Publications by authors named "Mark S Silverberg"

180 Publications

Post-Induction High Adalimumab Drug Levels Predict Biological Remission at Week 24 in Patients With Crohn's Disease.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2021 Oct 6;12(10):e00401. Epub 2021 Oct 6.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Canada.

Introduction: We investigated whether early adalimumab drug levels (ADL) at week 4 predicted biological remission at week 24.

Methods: In a prospective study, we assessed clinical and biological remission at weeks 0, 4, 12, and 24 after induction of adalimumab in 33 patients with Crohn's disease. Disease activity was determined by the Harvey-Bradshaw Index, ileocolonoscopy reports, cross-sectional imaging, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fecal calprotectin (FC) levels. Clinical remission was defined as Harvey-Bradshaw Index <5. Biological remission was defined as a combination of FC < 200 μg/g and CRP <5 μg/mL. ADL trough levels were tested using a liquid phase, mobility shift assay.

Results: At 24 weeks, 18/33 (55%) of the patients were with biological remission. Ten (30%) patients required dose escalation or withdrawal from adalimumab by week 24 because of lack of response and exhibited significantly higher FC (P = 0.003) and CRP (P = 0.002). ADL levels at week 4 (19.8 μg/mL vs 10.2 μg/mL, P = 0.001) were significantly higher in patients with biological remission vs nonresponders at week 24. ADL levels at week 4 were a good predictor of biological remission at week 24, with area under the curve 0.86, 95% confidence interval (1.1; 1.67) and for combined biological and clinical remission, with area under the curve 0.8. The best ADL cutoff at week 4 that predicted biological remission at week 24 was 13.9 μg/mL (sensitivity 94.4% and specificity 73.3%).

Discussion: In individuals with Crohn's disease, higher adalimumab drug levels at week 4 (>13.9 μg/mL) were significantly associated with biological remission at week 24.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000401DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500561PMC
October 2021

Meta-analysis of gene expression disease signatures in colonic biopsy tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis.

Sci Rep 2021 Sep 14;11(1):18243. Epub 2021 Sep 14.

Alimentiv, Inc, 100 Dundas St, Suite 200, London, ON, N6A 5B6, Canada.

Publicly available ulcerative colitis (UC) gene expression datasets from observational studies and clinical trials include inherently heterogeneous disease characteristics and methodology. We used meta-analysis to identify a robust UC gene signature from inflamed biopsies. Eight gene expression datasets derived from biopsy tissue samples from noninflammatory bowel disease (IBD) controls and areas of active inflammation from patients with UC were publicly available. Expression- and meta-data were downloaded with GEOquery. Differentially expressed genes (DEG) in individual datasets were defined as those with fold change > 1.5 and a Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P value < .05. Meta-analysis of all DEG used a random effects model. Reactome pathway enrichment analysis was conducted. Meta-analysis identified 946 up- and 543 down-regulated genes in patients with UC compared to non-IBD controls (1.2 and 1.7 times fewer up- and down-regulated genes than the median of the individual datasets). Top-ranked up- and down-regulated DEG were LCN2 and AQP8. Multiple immune-related pathways (e.g., 'Chemokine receptors bind chemokine' and 'Interleukin-10 signaling') were significantly up-regulated in UC, while 'Biological oxidations' and 'Fatty acid metabolism' were downregulated. A web-based data-mining tool with the meta-analysis results was made available ( https://premedibd.com/genes.html ). A UC inflamed biopsy disease gene signature was derived. This signature may be an unbiased reference for comparison and improve the efficiency of UC biomarker studies by increasing confidence for identification of disease-related genes and pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-97366-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440637PMC
September 2021

Diagnosis and classification of ileal pouch disorders: consensus guidelines from the International Ileal Pouch Consortium.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 10 18;6(10):826-849. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is an option for most patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis who require colectomy. Although the construction of an ileal pouch substantially improves patients' health-related quality of life, the surgery is, directly or indirectly, associated with various structural, inflammatory, and functional adverse sequelae. Furthermore, the surgical procedure does not completely abolish the risk for neoplasia. Patients with ileal pouches often present with extraintestinal, systemic inflammatory conditions. The International Ileal Pouch Consortium was established to create this consensus document on the diagnosis and classification of ileal pouch disorders using available evidence and the panellists' expertise. In a given individual, the condition of the pouch can change over time. Therefore, close monitoring of the activity and progression of the disease is essential to make accurate modifications in the diagnosis and classification in a timely manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00101-1DOI Listing
October 2021

Higher adalimumab maintenance regimen is more effective than standard dose in anti-TNF experienced Crohn's disease patients.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Oct;33(10):1274-1279

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Farncombe Family Digestive Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

Background: Many Crohn's disease patients treated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapies suffer from loss of response over time and require dose escalation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of treating anti-TNF experienced Crohn's disease patients with higher maintenance regimens of adalimumab.

Methods: In a retrospective observational study, Crohn's disease patients receiving adalimumab were categorized according to their maintenance regimen; 40 mg weekly, 80 mg every other week or greater were defined as a high-dose maintenance regimen and 40 mg every other week was defined as a standard maintenance regimen. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure.

Results: Thirty-nine patients were started on high-dose regimens following induction and 40 patients received the standard regimen. According to a Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis, time to treatment failure was significantly longer in patients in the high-dose group (P = 0.0015). Patients on high-dose adalimumab had a lower treatment failure rate (hazard ratio 0.21; P = 0.0005) when compared to patients on the standard regimen, after adjusting for induction dose and concomitant immunomodulator use. No difference in adverse events was identified between the groups (31 vs. 30%; P = 0.94).

