Publications by authors named "Mark Russi"

16 Publications

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Hydrogen peroxide vapor decontamination of N95 respirators for reuse.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 Feb 9:1-3. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages of N95 respirators. Reprocessing of used N95 respirators may provide a higher filtration crisis alternative, but whether effective sterilization can be achieved for a virus without impairing respirator function remains unknown. We evaluated the viricidal efficacy of Bioquell vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) on contaminated N95 respirators and tested the particulate particle penetration and inhalation and exhalation resistance of respirators after multiple cycles of VHP.

Methods: For this study, 3M 1870 N95 respirators were contaminated with 3 aerosolized bacteriophages: T1, T7, and Pseudomonas phage phi-6 followed by 1 cycle of VHP decontamination using a BQ-50 system. Additionally, new and unused respirators were sent to an independent laboratory for particulate filter penetration testing and inhalation and exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP.

Results: A single VHP cycle resulted in complete eradication of bacteriophage from respirators (limit of detection 10 PFU). Respirators showed acceptable limits for inhalation/exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. Respirators demonstrated a filtration efficiency >99 % after 3 cycles, but filtration efficiency fell below 95% after 5 cycles of HPV.

Conclusion: Bioquell VHP demonstrated high viricidal activity for N95 respirators inoculated with aerosolized bacteriophages. Bioquell technology can be scaled for simultaneous decontamination of a large number of used but otherwise intact respirators. Reprocessing should be limited to 3 cycles due to concerns both about impact of clinical wear and tear on fit, and to decrement in filtration after 3 cycles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8185421PMC
February 2021

Mass severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of asymptomatic healthcare personnel.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2021 05 25;42(5):625-626. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/ice.2021.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7853752PMC
May 2021

Tuberculosis Screening, Testing, and Treatment of US Health Care Personnel: ACOEM and NTCA Joint Task Force on Implementation of the 2019 MMWR Recommendations.

J Occup Environ Med 2020 07;62(7):e355-e369

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Elk Grove, Illinois.

: On May 17, 2019, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Tuberculosis Controllers Association issued new Recommendations for Tuberculosis Screening, Testing, and Treatment of Health Care Personnel, United States, 2019, updating the health care personnel-related sections of the Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005. This companion document offers the collective effort and experience of occupational health, infectious disease, and public health experts from major academic and public health institutions across the United States and expands on each section of the 2019 recommendations to provide clarifications, explanations, and considerations that go beyond the 2019 recommendations to answer questions that may arise and to offer strategies for implementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JOM.0000000000001904DOI Listing
July 2020

Testing and Clinical Management of Health Care Personnel Potentially Exposed to Hepatitis C Virus - CDC Guidance, United States, 2020.

MMWR Recomm Rep 2020 07 24;69(6):1-8. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Exposure to hepatitis viruses is a recognized occupational risk for health care personnel (HCP). This report establishes new CDC guidance that includes recommendations for a testing algorithm and clinical management for HCP with potential occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus (HCV). Baseline testing of the source patient and HCP should be performed as soon as possible (preferably within 48 hours) after the exposure. A source patient refers to any person receiving health care services whose blood or other potentially infectious material is the source of the HCP's exposure. Two options are recommended for testing the source patient. The first option is to test the source patient with a nucleic acid test (NAT) for HCV RNA. This option is preferred, particularly if the source patient is known or suspected to have recent behaviors that increase risk for HCV acquisition (e.g., injection drug use within the previous 4 months) or if risk cannot be reliably assessed. The second option is to test the source patient for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), then if positive, test for HCV RNA. For HCP, baseline testing for anti-HCV with reflex to a NAT for HCV RNA if positive should be conducted as soon as possible (preferably within 48 hours) after the exposure and may be simultaneous with source-patient testing. If follow-up testing is recommended based on the source patient's status (e.g., HCV RNA positive or anti-HCV positive with unavailable HCV RNA or if the HCV infection status is unknown), HCP should be tested with a NAT for HCV RNA at 3-6 weeks postexposure. If HCV RNA is negative at 3-6 weeks postexposure, a final test for anti-HCV at 4-6 months postexposure is recommended. A source patient or HCP found to be positive for HCV RNA should be referred to care. Postexposure prophylaxis of hepatitis C is not recommended for HCP who have occupational exposure to blood and other body fluids. This guidance was developed based on expert opinion (CDC. Updated U.S. Public Health Service guidelines for the management of occupational exposures to HBV, HCV, and HIV and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. MMWR Recommend Rep 2001;50[No. RR-11]; Supplementary Figure, https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/90288) and reflects updated guidance from professional organizations that recommend treatment for acute HCV infection. Health care providers can use this guidance to update their procedures for postexposure testing and clinical management of HCP potentially exposed to hepatitis C virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.rr6906a1DOI Listing
July 2020

NDIS and occupational therapy: compatible in intention and purpose from the consumer perspective.

Authors:
Mark V Russi

Aust Occup Ther J 2014 Oct 29;61(5):364-70. Epub 2014 Aug 29.

Occupational Therapy, Monash University, Frankston, Victoria, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12138DOI Listing
October 2014

Mandatory influenza vaccine.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2012 Mar 17;33(3):222-3. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Department of Medicine and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT06520, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/664493DOI Listing
March 2012

Anthropometric measurements, job strain, and prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in female medical sonographersf.

Work 2009 ;33(2):181-9

Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 006510, USA.

Objective: Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to explore the relationship between anthropometric measurements, job strain and work organization factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms/occupational injuries in medical sonographers.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey of twenty-six female sonographers at a tertiary medical center completed a standardized symptom questionnaire and underwent anthropometric measurement. First aid events and OSHA reportable injuries were abstracted from employee health records.

