Publications by authors named "Mark Maurer"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

PD-1 blockade enhances elotuzumab efficacy in mouse tumor models.

Blood Adv 2017 May 8;1(12):753-765. Epub 2017 May 8.

Discovery Research, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lawrenceville, NJ.

Elotuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds human signaling lymphocytic activation molecule F7 (hSLAMF7) on myeloma cells, was developed to treat patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Elotuzumab has a dual mechanism of action that includes the direct activation of natural killer (NK) cells and the induction of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. This study aimed to characterize the effects of elotuzumab on NK cells in vitro and in patients with MM and to determine whether elotuzumab antitumor activity was improved by programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) blockade. Elotuzumab promoted NK cell activation when added to a coculture of human NK cells and SLAMF7-expressing myeloma cells. An increased frequency of activated NK cells was observed in bone marrow aspirates from elotuzumab-treated patients. In mouse tumor models expressing hSLAMF7, maximal antitumor efficacy of a murine immunoglobulin G2a version of elotuzumab (elotuzumab-g2a) required both Fcγ receptor-expressing NK cells and CD8 T cells and was significantly enhanced by coadministration of anti-PD-1 antibody. In these mouse models, elotuzumab-g2a and anti-PD-1 combination treatment promoted tumor-infiltrating NK and CD8 T-cell activation, as well as increased intratumoral cytokine and chemokine release. These observations support the rationale for clinical investigation of elotuzumab/anti-PD-1 combination therapy in patients with MM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2017004382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728054PMC
May 2017

TIGIT Marks Exhausted T Cells, Correlates with Disease Progression, and Serves as a Target for Immune Restoration in HIV and SIV Infection.

PLoS Pathog 2016 Jan 7;12(1):e1005349. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

Hawaii Center for HIV/AIDS, Department of Tropical Medicine, John A. Burns School of Medicine, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America.

HIV infection induces phenotypic and functional changes to CD8+ T cells defined by the coordinated upregulation of a series of negative checkpoint receptors that eventually result in T cell exhaustion and failure to control viral replication. We report that effector CD8+ T cells during HIV infection in blood and SIV infection in lymphoid tissue exhibit higher levels of the negative checkpoint receptor TIGIT. Increased frequencies of TIGIT+ and TIGIT+ PD-1+ CD8+ T cells correlated with parameters of HIV and SIV disease progression. TIGIT remained elevated despite viral suppression in those with either pharmacological antiretroviral control or immunologically in elite controllers. HIV and SIV-specific CD8+ T cells were dysfunctional and expressed high levels of TIGIT and PD-1. Ex-vivo single or combinational antibody blockade of TIGIT and/or PD-L1 restored viral-specific CD8+ T cell effector responses. The frequency of TIGIT+ CD4+ T cells correlated with the CD4+ T cell total HIV DNA. These findings identify TIGIT as a novel marker of dysfunctional HIV-specific T cells and suggest TIGIT along with other checkpoint receptors may be novel curative HIV targets to reverse T cell exhaustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1005349DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4704737PMC
January 2016

TIGIT and PD-1 impair tumor antigen-specific CD8⁺ T cells in melanoma patients.

J Clin Invest 2015 May 13;125(5):2046-58. Epub 2015 Apr 13.

T cell Ig and ITIM domain (TIGIT) is an inhibitory receptor expressed by activated T cells, Tregs, and NK cells. Here, we determined that TIGIT is upregulated on tumor antigen-specific (TA-specific) CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) from patients with melanoma, and these TIGIT-expressing CD8⁺ T cells often coexpress the inhibitory receptor PD-1. Moreover, CD8⁺ TILs from patients exhibited downregulation of the costimulatory molecule CD226, which competes with TIGIT for the same ligand, supporting a TIGIT/CD226 imbalance in metastatic melanoma. TIGIT marked early T cell activation and was further upregulated by T cells upon PD-1 blockade and in dysfunctional PD-1⁺TIM-3⁺ TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells. PD-1⁺TIGIT⁺, PD-1⁻TIGIT⁺, and PD-1⁺TIGIT⁻ CD8⁺ TILs had similar functional capacities ex vivo, suggesting that TIGIT alone, or together with PD-1, is not indicative of T cell dysfunction. However, in the presence of TIGIT ligand-expressing cells, TIGIT and PD-1 blockade additively increased proliferation, cytokine production, and degranulation of both TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs. Collectively, our results show that TIGIT and PD-1 regulate the expansion and function of TA-specific CD8⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ TILs in melanoma patients and suggest that dual TIGIT and PD-1 blockade should be further explored to elicit potent antitumor CD8⁺ T cell responses in patients with advanced melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI80445DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463210PMC
May 2015

Generation and characterization of human anti-human IL-21 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.