Conclusion: High-dose maintenance regimens were more effective than the standard adalimumab maintenance protocol with better short and long-term clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002250DOI Listing
October 2021

Anti-Microbial Antibody Response is Associated With Future Onset of Crohn's Disease Independent of Biomarkers of Altered Gut Barrier Function, Subclinical Inflammation, and Genetic Risk.

Gastroenterology 2021 Jul 20. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Temerty Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Altered host immune reactivity to microbial antigens is hypothesized to trigger the onset of Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess whether increased serum anti-microbial antibody response in asymptomatic first-degree relatives (FDRs) of CD patients is an independent risk factor for future CD development.

Methods: We measured host serum antibody response to 6 microbial antigens at enrollment (Prometheus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test: anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies immunoglobulin A/immunoglobulin G, anti-OmpC, anti-A4-Fla2, anti-FlaX, anti-CBir1) and derived the sum of positive antibodies (AS). We used samples at enrollment of prospectively followed healthy FDRs from a nested case-control cohort of the Crohn's and Colitis Canada Genetics Environment Microbial Project. Those who later developed CD (n = 77) were matched 1:4 by age, sex, follow-up duration, and geographic location with control FDRs remaining healthy (n = 307). To address our research aims, we fitted a multivariable conditional logistic regression model and performed causal mediation analysis.

Results: High baseline AS (≥2) (43% of cases, 11% of controls) was associated with higher risk of developing CD (adjusted odds ratio, 6.5; 95% confidence interval, 3.4-12.7; P < .001). Importantly, this association remained significant when adjusted for markers of gut barrier function, fecal calprotectin, C-reactive protein, and CD-polygenic risk score, and in subjects recruited more than 3 years before diagnosis. Causal mediation analysis showed that the effect of high AS on future CD development is partially mediated (42%) via preclinical gut inflammation.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that increased anti-microbial antibody responses are associated with risk of future development of CD, independent of biomarkers of abnormal gut barrier function, subclinical inflammation, and CD-related genetic risks. This suggests that anti-microbial antibody responses are an early predisease event in the development of CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.07.009DOI Listing
July 2021

Serum Analyte Profiles Associated With Crohn's Disease and Disease Location.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Montreal Heart Institute, Montréal, Québec, Canada.

Background: Crohn's disease (CD) can affect any segment of the digestive tract but is most often localized in the ileal, ileocolonic, and colorectal regions of the intestines. It is believed that the chronic inflammation in CD is a result of an imbalance between the epithelial barrier, the immune system, and the intestinal microbiota. The aim of the study was to identify circulating markers associated with CD and/or disease location in CD patients.

Methods: We tested 49 cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in serum samples from 300 patients with CD and 300 controls. After quality control, analyte levels were tested for association with CD and disease location.

Results: We identified 13 analytes that were higher in CD patients relative to healthy controls and that remained significant after conservative Bonferroni correction (P < 0.0015). In particular, CXCL9, CXCL1, and interleukin IL-6 had the greatest effect and were highly significant (P < 5 × 10-7). We also identified 9 analytes that were associated with disease location, with VEGF, IL-12p70, and IL-6 being elevated in patients with colorectal disease (P < 3 × 10-4).

Conclusions: Multiple serum analytes are elevated in CD. These implicate the involvement of multiple cell types from the immune, epithelial, and endothelial systems, suggesting that circulating analytes reflect the inflammatory processes that are ongoing within the gut. Moreover, the identification of distinct profiles according to disease location supports the existence of a biological difference between ileal and colonic CD, consistent with previous genetic and clinical observations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izab123DOI Listing
June 2021

Integrative analysis of colonic biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease patients identifies an interaction between microbial bile-acid inducible gene abundance and human Angiopoietin-like 4 gene expression.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Jun 2. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aims: Microbial derived-bile acids can modulate host gene expression, and their fecal abundance is decreased in active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We analyzed the impact of endoscopic inflammation on microbial genes involved in bile acid biotransformation, and their interaction with host transcriptome in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients.

Methods: Endoscopic mucosal biopsies were collected from non-inflamed and inflamed terminal ileum, ascending and sigmoid colon of IBD patients. Prediction of imputed metagenome functional content from 16S rRNA profile and real-time qPCR were utilized to assess microbial bile acid biotransformation gene abundance, and RNA-seq was used for host transcriptome analysis. Linear regression and partial Spearman correlation accounting for age, sex and IBD type were used to assess the association between microbial genes, inflammation and host transcriptomics in each biopsy location. A Bayesian network (BN) analysis was fitted to infer the direction of interactions between IBD traits, microbial and host genes.

Results: Inferred microbial gene pathway involved in secondary bile acid biosynthesis (ko00121 pathway) was depleted in inflamed terminal ileum of IBD patients compared to non-inflamed tissue. In non-inflamed sigmoid colon, the relative abundance of bile acid-inducible (baiCD) microbial genes was positively correlated with the host Angiopoietin-like 4 (Angptl4) gene expression. The BN analysis suggests that the microbial baiCD gene abundance could affect Angptl4 expression, and this interaction appears to be lost in the presence of inflammation.

Conclusions: Endoscopic inflammation affects the abundance of crucial microbial bile acid-metabolizing genes and their interaction with Angptl4 in intestinal mucosa of IBD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab096DOI Listing
June 2021

Comparative effectiveness of higher adalimumab maintenance therapy versus standard dose in anti-tumor necrosis factor experienced Crohn's disease patients: A propensity-score matched cohort analysis.

J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Oct 31;36(10):2803-2812. Epub 2021 May 31.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital IBD Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background And Aim: Crohn's disease (CD) patients who previously failed anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy are at higher risk of treatment failure with subsequent biologics. This study aims to determine the effectiveness and safety of higher maintenance dose regimens of adalimumab compared with standard doses in CD patients who failed anti-TNF.