Results: 96% of subjects reported some type of musculoskeletal symptoms within the past year, with shoulders (73%), low back (69%) and wrist/hand symptoms (54%) reported most often. PCA identified seven domains among the predictive variables: physical size, job strain, time on job, abdominal girth, work pace/variability, movement during study, and time spent standing. The magnitude and direction of effect for predicting musculoskeletal symptoms varied by symptom location. Abdominal girth was consistently associated with increased likelihood of reporting symptoms.

Conclusion: Sonographers work in a high demand/low control environment. Future studies of sonographers may need to include measures of both physical size and job strain. Reducing risk factors for one anatomical location may increase the risk at another location in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-2009-0865DOI Listing
December 2009

An examination of cancer epidemiology studies among populations living close to toxic waste sites.

Environ Health 2008 Jun 26;7:32. Epub 2008 Jun 26.

Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program, Yale University School of Medicine, 135 College Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Background: Toxic waste sites contain a broad range of suspected or confirmed human carcinogens, and remain a source of concern to many people, particularly those living in the vicinity of a site. Despite years of study, a consensus has not emerged regarding the cancer risk associated with such sites.

Methods: We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing cancer incidence or mortality in the vicinity of toxic waste sites between 1980 and 2006, and catalogued the methods employed by such studies.

Results: Nineteen studies are described with respect to eight methodological criteria. Most were ecological, with minimal utilization of hydrogeological or air pathway modeling. Many did not catalogue whether a potable water supply was contaminated, and very few included contaminant measurements at waste sites or in subjects' homes. Most studies did not appear to be responses to a recognized cancer mortality cluster. Studies were highly variable with respect to handling of competing risk factors and multiple comparisons.

Conclusion: We conclude that studies to date have generated hypotheses, but have been of limited utility in determining whether populations living near toxic waste sites are at increased cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-069X-7-32DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2443363PMC
June 2008

High rate of negative results of tuberculin and QuantiFERON tests among individuals with a history of positive skin test results.

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2006 May 21;27(5):436-41. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Pulmonary and Critical Care Section, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520-8057, USA.

Objectives: To evaluate individuals at high risk for tuberculosis exposure who had a history of a positive tuberculin skin test (TST) result in order to determine the prevalence of unsuspected negative TST results. To confirm these findings with the QuantiFERON-TB test (QFT), an in vitro whole-blood assay that measures tuberculin-induced secretion of interferon-gamma.

Methods: This survey was conducted from November 2001 through December 2003 at 3 sites where TST screening is regularly done. Detailed histories and reviews of medical records were performed. TSTs were placed and read by 2 experienced healthcare workers, and blood was drawn for QFT. Any subject with a negative result of an initial TST during the study (induration diameter, <10 mm) underwent a second TST and a second QFT. The TST-negative group comprised individuals for whom both TSTs had an induration diameter of <10 mm. The confirmed-negative group comprised individuals for whom both TSTs yielded no detectable induration and results of both QFTs were negative.

Results: A total of 67 immunocompetent subjects with positive results of a previous TST were enrolled in the study. Of 56 subjects who completed the TST protocol, 25 (44.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31.6%-57.6%) were TST negative (P<.001). Of 31 subjects who completed the TST protocol and the QFT protocol, 8 (25.8%; 95% CI, 10.4%-41.2%) were confirmed negative (P<.005).

Conclusions: A significant proportion of subjects with positive results of a previous TST were TST negative in this study, and a subset of these were confirmed negative. These individuals' TST status may have reverted or may never have been positive. It will be important in future studies to determine whether such individuals lack immunity to tuberculosis and whether they should be considered for reentry into tuberculosis screening programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/503690DOI Listing
May 2006

Risks of brain tumors in rubber workers: a metaanalysis.

J Occup Environ Med 2005 Mar;47(3):294-8

Departments of Medicine and Epidemiology & Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, 234 Church Street, New Haven, CT 06510, USA.

Objective: To better understand whether rubber industry workers suffer increased risks of brain tumor, a concern that has persisted for over 40 years despite numerous well-conducted studies.

Methods: We performed a formal metaanalysis of brain tumor risk estimates reported in cohort studies of rubber and tire workers. Twenty unique cohorts were identified who met a priori inclusion criteria. Metaanalysis was performed using the general variance-based method; the variance of risk estimates was calculated for each study using a chi-squared method. Homogeneity was tested by means of the Q statistic.

Results: The metaanalysis determined an overall relative risk of 0.90 (95% CI = 0.79-1.02).

Conclusions: The analytical results are consistent with a conclusion that risks of brain tumor are not increased as a result of occupational exposures in the rubber and tire industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.jom.0000155715.08657.a2DOI Listing
March 2005

HIV and AIDS in the workplace.

Authors:
Mark Russi

J Occup Environ Med 2002 Jun;44(6):495-502

Since the onset of the HIV epidemic, AIDS and HIV infection have presented tremendous challenges to infected individuals seeking to remain productive in the workplace, to employers coping with the special needs of such individuals, and to physicians who treat and counsel exposed or infected personnel. OEM physicians should strive to ensure that employers are familiar with legislation and guidelines protecting the rights of infected employees, and they should support rational workplace policies applying to employees with HIV infection or AIDS. When the potential for occupational HIV exposure exists, OEM physicians should ensure that adequate training around exposure prevention, triage, and treatment is provided. OEM physicians who treat individuals with occupational HIV exposures should involve themselves in institutional efforts to prevent exposures through the use of safer devices and procedures, and they should ensure that immediate and adequate clinical evaluation of exposures is available at all times.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00043764-200206000-00009DOI Listing
June 2002
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