MAbs 2012 Jan-Feb;4(1):69-83

Department of Preclinical Research and Development, ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA, USA.

Interleukin-21 (IL-21) is a type I four-helical bundle cytokine that exerts a variety of significant effects on many hematopoietic cells, including T and B lymphocytes and natural killer cells. IL-21 is produced predominantly by CD4+ T cells and natural killer T cells and, when aberrantly overexpressed, appears to play important roles in a wide variety of autoimmune disorders. To generate potential therapeutic reagents capable of inhibiting IL-21 for clinical use, we immunized human immunoglobulin transgenic mice with IL-21 and then identified and cloned a panel of human anti-human IL-21 binding monoclonal antibodies. IL-21 neutralizing and IL-21-binding, non-neutralizing antibodies were assigned to distinct epitope "bins" based on surface plasmon resonance competition studies. The most potent neutralizing antibodies had extremely high (sub pM) affinity for IL-21 and were able to block IL-21 activity in various biological assays using either an IL-21R-transfected pre-B-cell line or primary human B cells, and their neutralizing activity was, in some cases, superior to that of a soluble form of the high affinity heterodimeric IL-21 receptor. Characterization of this panel of IL-21 antibodies provided the basis for the selection of a therapeutic candidate antibody capable of inhibiting IL-21 activity for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/mabs.4.1.18713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3338942PMC
June 2012

Significance of sesamoid ossification in peroneus longus tendon ruptures.

J Foot Ankle Surg 2012 May-Jun;51(3):352-5. Epub 2011 Dec 20.

Crozer-Keystone Podiatric Surgical Residency, Springfield, PA, USA.

Ruptures of the peroneus longus tendon are uncommon, with a small number of case reports found in published studies. The presence of an os peroneum can predispose the peroneus longus tendon to rupture at the cuboid level with or without concomitant fracture, or fracture through a partite os peroneum. Whether the os peroneum can be represented by various stages of ossification is still a matter of debate. We present 2 cases of acute peroneus longus tendon rupture at the cuboid notch in the presence of an intact os peroneum in the ossified and nonossified form. We treated patients with excision of the os peroneum and tenodesis of the peroneus longus to the peroneus brevis tendon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.jfas.2011.11.009DOI Listing
September 2012

B-lymphocyte stimulator/a proliferation-inducing ligand heterotrimers are elevated in the sera of patients with autoimmune disease and are neutralized by atacicept and B-cell maturation antigen-immunoglobulin.

Arthritis Res Ther 2010 19;12(2):R48. Epub 2010 Mar 19.

Preclinical Research and Development, ZymoGenetics, Inc, 1201 Eastlake Ave East, Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Introduction: B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) are members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family that regulate B-cell maturation, survival, and function. They are overexpressed in a variety of autoimmune diseases and reportedly exist in vivo not only as homotrimers, but also as BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers.

Methods: A proprietary N-terminal trimerization domain was used to produce recombinant BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers. Heterotrimer biologic activity was compared with that of BLyS and APRIL in a 4-hour signaling assay by using transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI)-transfected Jurkat cells and in a 4-day primary human B-cell proliferation assay. A bead-based immunoassay was developed to quantify native heterotrimers in human sera from healthy donors (n = 89) and patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; n = 89) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA; n = 30). Heterotrimer levels were compared with BLyS and APRIL homotrimer levels in a subset of these samples.

