humans, and their association with whole grain-rich diets and insulin resistance and insulin secretion.

Design: Fasting plasma samples were obtained in a mouse (C57BL/6J male) feeding trial and a controlled dietary intervention. The mouse trial involved feeding the mice a rye and wheat bran-enriched feed which was compared with a high-fat diet. In the human trial, participants recruited from Kuopio, Finland (n = 69) and Naples, Italy (n = 54) with characteristics of the metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to either a whole grain-enriched diet or a control diet for 12 wk. Plasma concentrations of betainized compounds were analyzed with the use of liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were assessed in an oral-glucose-tolerance test and a meal-glucose-tolerance test.

Results: The betaines that were increased in mouse plasma after bran-enriched feeding were identified de novo via chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and confirmed to be associated with an increased intake of whole-grain products in humans. In particular, the concentrations of pipecolic acid betaine were increased at the end of the whole-grain intervention in both the Kuopio cohort (P < 0.001) and the Naples cohort (P < 0.05), and these concentrations inversely correlated with the postprandial glucose concentration. Furthermore, the concentration of valine betaine was substantially increased during the intervention in Naples (P < 0.001) with an inverse correlation with the postprandial insulin concentration. In addition, the concentrations of other betaines, e.g., glycine betaine and proline betaine, correlated with glucose and insulin concentrations at the end of the intervention.

Conclusions: Novel betainized compounds in humans are associated with diets rich in whole grains, and they improve insulin resistance and insulin secretion. These results suggest that these novel compounds may contribute to the beneficial effects of whole grain-rich diets. The studies were registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00945854 (Naples) and NCT00573781 (Kuopio).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqy169DOI Listing
November 2018

Whole grain intake associated molecule 5-aminovaleric acid betaine decreases β-oxidation of fatty acids in mouse cardiomyocytes.

Sci Rep 2018 08 29;8(1):13036. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, P.O. Box 1627, FI-70211, Kuopio, Finland.

Despite epidemiological evidence showing that diets rich in whole grains reduce the risk of chronic life-style related diseases, biological mechanisms for these positive effects are mostly unknown. Increased 5-aminovaleric acid betaine (5-AVAB) levels in plasma and metabolically active tissues such as heart have been associated with consumption of diets rich in whole grains. However, biological effects of 5-AVAB are poorly understood. We evaluated 5-AVAB concentrations in human and mouse heart tissue (3-22 µM and 38-78 µM, respectively) using mass spectrometry. We show that 5-AVAB, at physiological concentration range, dose-dependently inhibits oxygen consumption due to β-oxidation of fatty acids, but does not otherwise compromise mitochondrial respiration, as measured with oxygen consumption rate in cultured mouse primary cardiomyocytes. We also demonstrate that this effect is caused by 5-AVAB induced reduction of cellular L-carnitine. Reduced L-carnitine levels are at least partly mediated by the inhibition of cell membrane carnitine transporter (OCTN2) as evaluated by in silico docking, and by siRNA mediated silencing of OCTN2 in cultured cardiomyocytes. 5-AVAB caused inhibition of β-oxidation of fatty acids is a novel mechanism on how diets rich in whole grains may regulate energy metabolism in the body. Elucidating potentially beneficial effects of 5-AVAB e.g. on cardiac physiology will require further in vivo investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31484-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6115339PMC
August 2018

Heart specific PGC-1α deletion identifies metabolome of cardiac restricted metabolic heart failure.

Cardiovasc Res 2019 01;115(1):107-118

A.I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Neulaniementie 2, Kuopio, Finland.

Aims: Heart failure (HF) is associated with drastic changes in metabolism leading to a cardiac energy deficiency well as maladaptive changes in multiple other tissues. It is still unclear which of these changes originates from cardiomyocyte metabolic remodelling or whether they are induced secondarily by systemic factors. Our aim here was to induce cardiac restricted metabolic changes mimicking those seen in HF and to characterize the associated metabolite changes in the heart, circulation, and peripheral tissues.

Methods And Results: We generated a cardiac specific PGC-1α knockout mice (KO) to specifically induce metabolic dysregulation typically accompanied by HF and performed a non-targeted LC-MS metabolite profiling analysis of heart, plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle to identify metabolites associated with cardiac specific metabolic remodelling. The KO animals developed a progressive cardiomyopathy with cardiac dilatation leading to fatal HF. At 17 weeks of age, when significant remodelling had occurred but before the onset of HF, isolated PGC-1α deficient cardiomyocytes had suppressed glucose and fatty acid oxidation as well as blunted anaerobic metabolism. KO hearts displayed a distinctive metabolite profile with 92 significantly altered molecular features including metabolite changes in energy metabolism, phospholipid metabolism, amino acids, and oxidative stress signalling. Some of the metabolite changes correlated with the specific parameters of cardiac function. We did not observe any significant alterations in the metabolomes of the other measured tissues or in plasma.