Methods: In this retrospective observational study, CD patients who failed anti-TNF and received adalimumab were categorized according to their post-induction maintenance regimen; 40 mg subcutaneous (sc) weekly or 80 mg sc every other week were defined as a high-dose (HD) maintenance regimen, and 40 mg sc every other week was defined as a standard-dose (SD) maintenance regimen. The primary outcome was time to treatment failure. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for confounders. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using propensity scores to create a cohort of matched participants with similar distribution of baseline covariates.

Results: Forty patients started on HD regimens following induction, and 77 patients received the SD regimen. The median time to failure in the HD group was 6.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] 4.0-9.6) and 3.0 years (IQR 0.9-9.4) in the SD group (log-rank test P = 0.006). Patients on HD adalimumab had a lower hazard rate of treatment failure (hazard ratio: 0.27; 95% confidence interval [0.12, 0.62]; P = 0.002) compared with SD patients. No difference in adverse events was identified between groups (30% vs 31.2%, P = 1.0). Results were similar in the propensity score-matched cohort.

Conclusions: High-dose maintenance regimens were associated with longer time-to-failure as compared with SD regimens in CD patient who failed anti-TNF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jgh.15551DOI Listing
October 2021

Endoscopic evaluation of surgically altered bowel in inflammatory bowel disease: a consensus guideline from the Global Interventional Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 06 17;6(6):482-497. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Clinical and Research Centre for Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Clinical Centre ISCARE, Prague, Czech Republic.

The majority of patients with Crohn's disease and a proportion of patients with ulcerative colitis will ultimately require surgical treatment despite advances in diagnosis, therapy, and endoscopic interventions. The surgical procedures that are most commonly done include bowel resection with anastomosis, strictureplasty, faecal diversion, and ileal pouch. These surgical treatment modalities result in substantial alterations in bowel anatomy. In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, endoscopy plays a key role in the assessment of disease activity, disease recurrence, treatment response, dysplasia surveillance, and delivery of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic evaluation and management of surgically altered bowel can be challenging. This consensus guideline delineates anatomical landmarks and endoscopic assessment of these landmarks in diseased and surgically altered bowel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30394-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Vedolizumab and Anti-Tumour Necrosis Factor α Real-World Outcomes in Biologic-Naïve Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients: Results from the EVOLVE Study.

J Crohns Colitis 2021 Oct;15(10):1694-1706

Evangelismos Hospital, Athens, Greece.

Background And Aims: This study aimed to compare real-world clinical effectiveness and safety of vedolizumab, an α4β7-integrin inhibitor, and anti-tumour necrosis factor-α [anti-TNFα] agents in biologic-naïve ulcerative colitis [UC] and Crohn's disease [CD] patients.

Methods: This was a 24-month retrospective medical chart study in adult UC and CD patients treated with vedolizumab or anti-TNFα in Canada, Greece and the USA. Inverse probability weighting was used to account for differences between groups. Primary outcomes were cumulative rates of clinical effectiveness [clinical response, clinical remission, mucosal healing] and incidence rates of serious adverse events [SAEs] and serious infections [SIs]. Secondary outcomes included cumulative rates of treatment persistence [patients who did not discontinue index treatment during follow-up] and dose escalation and incidence rates of disease exacerbations and disease-related surgeries. Adjusted analyses were performed using inverse probability weighting.

Results: A total of 1095 patients [604 UC, 491 CD] were included. By 24 months, rates of clinical effectiveness were similar between groups, but incidence rates of SAEs (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.42 [0.28-0.62]) and SIs (HR = 0.40 [0.19-0.85]) were significantly lower in vedolizumab vs anti-TNFα patients. Rates of treatment persistence [p < 0.01] by 24 months were higher in vedolizumab patients with UC. Incidence rates of disease exacerbations were lower in vedolizumab patients with UC (HR = 0.58 [0.45-0.76]). Other outcomes did not significantly differ between groups.

Conclusion: In this real-world setting, first-line biologic therapy in biologic-naïve patients with UC and CD demonstrated that vedolizumab and anti-TNFα treatments were equally effective at controlling disease symptoms, but vedolizumab has a more favourable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab058DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8495488PMC
October 2021

An expert consensus to standardise clinical, endoscopic and histologic items and inclusion and outcome criteria for evaluation of pouchitis disease activity in clinical trials.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 05 18;53(10):1108-1117. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

London, ON, Canada.

Background: Pouchitis is a condition with large unmet medical needs and no approved therapies. Lack of validated instruments to measure disease activity and treatment response is a major barrier to drug development.

Aim: To conduct a modified RAND/University of California Los Angeles appropriateness process to produce a standardised assessment of pouchitis disease activity in clinical trials.

Methods: A list of 164 items generated upon a systematic review and expert opinion were rated based on a 9-point scale (appropriate, uncertain and inappropriate), by a panel including 16 gastroenterologists, surgeons and histopathologists.

Results: Items rated as appropriate to evaluate in pouchitis clinical trials were: (a) clinical: stool frequency and faecal urgency; (b) endoscopic: primary assessment in the pouch body according to the percentage of affected area (<50%, 50%-75% and >75%), evaluation of the presence of ulcers/erosions according to size (erosions <5 mm, ulcers ≥5 mm to 2 cm and large ulcers >2 cm) and ulcerated area (<10%, 10%-30% and >30%); (c) histologic: two biopsies from each segment, from the ulcer's edge when present, or endoscopically normal areas, assessment of lamina propria chronic inflammation, epithelial and lamina propria neutrophils, epithelial damage, erosions and ulcers; and (d) clinical trial inclusion/outcome criteria: minimum histologic disease activity for inclusion, a primary endpoint based on stool frequency and assessment of clinical, endoscopic and histologic response and remission. The overall majority of items surveyed (100/164) were rated 'uncertain'.