Results: The recombinant heterotrimers consisted mostly of one BLyS and two APRIL molecules. Heterotrimer signaling did not show any significant difference compared with APRIL in the TACI-Jurkat assay. Heterotrimers were less-potent inducers of B-cell proliferation than were homotrimeric BLyS or APRIL (EC(50), nMol/L: BLyS, 0.02; APRIL, 0.17; heterotrimers, 4.06). The soluble receptor fusion proteins atacicept and B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-immunoglobulin (Ig) neutralized the activity of BLyS, APRIL, and heterotrimers in both cellular assays, whereas B-cell activating factor belonging to the TNF family receptor (BAFF-R)-Ig neutralized only the activity of BLyS. In human sera, significantly more patients with SLE had detectable BLyS (67% versus 18%; P < 0.0001), APRIL (38% versus 3%; P < 0.0002), and heterotrimer (27% versus 8%; P = 0.0013) levels compared with healthy donors. Significantly more patients with RA had detectable APRIL, but not BLyS or heterotrimer, levels compared with healthy donors (83% versus 3%; P < 0.0001). Heterotrimer levels weakly correlated with BLyS, but not APRIL, levels.

Conclusions: Recombinant BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers have biologic activity and are inhibited by atacicept and BCMA-Ig, but not by BAFF-R-Ig. A novel immunoassay demonstrated that native BLyS/APRIL heterotrimers, as well as BLyS and APRIL homotrimers, are elevated in patients with autoimmune diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar2959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2888197PMC
September 2010

Generation of a high-affinity Fcgamma receptor by Ig-domain swapping between human CD64A and CD16A.

Protein Eng Des Sel 2010 Apr 11;23(4):299-309. Epub 2010 Feb 11.

Department of Immunology, ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

A recombinant soluble version of the human high-affinity receptor for IgG, rh-FcgammaRIA or CD64A, was expressed in mammalian cells and purified from their conditioned media. As assessed by circular dichroism, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering, incubation of rh-FcgammaRIA at 37 degrees C resulted in time-dependent formation of soluble aggregates caused by protein unfolding and loss of native structure. Aggregate formation was irreversible, temperature-dependent and was independent of rh-FcgammaRIA concentration. Aggregated rh-FcgammaRIA lost its ability to inhibit immune complex precipitation and failed to bind to IgG-Sepharose. Addition of human IgG1 to rh-FcgammaRIA prior to incubation at 37 degrees C blocked the formation of rh-FcgammaRIA aggregates. Production of soluble monomeric rh-FcgammaRIA was limited by aggregate formation during cell culture. Substitution of the membrane distal D1 Ig domain of FcgammaRIA with the D1 Ig domain of FcgammaRIIIA or CD16A resulted in a chimeric receptor, FcgammaR3A1A, with enhanced temperature stability. Relative to native rh-FcgammaRIA, FcgammaR3A1A exhibited less aggregation in Chinese hamster ovary cell-conditioned media or when purified receptor was incubated for up to 24 h at 37 degrees C. Both receptors bound to immobilized human IgG1 with high affinity and were equipotent at blockade of immune complex-mediated cytokine production from cultured mast cells. Equivalent dose-dependent reductions in edema and neutrophil infiltration in the cutaneous Arthus reaction in mice were noted for rh-FcgammaRIA and FcgammaR3A1A. These data demonstrate that the D1 Ig domains of FcgammaRIA and FcgammaRIIIA are functionally interchangeable and further suggest that the chimeric receptor FcgammaR3A1A is an effective inhibitor of type III hypersensitivity in mice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/protein/gzq007DOI Listing
April 2010

Targeting immune complex-mediated hypersensitivity with recombinant soluble human FcgammaRIA (CD64A).

