Publications by authors named "Mark Stockbridge"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Performance of the Innova SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid lateral flow test in the Liverpool asymptomatic testing pilot: population based cohort study.

BMJ 2021 07 6;374:n1637. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Institute of Population Health Sciences, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.

Objective: To assess the performance of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen rapid lateral flow test (LFT) versus polymerase chain reaction testing in the asymptomatic general population attending testing centres.

Design: Observational cohort study.

Setting: Community LFT pilot at covid-19 testing sites in Liverpool, UK.

Participants: 5869 asymptomatic adults (≥18 years) voluntarily attending one of 48 testing sites during 6-29 November 2020.

Interventions: Participants were tested using both an Innova LFT and a quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) test based on supervised self-administered swabbing at testing sites.

Main Outcome Measures: Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of LFT compared with RT-qPCR in an epidemic steady state of covid-19 among adults with no classic symptoms of the disease.

Results: Of 5869 test results, 22 (0.4%) LFT results and 343 (5.8%) RT-qPCR results were void (that is, when the control line fails to appear within 30 minutes). Excluding the void results, the LFT versus RT-qPCR showed a sensitivity of 40.0% (95% confidence interval 28.5% to 52.4%; 28/70), specificity of 99.9% (99.8% to 99.99%; 5431/5434), positive predictive value of 90.3% (74.2% to 98.0%; 28/31), and negative predictive value of 99.2% (99.0% to 99.4%; 5431/5473). When the void samples were assumed to be negative, a sensitivity was observed for LFT of 37.8% (26.8% to 49.9%; 28/74), specificity of 99.6% (99.4% to 99.8%; 5431/5452), positive predictive value of 84.8% (68.1% to 94.9%; 28/33), and negative predictive value of 93.4% (92.7% to 94.0%; 5431/5814). The sensitivity in participants with an RT-qPCR cycle threshold (Ct) of <18.3 (approximate viral loads >10 RNA copies/mL) was 90.9% (58.7% to 99.8%; 10/11), a Ct of <24.4 (>10 RNA copies/mL) was 69.4% (51.9% to 83.7%; 25/36), and a Ct of >24.4 (<10 RNA copies/mL) was 9.7% (1.9% to 23.7%; 3/34). LFT is likely to detect at least three fifths and at most 998 in every 1000 people with a positive RT-qPCR test result with high viral load.

Conclusions: The Innova LFT can be useful for identifying infections among adults who report no symptoms of covid-19, particularly those with high viral load who are more likely to infect others. The number of asymptomatic adults with lower Ct (indicating higher viral load) missed by LFT, although small, should be considered when using single LFT in high consequence settings. Clear and accurate communication with the public about how to interpret test results is important, given the chance of missing some cases, even at high viral loads. Further research is needed to understand how infectiousness is reflected in the viral antigen shedding detected by LFT versus the viral loads approximated by RT-qPCR.
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July 2021

Activation and repression of prion protein expression by key regions of intron 1.

Cell Mol Life Sci 2009 Dec;66(23):3809-20

Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY, UK.

Expression of the prion protein is necessary for infection with prion diseases. Altered expression levels may play an important role in susceptibility to infection. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms that regulate prion protein expression is of great importance. It was previously shown that expression of the prion protein is to some degree regulated by an alternative promoter within intron 1. Studies using GFP and luciferase reporter systems were undertaken to determine key sites for the repression and activation of expression of the prion protein driven by intron 1. We identified a region within intron 1 sufficient to drive prion protein expression. Our findings highlight two potential repressor regions. Both regions have binding sites for the known repressor Hes-1. Hes-1 overexpression caused a dramatic decrease in PrP protein expression. Additionally, we have identified Atox-1 as a transcription factor that upregulates prion protein expression. These findings clearly indicate that intron 1 plays a key role in regulation of prion protein expression levels.
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December 2009