Conclusion: We conducted a RAND/UCLA appropriateness process to help inform measurement of pouchitis disease activity within clinical trials and foster the development of novel therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16328DOI Listing
May 2021

Ustekinumab induction concentrations are associated with clinical and biochemical outcomes at week 12 of treatment in Crohn's disease.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: We investigated relationships between induction ustekinumab levels and clinical and biochemical outcomes in Crohn's disease.

Methods: Following standard IV induction, ustekinumab levels were measured at week 2 (wk2) and week 6 (wk6). Ustekinumab levels were compared in patients receiving 260, 390 and 520 mg at induction. Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), serum albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin (FCP) were measured at baseline and week 12 (wk12). Associations between ustekinumab levels and these parameters were assessed. Ustekinumab levels were compared between patients requiring dose intensification within one year of induction and those remaining on standard dosing.

Results: Of 23 wk2 ustekinumab levels, 22(95.7%) were above the upper limit of quantification of the assay (25 µg/mL). Median wk6 ustekinumab level (n = 25) was 14.2 μg/mL [interquartile range (IQR), 9.6-20.1]. Median wk6 ustekinumab levels in patients receiving 260, 390 and 520 mg were 8.6, 16.3 and 25.0 µg/mL, respectively, P = 0.01. There were significant correlations between baseline albumin and wk6 ustekinumab levels; r = 0.644 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.304-0.839], P < 0.001, and between baseline FCP and wk6 ustekinumab levels; r = -0.678 (95% CI, -0.873 to -0.296), P < 00.01. Median wk12 CDAI (n = 18), CRP (n = 22) and FCP (n = 13) were 78 (IQR, 52.5-152), 1.75 mg/L (IQR, 0.93-7.03) and 746 μg/g (IQR, 259-2100), respectively. There were significant correlations between wk6 ustekinumab levels and wk12 CDAI; r = -0.513 (95% CI, -0.796 to -0.046), P = 0.03; and between wk6 ustekinumab levels and wk12 CRP; r = -0.578 (95% CI, -0.808 to -0.194), P < 0.01. Wk6 ustekinumab levels were lower in patients undergoing subsequent dose intensification; 12.5 vs. 19.6 µg/mL, P = 0.04.

Conclusion: Wk6 ustekinumab levels are significantly associated with baseline Crohn's disease biomarkers and subsequent clinical and biochemical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000002116DOI Listing
March 2021

Whole-genome sequencing of African Americans implicates differential genetic architecture in inflammatory bowel disease.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 03 17;108(3):431-445. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Medical College of Virginia Campus of Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA.

Whether or not populations diverge with respect to the genetic contribution to risk of specific complex diseases is relevant to understanding the evolution of susceptibility and origins of health disparities. Here, we describe a large-scale whole-genome sequencing study of inflammatory bowel disease encompassing 1,774 affected individuals and 1,644 healthy control Americans with African ancestry (African Americans). Although no new loci for inflammatory bowel disease are discovered at genome-wide significance levels, we identify numerous instances of differential effect sizes in combination with divergent allele frequencies. For example, the major effect at PTGER4 fine maps to a single credible interval of 22 SNPs corresponding to one of four independent associations at the locus in European ancestry individuals but with an elevated odds ratio for Crohn disease in African Americans. A rare variant aggregate analysis implicates Ca-binding neuro-immunomodulator CALB2 in ulcerative colitis. Highly significant overall overlap of common variant risk for inflammatory bowel disease susceptibility between individuals with African and European ancestries was observed, with 41 of 241 previously known lead variants replicated and overall correlations in effect sizes of 0.68 for combined inflammatory bowel disease. Nevertheless, subtle differences influence the performance of polygenic risk scores, and we show that ancestry-appropriate weights significantly improve polygenic prediction in the highest percentiles of risk. The median amount of variance explained per locus remains the same in African and European cohorts, providing evidence for compensation of effect sizes as allele frequencies diverge, as expected under a highly polygenic model of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008495PMC
March 2021

Patients With Low Drug Levels or Antibodies to a Prior Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Are More Likely to Develop Antibodies to a Subsequent Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Jan 6. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.

Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with measurement of serum drug and antidrug antibodies (ADAb) is used widely to confirm therapeutic exposure, rule out immunogenicity, and optimize treatment of biologics in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. A recent genome-wide association study found the variant HLA-DQA1∗05 to increase the risk of development of antibodies against infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADM) 2-fold, regardless of concomitant immunomodulator use. However, there is currently limited evidence showing whether patients who develop antibodies to 1 anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) are prone to develop antibodies to the subsequent anti-TNF. Our aim was to investigate the risk of subsequent antibody development in cases (with ADAb to prior anti-TNF) versus control subjects (without ADAb to prior anti-TNF) using a large cohort of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases who underwent TDM with a drug-tolerant assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8257758PMC
January 2021

Inflamed Ulcerative Colitis Regions Associated With MRGPRX2-Mediated Mast Cell Degranulation and Cell Activation Modules, Defining a New Therapeutic Target.

Gastroenterology 2021 04 6;160(5):1709-1724. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York; Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Recent literature has implicated a key role for mast cells in murine models of colonic inflammation, but their role in human ulcerative colitis (UC) is not well established. A major advance has been the identification of mrgprb2 (human orthologue, MRGPX2) as mediating IgE-independent mast cell activation. We sought to define mechanisms of mast cell activation and MRGPRX2 in human UC.