Conclusions: Heart specific PGC-1α KO induces metabolic, functional, and structural abnormalities leading to dilating cardiomyopathy and HF. The metabolic changes were limited to the cardiac tissue indicating that cardiomyocyte metabolic remodelling is not sufficient to evoke the body wide metabolic alterations usually associated with HF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvy155DOI Listing
January 2019

Associations of serum indolepropionic acid, a gut microbiota metabolite, with type 2 diabetes and low-grade inflammation in high-risk individuals.

Nutr Diabetes 2018 05 25;8(1):35. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

We recently reported using non-targeted metabolic profiling that serum indolepropionic acid (IPA), a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, was associated with a lower likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the present study, we established a targeted quantitative method using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (HPLC-QQQ-MS/MS) and measured the serum concentrations of IPA in all the participants from the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS), who had fasting serum samples available from the 1-year study follow-up (n = 209 lifestyle intervention and n = 206 control group). Higher IPA at 1-year study was inversely associated with the incidence of T2D (OR [CI]: 0.86 [0.73-0.99], P = 0.04) and tended to be directly associated with insulin secretion (β = 0.10, P = 0.06) during the mean 7-year follow-up. Moreover, IPA correlated positively with dietary fiber intake (g/day: r = 0.24, P = 1 × 10) and negatively with hsCRP concentrations at both sampling (r = - 0.22, P = 0.0001) and study follow-up (β = - 0.19, P = 0.001). Thus, we suggest that the putative effect of IPA on lowering T2D risk might be mediated by the interplay between dietary fiber intake and inflammation or by direct effect of IPA on β-cell function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41387-018-0046-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968030PMC
May 2018

Alcohol and substance use are associated with altered metabolome in the first trimester serum samples of pregnant mothers.

Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2018 Apr 17;223:79-84. Epub 2018 Feb 17.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Helsinki and Kuopio University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Although the effects of alcohol on metabolic processes in the body have been studied widely, there do not appear to be any previous reports clarifying how substance abuse changes metabolic profiles of pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of substance abuse, especially alcohol use, on the metabolic profile of pregnant women during the first trimester.

Study Design: We applied mass spectrometry based non-targeted metabolite profiling of serum collected during routine visit to the hospital between gestational weeks 9 + 0 to 11 + 6 from controls (n = 55), alcohol users (n = 19), drug users (n = 24) and tobacco smokers (n = 40).

Results: We observed statistically significantly differences among the study groups in serum levels of glutamate, glutamine, and serotonin (p-values ≤ 0.0001). The serum levels of glutamate were increased in alcohol and drug using mothers when compared to the controls, whereas levels of glutamine were decreased in alcohol and drug using mothers. In addition, serum levels of serotonin were decreased in alcohol using mothers when compared to the controls.

Conclusion: The present study shows that alcohol and drug use were associated with increased glutamate, and decreased glutamine levels, and alcohol use is associated with decreased serotonin levels. This study serves as a proof-of-concept that the metabolite profile of human first trimester serum samples could be used to detect alcohol exposure during pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2018.02.004DOI Listing
April 2018

A prospective, randomized, open label, controlled study investigating the efficiency and safety of 3 different methods of rectus sheath block analgesia following midline laparotomy.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2018 Feb;97(7):e9968

Department of Surgery, Kanta-Häme Central Hospital, Hämeenlinna School of Medicine, University of Eastern Finland Department of Anesthesia and Operative Services, Kuopio University Hospital Departments of Gynecology and Oncology, Kuopio University Hospital Department of Surgery, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio Admescope, Ltd, Oulu School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland.

Background: There is a controversy regarding the efficacy of rectus sheath block (RSB). The aim of the present study was to evaluate analgesic efficacy and safety of three different methods of RSB in postoperative pain management after midline laparotomy.

Methods: A prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label clinical trial with 4 parallel groups was conducted in a tertiary care hospital in Finland. A total of 57 patients undergoing midline laparotomy were randomized to the control group (n = 12) or to 1 of the 3 active RSB analgesia groups: single-dose (n = 16), repeated-doses (n = 12), or continuous infusion (n = 17). Opioid consumption with iv-patient-controlled analgesia pump was recorded, and pain scores and patients' satisfaction were surveyed on an 11-point numeric rating scale for the first 48 postoperative h. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and levobupivacaine were analyzed. All adverse events during the hospital stay were recorded.

Results: Oxycodone consumption was less during the first 12 h in the repeated-doses and in the continuous infusion groups (P = .07) and in numerical values up to 48 h in the repeated-doses group. Plasma oxycodone concentrations were similar in all 4 groups. Pain scores were lower in the repeated-doses group when coughing during the first 4 h (P = .048 vs. control group), and at rest on the first postoperative morning (P = .034 vs. the other 3 groups) and at 24 h (P = .006 vs. the single-dose group). All plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine were safe. The patients' satisfaction was better in the repeated-doses group compared with the control group (P = .025). No serious or unexpected adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: RSB analgesia with repeated-doses seems to have opioid sparing efficacy, and it may enhance pain relief and patients' satisfaction after midline laparotomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839819PMC
February 2018
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