J Immunol 2008 Jan;180(1):580-9

Department of Autoimmunity and Inflammation, ZymoGenetics, Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Binding of Ag-Ab immune complexes to cellular FcgammaR promotes cell activation, release of inflammatory mediators, and tissue destruction characteristic of autoimmune disease. To evaluate whether a soluble FcgammaR could block the proinflammatory effects of immune complexes, recombinant human (rh) versions of FcgammaRIA, FcgammaRIIA, and FcgammaRIIIA were prepared. Binding of rh-FcgammaRIA to IgG was of high affinity (KD=1.7x10(-10) M), whereas rh-FcgammaRIIA and rh-FcgammaRIIIA bound with low affinity (KD=0.6-1.9x10(-6) M). All rh-FcgammaR reduced immune complex precipitation, blocked complement-mediated lysis of Ab-sensitized RBC, and inhibited immune complex-mediated production of IL-6, IL-13, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha by cultured mast cells. Local or systemic delivery only of rh-FcgammaRIA, however, reduced edema and neutrophil infiltration in the cutaneous Arthus reaction in mice. 125I-labeled rh-FcgammaRIA was cleared from mouse blood with a rapid distribution phase followed by a slow elimination phase with a t1/2gamma of approximately 130 h. The highest percentage of injected radioactivity accumulated in blood approximately liver approximately carcass>kidney. s.c. dosing of rh-FcgammaRIA resulted in lower serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and prevented paw swelling and joint damage in a murine model of collagen Ab-induced arthritis. These data demonstrate that rh-FcgammaRIA is an effective inhibitor of type III hypersensitivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.180.1.580DOI Listing
January 2008

IL-31 is associated with cutaneous lymphocyte antigen-positive skin homing T cells in patients with atopic dermatitis.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2006 Feb;117(2):418-25

Department of Autoimmunity and Inflammation, ZymoGenetics, Inc., Seattle, WA 98102, USA.

Background: IL-31 is a newly discovered T-cell cytokine that, when overexpressed in mice, results in pruritus and skin dermatitis resembling human atopic dermatitis (AD).

Objective: We sought to investigate the expression of IL-31 and IL-31 receptor A (IL-31RA) in skin biopsy specimens and peripheral blood cells from patients with AD and healthy individuals.

Methods: Expression of IL-31 and IL-31RA was evaluated in skin biopsy specimens from patients with AD and healthy individuals by means of immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. IL-31 protein production by skin-homing cutaneous lymphocyte antigen (CLA)-positive T cells was also assessed.

Results: IL-31RA protein was expressed by keratinocytes and infiltrating macrophages in skin biopsy specimens from patients with AD. Comparisons between skin from patients with AD and healthy skin showed IL-31RA expression at higher levels on epidermal keratinocytes in AD samples. Infiltrating cells, more numerous in skin from patients with AD compared with that of healthy individuals, expressed IL31 mRNA. Histomorphometric analysis of these cells indicated they were of the lymphocytic lineage, with the majority of cells staining positive for CLA and CD3. IL31 mRNA and protein expression is largely restricted to CD45RO(+) (memory) CLA(+) T cells in peripheral blood of patients with AD and healthy volunteers. Moreover, circulating CLA(+) T cells from patients with AD, but not from patients with psoriasis, are capable of producing higher levels of IL-31 compared with CLA(+) T cells from healthy individuals. However, the average levels of IL-31 were not significantly different between patients with AD and healthy individuals.

Conclusion: We provide evidence that IL-31 expression is associated with CLA(+) T cells and might contribute to the development of AD-induced skin inflammation and pruritus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2005.10.046DOI Listing
February 2006

Interleukin 31, a cytokine produced by activated T cells, induces dermatitis in mice.

Nat Immunol 2004 Jul 6;5(7):752-60. Epub 2004 Jun 6.

Department of Immunology, ZymoGenetics, 1201 Eastlake Avenue East, Seattle, Washington 98102, USA.

T cell-derived cytokines are important in the development of an effective immune response, but when dysregulated they can promote disease. Here we identify a four-helix bundle cytokine we have called interleukin 31 (IL-31), which is preferentially produced by T helper type 2 cells. IL-31 signals through a receptor composed of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor. Expression of IL-31 receptor A and oncostatin M receptor mRNA was induced in activated monocytes, whereas epithelial cells expressed both mRNAs constitutively. Transgenic mice overexpressing IL-31 developed severe pruritus, alopecia and skin lesions. Furthermore, IL-31 receptor expression was increased in diseased tissues derived from an animal model of airway hypersensitivity. These data indicate that IL-31 may be involved in promoting the dermatitis and epithelial responses that characterize allergic and non-allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni1084DOI Listing
July 2004