Methods: Colon tissues were collected from patients with UC for bulk RNA sequencing and lamina propria cells were isolated for MRGPRX2 activation studies and single-cell RNA sequencing. Genetic association of all protein-altering G-protein coupled receptor single-nucleotide polymorphism was performed in an Ashkenazi Jewish UC case-control cohort. Variants of MRGPRX2 were transfected into Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human mast cell (HMC) 1.1 cells to detect genotype-dependent effects on β-arrestin recruitment, IP-1 accumulation, and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

Results: Mast cell-specific mediators and adrenomedullin (proteolytic precursor of PAMP-12, an MRGPRX2 agonist) are up-regulated in inflamed compared to uninflamed UC. MRGPRX2 stimulation induces carboxypeptidase secretion from inflamed UC. Of all protein-altering GPCR alleles, a unique variant of MRGPRX2, Asn62Ser, was most associated with and was bioinformatically predicted to alter arrestin recruitment. We validated that the UC protective serine allele enhances β-arrestin recruitment, decreases IP-1, and increases phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase with MRGPRX2 agonists. Single-cell RNA sequencing defines that adrenomedullin is expressed by activated fibroblasts and epithelial cells and that interferon gamma is a key upstream regulator of mast cell gene expression.

Conclusion: Inflamed UC regions are distinguished by MRGPRX2-mediated activation of mast cells, with decreased activation observed with a UC-protective genetic variant. These results define cell modules of UC activation and a new therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.12.076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8494017PMC
April 2021

Common and Rare Variant Prediction and Penetrance of IBD in a Large, Multi-ethnic, Health System-based Biobank Cohort.

Gastroenterology 2021 04 24;160(5):1546-1557. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; The Charles Bronfman Institute for Personalized Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Polygenic risk scores (PRS) may soon be used to predict inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk in prevention efforts. We leveraged exome-sequence and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data from 29,358 individuals in the multiethnic, randomly ascertained health system-based BioMe biobank to define effects of common and rare IBD variants on disease prediction and pathophysiology.

Methods: PRS were calculated from European, African American, and Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) reference case-control studies, and a meta-GWAS run using all three association datasets. PRS were then combined using regression to assess which combination of scores best predicted IBD status in European, AJ, Hispanic, and African American cohorts in BioMe. Additionally, rare variants were assessed in genes associated with very early-onset IBD (VEO-IBD), by estimating genetic penetrance in each BioMe population.

Results: Combining risk scores based on association data from distinct ancestral populations improved IBD prediction for every population in BioMe and significantly improved prediction among European ancestry UK Biobank individuals. Lower predictive power for non-Europeans was observed, reflecting in part substantially lower African IBD case-control reference sizes. We replicated associations for two VEO-IBD genes, ADAM17 and LRBA, with high dominant model penetrance in BioMe. Autosomal recessive LRBA risk alleles are associated with severe, early-onset autoimmunity; we show that heterozygous carriage of an African-predominant LRBA protein-altering allele is associated with significantly decreased LRBA and CTLA-4 expression with T-cell activation.

Conclusions: Greater genetic diversity in African populations improves prediction across populations, and generalizes some VEO-IBD genes. Increasing African American IBD case-collections should be prioritized to reduce health disparities and enhance pathophysiological insight.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.12.034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8237248PMC
April 2021

Early Changes in Serum Albumin Predict Clinical and Endoscopic Outcomes in Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Starting Anti-TNF Treatment.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2021 Aug;27(9):1452-1461

Department of Gastroenterology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Up to 60% of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) ultimately fail anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) treatment. We aimed to investigate early predictive markers of clinical and endoscopic outcomes in patients with UC who were anti-TNF-naïve commencing anti-TNF treatment, with particular focus on changes in albumin and C-reactive protein levels in the first 2 weeks of treatment.

Methods: We retrospectively investigated 210 patients with UC who started infliximab or adalimumab between 2009 and 2016 (male, 62.4%; median age at diagnosis, 37.9 years [interquartile range, 25.5-48.9 years]; median follow-up duration, 3.3 years [1.9-5.0 years]). Logistic and Cox proportional-hazards regressions were performed to identify variables associated with primary nonresponse (PNR), endoscopic outcomes, time-to-colectomy, and anti-TNF failure.

Results: Forty-one patients (19.5%) experienced PNR; week 0/week 2 ratio serum albumin was associated with PNR (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.9, per interquartile range increase). Week 0/week 2 ratio albumin was also associated with endoscopic response (aOR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.31-0.82) and endoscopic remission (aOR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.96) at weeks 8 to 14, time-to-colectomy (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.29-3.49) and time-to-anti-TNF failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.22-1.96), regardless of age, disease severity, or in-patient status. Association with time-to-colectomy and anti-TNF failure was externally validated in an independent cohort of inpatients with UC starting infliximab.

Conclusions: Change in serum albumin within the first 2 weeks of anti-TNF treatment is predictive of PNR, endoscopic outcomes, time-to-colectomy, and anti-TNF failure in patients with UC. Timely access to this biomarker enables early identification of patients with UC at risk of anti-TNF failure and may guide early optimization of anti-TNF treatment to improve disease outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izaa309DOI Listing
August 2021

