Publications by authors named "Mark K Larson"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Investigation of the anisotropic confinement-dependent brittleness of a Utah coal.

Int J Rock Mech Min Sci (1997) 2020 Sep;8(2):274-290

Department of Geological Engineering, Montana Tech, Butte, MT, USA.

Changes of failure mechanism with increasing confinement, from extensional to shear-dominated failure, are widely observed in the rupture of intact specimens at the laboratory scale and in rock masses. In an analysis published in 2018, both unconfined and triaxial compressive tests were conducted to investigate the strength characteristics of 84 specimens of a Utah coal, including the spalling limits, the ratio of apparent unconfined compressive strength to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), the damage characteristics, and the post-yield dilatancy. These mechanical characteristics were found to be strongly anisotropic as a function of the orientation of the cleats relative to the loading direction, defined as the included angle. A total of four different included angles were used in the work performed in 2018. The authors found that the degree of anisotropic strength differed according to the included angle. However, the transition from extensional to shear failure at the given confinements was not clearly identified. In this study, a total of 20 specimens were additionally prepared from the same coal sample used in the previous study and then tested under both unconfined and triaxial compressive conditions. Because the authors already knew the most contrasting cases of the included angles from the previous work using the four included angles, they chose only two of the included angles (0° and 30°) for this study. For the triaxial compressive tests, a greater confining stress than the mean UCS was applied to the specimens in an attempt to identify the brittle-ductile transition of the coal. The new results have been compiled with the previous results in order to re-evaluate the confinement-dependency of the coal behavior. Additionally, the different confining stresses are used as analogs for different width-to-height (/) conditions of pillar strength. Although the / ratios of the specimens were not directly considered during testing, the equivalent / ratios of a pillar as a function of the confining stresses were estimated using an existing empirical solution. According to this relationship, the / at which in situ pillar behavior would be expected to transition from brittle to ductile is identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40789-020-00364-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8203118PMC
September 2020

Janus kinase inhibitors ruxolitinib and baricitinib impair glycoprotein-VI mediated platelet function.

Platelets 2021 Jun 7:1-12. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Knight Cardiovascular Institute and Division of Cardiology, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.

Several Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors (jakinibs) have recently been approved to treat inflammatory, autoimmune and hematological conditions. Despite emerging roles for JAKs and downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in platelets, it remains unknown whether jakinibs affect platelet function. Here, we profile platelet biochemical and physiological responses in the presence of five different clinically relevant jakinibs, including ruxolitinib, upadacitinib, oclacitinib, baricitinib and tofacitinib. Flow cytometry, microscopy and other assays found that potent JAK1/2 inhibitors baricitinib and ruxolitinib reduced platelet adhesion to collagen, as well as platelet aggregation, secretion and integrin αβ activation in response to the glycoprotein VI (GPVI) agonist collagen-related peptide (CRP-XL). Western blot analysis demonstrated that jakinibs reduced Akt phosphorylation and activation following GPVI activation, where ruxolitinib and baricitinib prevented DAPP1 phosphorylation. In contrast, jakinibs had no effects on platelet responses to thrombin. Inhibitors of GPVI and JAK signaling also abrogated platelet STAT5 phosphorylation following CRP-XL stimulation. Additional pharmacologic experiments supported roles for STAT5 in platelet secretion, integrin activation and cytoskeletal responses. Together, our results demonstrate that ruxolitinib and baricitinib have inhibitory effects on platelet function and support roles for JAK/STAT5 pathways in GPVI/ITAM mediated platelet function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2021.1934665DOI Listing
June 2021

Laboratory investigation of the anisotropic confinement-dependent brittle-ductile transition of a Utah coal.

Int J Min Sci Technol 2021 ;31(1):51-57

Mine Safety Branch, CDC/NIOSH/SMRD, Spokane, WA 99207, USA.

This paper was developed as part of an effort by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to identify risk factors associated with bumps in the prevention of fatalities and accidents in highly stressed, bump-prone ground conditions. Changes of failure mechanism with increasing confinement, from extensional-to shear-dominated failure, are widely observed in the rupture of intact specimens at the laboratory scale and in rock masses. In the previous analysis conducted in 2018, both unconfined and triaxial compressive tests were conducted to investigate the strength characteristics of some specimens of a Utah coal, including the spalling limits, the ratio of apparent unconfined compressive strength (AUCS) to unconfined compressive strength (UCS), the damage characteristics, and the post-yield dilatancy. These mechanical characteristics were found to be strongly anisotropic as a function of the orientation of the cleats relative to the loading direction. However, the transition from extensional to shear failure at the given confinements was not clearly identified. In this study, a total of 20 specimens were additionally prepared from the same coal sample used in the previous study and then tested under both unconfined and triaxial compressive conditions. The different confining stresses are used as analogs for different width-to-height (W/H) ratios of pillar strength. Although the W/H ratios of the specimens were not directly considered during testing, the equivalent W/H ratios of a pillar as a function of the confining stresses were estimated using an existing empirical solution. According to this relationship, the W/H at which in-situ pillar behavior would be expected to transition from brittle to ductile is identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2020.12.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8064694PMC
January 2021

Predicting the effects of supplemental EPA and DHA on the omega-3 index.

Am J Clin Nutr 2019 10;110(4):1034-1040

OmegaQuant Analytics, LLC, Sioux Falls, SD, USA.