COVID-19 Pandemic: Which IBD Patients Need to Be Scoped-Who Gets Scoped Now, Who Can Wait, and how to Resume to Normal.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Oct;14(14 Suppl 3):S791-S797

bMount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Endoscopy is an essential component in the management of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. There is a risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission during endoscopic procedures. The International Organization for the study of IBD [IOIBD] has developed 11 position statements, based on an online survey, that focus on how to prioritise endoscopies in IBD patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, alternative modes for disease monitoring, and ways to triage the high number of postponed endoscopies after the pandemic. We propose to pre-screen patients for suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and test for SARS-CoV-2 before endoscopy if available. High priority endoscopies during pandemic include acute gastrointestinal bleed, acute severe ulcerative colitis, new IBD diagnosis, cholangitis in primary sclerosing cholangitis, and partial bowel obstruction. Alternative modes of monitoring using clinical symptoms, serum inflammatory markers, and faecal calprotectin should be considered during the pandemic. Prioritising access to endoscopy in the post-pandemic period should be guided by control of COVID-19 in the local community and availability of manpower and personal protective equipment. Endoscopy should be considered within 3 months after the pandemic for patients with a past history of dysplasia and endoscopic resection for dysplastic lesion. Endoscopy should be considered 3-6 months after the pandemic for assessment of postoperative recurrence or new biologic initiation. Endoscopy can be postponed until after 6 months of pandemic for routine IBD surveillance and assessment of mucosal healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665406PMC
October 2020

Associations of NOD2 polymorphisms with Erysipelotrichaceae in stool of in healthy first degree relatives of Crohn's disease subjects.

BMC Med Genet 2020 10 15;21(1):204. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: Genetic analyses have identified many variants associated with the risk of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) development. Among these variants, the ones located within the NOD2 gene have the highest odds ratio of all IBD genetic risk variants. Also, patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have been shown to have an altered gut microbiome, which might be a reflection of inflammation itself or an effect of other parameters that contribute to the risk of the disease. Since NOD2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that senses bacterial peptidoglycan in the cytosol and stimulates the host immune response (Al Nabhani et al., PLoS Pathog 13:e1006177, 2017), it is hypothesized that NOD2 variants represent perfect candidates for influencing host-microbiome interactions. We hypothesized that NOD2 risk variants affect the microbiome composition of healthy first degree relative (FDR) of CD patients and thus potentially contribute to an altered microbiome state before disease onset.

Methods: Based on this, we studied a large cohort of 1546 healthy FDR of CD patients and performed a focused analysis of the association of three major CD SNPs in the coding region of the NOD2 gene, which are known to confer a 15-40-fold increased risk of developing CD in homozygous or compound heterozygous individuals.

Results: Our results show that carriers of the C allele at rs2066845 was significantly associated with an increase in relative abundance in the fecal bacterial family Erysipelotrichaceae.

Conclusions: This result suggests that NOD2 polymorphisms contribute to fecal microbiome composition in asymptomatic individuals. Whether this modulation of the microbiome influences the future development of CD remains to be assessed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-020-01115-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566148PMC
October 2020

What Constitutes Frailty In Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

Gastroenterology 2020 11 13;159(5):1993. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of Toronto; Mount Sinai Hospital Inflammatory Bowel Disease Centre, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.07.060DOI Listing
November 2020

Clinical features and genetic risk of demyelination following anti-TNF treatment.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

IBD Pharmacogenetics Group, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK.

Background: Anti-TNF exposure has been linked to demyelination events. We sought to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF treatment and test whether affected patients were genetically predisposed to multiple sclerosis (MS).

Methods: We conducted a case-control study to describe the clinical features of demyelination events following anti-TNF. We compared genetic risk scores (GRS), calculated using carriage of 43 susceptibility loci for MS, in 48 cases to 1219 patients exposed to anti-TNF who did not develop demyelination.

Results: Overall, 39 (74%) cases were female. The median age (range) of patients at time of demyelination was 41.5 years (20.7 - 63.2). The median duration of anti-TNF treatment was 21.3 months (0.5 - 99.4) and 19 (36%) patients were receiving concomitant immunomodulators. Most patients had central demyelination affecting the brain, spinal cord or both. Complete recovery was reported in 12 (23%) patients after a median time of 6.8 months (0.1 - 28.7). After 33.0 months of follow-up partial recovery was observed in 29 (55%) patients, relapsing and remitting episodes in 9 (17%), progressive symptoms in 3 (6%): 2 (4%) patients were diagnosed with MS. There was no significant difference between MS GRS scores in cases (mean -3.5 x 10-4, SD 0.0039) and controls (mean -1.1×10-3, SD 0.0042) (p=0.23).

Conclusions: Patients who experienced demyelination events following anti-TNF were more likely female, less frequently treated with an immunomodulator, and had a similar genetic risk to anti-TNF exposed controls who did not. Large prospective studies with pre-treatment neuroimaging are required to identify genetic susceptibility loci.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa104DOI Listing
June 2020

Ulcerative Colitis Patients Continue to Improve Over the First Six Months of Vedolizumab Treatment: 12-Month Clinical and Mucosal Healing Effectiveness.

J Can Assoc Gastroenterol 2020 Apr 22;3(2):74-82. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

Background: Vedolizumab (VDZ) is a humanized monoclonal IgG1 antibody which inhibits leukocyte vascular adhesion and migration into the gastrointestinal tract through α4β7 integrin blockade.

Aims: We retrospectively assessed the 12-month, real-world efficacy and safety of VDZ as induction and maintenance therapy in adult patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

Methods: The rates of clinical remission (CR, partial Mayo score < 2), steroid-free clinical remission (SFCR), and mucosal healing were assessed with nonresponder imputation analysis. Baseline independent predictors of clinical remission were investigated, and adverse events were recorded.

Results: We analyzed outcomes in 74 patients; 32% were anti-TNF naïve, 68% had pancolitis, and 46% were on systemic steroids at baseline. At week six, week 14, six months and one year, the CR rates were 26%, 34%, 39% and 39% respectively, and the SFCR rates were 24%, 31%, 38% and 39%, respectively. Among patients not in CR after induction, the probability of remission at six months was 20%. Sustained SFCR between weeks 14 and 52 and between weeks 22 and 52 was found in 69% and 86% of the patients, respectively. Steroid-free clinical remission at 12 months was significantly associated with remission after the induction phase (OR = 30.4; 95% CI, 6 to 150; < 0.001). Mucosal healing rate at one year was 39%. The most common side effect was headache (7%).

Conclusions: Increasing remission rates were observed over the first six months of VDZ treatment. One-fifth of patients not in remission post-induction achieved remission by six months of continued therapy. Mucosal healing was associated with higher rates of one-year steroid-free remission and VDZ treatment continuation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jcag/gwy065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7165264PMC
April 2020

Persistent Diarrhea in Patients With Crohn's Disease After Mucosal Healing Is Associated With Lower Diversity of the Intestinal Microbiome and Increased Dysbiosis.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 02 24;19(2):296-304.e3. Epub 2020 Mar 24.

Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute, Sinai Health System, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background & Aims: In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), symptoms do not always associate with the severity of endoscopic inflammation and can persist after mucosal healing. We investigated whether symptoms in patients with successfully treated IBD are related to the composition of the intestinal microbiome.

Methods: We analyzed 590 tissue biopsy specimens from 215 patients with IBD and 48 healthy individuals (controls). We obtained mucosal biopsy specimens from 2 colon sites (ascending and rectosigmoid) and from the terminal ileum along with clinical data. Bacterial DNA was extracted from the biopsy specimens and the V4 region of 16s ribosomal RNA sequenced by Miseq and processed using the QIIME v1.9 pipeline.

Results: Mucosal biopsy specimens from patients with Crohn's disease (CD) who achieved mucosal healing (Mayo scores of 0-1 or segmental endoscopic severity CD scores of 0-5) had lower Chao1 diversity than biopsy specimens from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) or unclassified IBD (IBD-U), or controls. After endoscopic evidence of improvement in patients with UC or IBD-U, diversity of the tissue-associated microbiota did not differ significantly from that of controls. Colon biopsy specimens from patients with CD had lower microbial diversity, before and after healing (segmental endoscopic severity CD scores, 0-2), than colon biopsy specimens from controls (P < .002). In patients with CD who achieved mucosal healing, residual clinical activity (CD activity index scores >150; P = .03) and persistent diarrhea were associated with reduced microbial diversity (P = .01). Continued diarrhea was associated with a trend toward dysbiosis, based on the microbial dysbiosis index (P = .059). In patients with UC or IBD-U with moderate to severe inflammation, increasing severity of diarrhea was associated with reduced microbial diversity (P = .03).

Conclusions: In an analysis of biopsy specimens from patients with IBD and controls, we found that despite endoscopic evidence of improvement or remission, α-diversity of the tissue-associated intestinal microbiome remained lower in patients with CD than in controls. This observation, along with the reduced Chao1 diversity and greater dysbiosis in intestinal microbiota of patients with residual symptoms of IBD, indicates that microbiome composition could be associated with persistent diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.03.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511440PMC
February 2021

Dietary Guidance From the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 15;18(6):1381-1392. Epub 2020 Feb 15.

Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Recent evidence points to a plausible role of diet and the microbiome in the pathogenesis of both Crohn's disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). Dietary therapies based on exclusion of table foods and replacement with nutritional formulas and/or a combination of nutritional formulas and specific table foods may induce remission in CD. In UC, specific dietary components have also been associated with flare of disease. While evidence of varying quality has identified potential harmful or beneficial dietary components, physicians and patients at the present time do not have guidance as to which foods are safe, may be protective or deleterious for these diseases. The current document has been compiled by the nutrition cluster of the International Organization for the Study of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IOIBD) based on the best current evidence to provide expert opinion regarding specific dietary components, food groups and food additives that may be prudent to increase or decrease in the diet of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases to control and prevent relapse of inflammatory bowel diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.01.046DOI Listing
May 2020

Practical guidelines on endoscopic treatment for Crohn's disease strictures: a consensus statement from the Global Interventional Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 04 16;5(4):393-405. Epub 2020 Jan 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, USA.

Stricture formation is a common complication of Crohn's disease, resulting from the disease process, surgery, or drugs. Endoscopic balloon dilation has an important role in the management of strictures, with emerging techniques, such as endoscopic electroincision and stenting, showing promising results. The underlying disease process, altered bowel anatomy from disease or surgery, and concurrent use of immunosuppressive drugs can make endoscopic procedures more challenging. There is an urgent need for the standardisation of endoscopic procedures and peri-procedural management strategies. On the basis of an extensive literature review and the clinical experience of the consensus group, which consisted of representatives from the Interventional Inflammatory Bowel Disease Group, we propose detailed guidance on all aspects of the principles and techniques for endoscopic procedures in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease-associated strictures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30366-8DOI Listing
April 2020

Histological Markers of Clinical Relapse in Endoscopically Quiescent Ulcerative Colitis.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 10;26(11):1722-1729

Zane Cohen Centre for Digestive Diseases, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: In ulcerative colitis (UC) patients who have achieved mucosal healing, active microscopic colonic mucosal inflammation is commonly observed. We aimed to assess the association between histological activity and disease relapse in endoscopically quiescent UC.

Methods: Ulcerative colitis patients with endoscopically quiescent disease and ≥12 months of follow-up were included. Biopsies were reviewed for the presence of basal plasmacytosis (BPC) and active histological inflammation, defined as a Geboes score (GS) ≥3.2. Primary outcome measures were disease relapse at 18 months and time to first relapse after index colonoscopy.

Results: Seventy-six UC patients (51% male; mean age, 38.6 years; median follow-up [range], 75.2 [2-118] months) were included. Sixty-two percent had an endoscopic Mayo score of 0 at index colonoscopy. Basal plasmacytosis was present in 46% and active histological inflammation in 30% of subjects. Presence of BPC was associated with a significantly shorter time to disease relapse (P = 0.01). Active histological inflammation was significantly associated with clinical relapse at 18 months (P = 0.0005) and shorter time to clinical relapse (P = 0.0006). Multivariate analysis demonstrated active histological inflammation to be independently associated with clinical relapse at 18 months and time to clinical relapse.

Conclusions: In endoscopically quiescent UC, active histological inflammation and the presence of BPC are adjunctive histological markers associated with increased likelihood of disease relapse. Although prospective studies are required, the presence of these histological markers should be a factor considered when making therapeutic decisions in UC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243631PMC
October 2020

Colonic Vascular Prominence From Superior Mesenteric Vein Occlusion.

ACG Case Rep J 2019 Jan 13;6(1):e00012. Epub 2019 Feb 13.

Mount Sinai Hospital, Sinai Health System, Toronto, ON.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/crj.0000000000000012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493693PMC
January 2019

Development and Validation of a Test to Monitor Endoscopic Activity in Patients With Crohn's Disease Based on Serum Levels of Proteins.

Gastroenterology 2020 02 8;158(3):515-526.e10. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Division of Gastroenterology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background & Aims: Noninvasive tests to measure endoscopic activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) have limitations. We aimed to develop a test to identify patients in remission, based on endoscopic analysis, and monitor CD activity based on serum levels of proteins.

Methods: We developed a test to measure 13 proteins in blood (ANG1, ANG2, CRP, SAA1, IL7, EMMPRIN, MMP1, MMP2, MMP3, MMP9, TGFA, CEACAM1, and VCAM1), called the endoscopic healing index [EHI], using samples from 278 patients with CD from a multinational training cohort. We validated the test using 2 independent cohorts of patients with CD: 116 biologic-naive patients with early-stage CD (validation cohort 1) and 195 biologic-exposed patients with chronic CD (validation cohort 2). The ability of the test to identify patients with active disease vs patients in remission (defined as a simple endoscopic score for CD of ≤2 and ≤1 in each segment, or a total CD endoscopic index of severity score <3) was assessed by using area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of the test was compared with that of measurement of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and fecal calprotectin.

Results: The EHI scores range from 0 to 100 units; higher scores indicate more severe CD activity, based on endoscopy findings. The EHI identified patients in remission with an AUROC of 0.962 in validation cohort 1 (95% confidence interval, 0.942-0.982) and an AUROC of 0.693 in validation cohort 2 (95% confidence interval, 0.619-0.767), regardless of CD location or phenotype. A cutoff value of 20 points identified patients in remission with the highest level of sensitivity (97.1% in validation cohort 1 and 83.2% in validation cohort 2), with specificity values of 69.0% and 36.6%, respectively. A cutoff value of 50 points identified patients in remission with the highest level of specificity (100% in validation cohort 1 and 87.8% in validation cohort 2), with sensitivity values of 37.3% and 30.0%, respectively. The EHI identified patients in remission with a significantly higher AUROC value than the test for CRP (0.876, P < .001 in validation cohort 1 and 0.624, P = .109 in validation cohort 2). In analysis of patients with available FC measurements, the AUROC value for the EHI did not differ significantly from that of measurement of FC (AUROC, 0.950 for EHI vs AUROC, 0.923 for FC; P = .147 in validation cohort 1 and AUROC, 0.803 for EHI vs AUROC, 0.854 for FC; P = .298 in validation cohort 2).

Conclusions: We developed an index called the EHI to identify patients with CD in endoscopic remission based on blood levels of 13 proteins. The EHI identified patients with resolution of endoscopic disease activity, with good overall accuracy, although with variation between the 2 cohorts assessed. The EHI AUROC values were comparable to measurement of FC and higher than measurement of serum CRP. The test might be used in practice to assess endoscopic activity in patients with CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.10.034DOI Listing
February 2020

Identification of Target Golimumab Levels in Maintenance Therapy of Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Associated With Mucosal Healing.

Inflamm Bowel Dis 2020 04;26(5):766-773

Division of Gastroenterology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Introduction: Golimumab is approved as a therapy for ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. Recent data also demonstrate efficacy in Crohn's disease (CD); however, little is known about target drug levels to achieve endoscopic remission.

Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of IBD patients on maintenance golimumab. Median trough levels were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test, and logistic regression was used to construct a probabilistic model to determine sensitivity and specificity of levels predicting mucosal healing.

Results: Fifty-eight patients on maintenance golimumab were included (n = 39 CD, n = 19 UC/IBD-unclassified [IBDU]). Forty percent (n = 23) were cotreated with an immunomodulator, 95% (n = 55) of patients were anti-TNF experienced, and 15.5% (n = 9) had 3 or more prior biologic therapies. Forty-four percent of patients achieved mucosal healing with endoscopic response in a further 26% of patients. Clinical remission was recorded in 41% of patients, and 82% had clinical response. Patients were treated with doses generally higher than the approved maintenance dose. In CD patients, median golimumab trough levels were higher in patients with mucosal healing (8.8 μg/mL vs 5.08 μg/mL, P = 0.03). After calculation of a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for mucosal healing vs nonresponse, a trough level >8 μg/mL was associated with mucosal healing, with 67% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and a likelihood ratio of 3:4.

Conclusion: Treatment with golimumab was associated with mucosal healing in 44% of all IBD patients. Higher golimumab levels were associated with mucosal healing in CD. These findings support the need for prospective studies to determine target golimumab levels in IBD, which may impact current clinical practices in relation to selection of maintenance dosing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ibd/izz199DOI Listing
April 2020
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