Background: Supplemental long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (EPA and DHA) raise erythrocyte EPA + DHA [omega-3 index (O3I)] concentrations, but the magnitude or variability of this effect is unclear.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to model the effects of supplemental EPA + DHA on the O3I.

Methods: Deidentified data from 1422 individuals from 14 published n-3 intervention trials were included. Variables considered included dose, baseline O3I, sex, age, weight, height, chemical form [ethyl ester (EE) compared with triglyceride (TG)], and duration of treatment. The O3I was measured by the same method in all included studies. Variables were selected by stepwise regression using the Bayesian information criterion.

Results: Individuals supplemented with EPA + DHA (n = 846) took a mean ± SD of 1983 ± 1297 mg/d, and the placebo controls (n = 576) took none. The mean duration of supplementation was 13.6 ± 6.0 wk. The O3I increased from 4.9% ± 1.7% to 8.1% ± 2.7% in the supplemented individuals ( P < 0.0001). The final model included dose, baseline O3I, and chemical formulation type (EE or TG), and these explained 62% of the variance in response (P < 0.0001). The model predicted that the final O3I (and 95% CI) for a population like this, with a baseline concentration of 4.9%, given 850 mg/d of EPA + DHA EE would be ∼6.5% (95% CI: 6.3%, 6.7%). Gram for gram, TG-based supplements increased the O3I by about 1 percentage point more than EE products.

Conclusions: Of the factors tested, only baseline O3I, dose, and chemical formulation were significant predictors of O3I response to supplementation. The model developed here can be used by researchers to help estimate the O3I response to a given EPA + DHA dose and chemical form.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqz161DOI Listing
October 2019

Development of a fault-rupture environment in 3D: A numerical tool for examining the mechanical impact of a fault on underground excavations.

Int J Min Sci Technol 2019 Jan;29(1):105-111

Spokane Mining Research Division, CDC/NIOSH, Spokane, WA 99207, United States.

While faults are commonly simulated as a single planar or non-planar interface for a safety or stability analysis in underground mining excavation, the real 3D structure of a fault is often very complex, with different branches that reactivate at different times. Furthermore, these branches are zones of nonzero thickness where material continuously undergoes damage even during interseismic periods. In this study, the initiation and the initial evolution of a strike-slip fault was modeled using the FLAC3D software program. The initial and boundary conditions are simplified, and mimic the Riedel shear experiment and the constitutive model in the literature. The FLAC3D model successfully replicates and creates the 3D fault zone as a strike-slip type structure in the entire thickness of the model. The strike-slip fault structure and normal displacement result in the formation of valleys in the model. Three panels of a longwall excavation are virtually placed and excavated beneath a main valley. The characteristics of stored and dissipated energy associated with the panel excavations are examined and observed at different stages of shear strain in the fault to evaluate bump potential. Depending on the shear strain in the fault, the energy characteristics adjacent to the longwall panels present different degrees of bump potential, which is not possible to capture by conventional fault simulation using an interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2018.11.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6379905PMC
January 2019

Sushi Domain Containing 2 (SUSD2) inhibits platelet activation and binding to high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma cells.

Platelets 2018 Dec 18;29(8):834-837. Epub 2018 Oct 18.

a Department of Biology , Augustana University , Sioux Falls , SD , USA.

Platelets play a central role in primary hemostasis affecting tumor survival and metastases. Tumors induce platelets to aggregate and bind to the cancer cells, resulting in protection from immune surveillance and often leading to thrombocytosis. In ovarian cancer (OvCa), one-third of patients present with thrombocytosis, a diagnosis that correlates with shorter survival. SUSD2 (SUShi Domain containing 2), a type I transmembrane protein, shown to inhibit metastatic processes in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC), is expressed on endothelial cells and thus may influence platelet reactivity. As such, we hypothesized that SUSD2 levels in ovarian cancer-derived cell lines influence platelet activation. We incubated OvCa non-targeting (NT) and SUSD2 knockdown (KD) cell lines with labeled platelets and quantified platelet binding, as well as GPIIb/IIIa integrin activation. The role of GPIIb/IIIa in tumor cell/platelet interaction was also examined by measuring cell-cell adhesion in the presence of eptifibatide. We found that platelets exposed to OvCa cells with low SUSD2 expression display increased tumor cell-platelet binding along with an increase in GPIIb/IIIa receptor activation. As such, platelet activation and binding to HGSOC cells was inversely correlated with the presence of SUSD2. This represents one of the first tumor proteins known to provide differential platelet interaction based on protein status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2018.1530345DOI Listing
December 2018

Experimental study on the confinement-dependent characteristics of a Utah coal considering the anisotropy by cleats.

Int J Rock Mech Min Sci (1997) 2018 May;105:182-191

Department of Geological Engineering, Montana Tech, Butte, MT, United States.

Characterizing a coal from an engineering perspective for design of mining excavations is critical in order to prevent fatalities, as underground coal mines are often developed in highly stressed ground conditions. Coal pillar bursts involve the sudden expulsion of coal and rock into the mine opening. These events occur when relatively high stresses in a coal pillar, left for support in underground workings, exceed the pillar's load capacity causing the pillar to rupture without warning. This process may be influenced by cleating, which is a type of joint system that can be found in coal rock masses. As such, it is important to consider the anisotropy of coal mechanical behavior. Additionally, if coal is expected to fail in a brittle manner, then behavior changes, such as the transition from extensional to shear failure, have to be considered and reflected in the adopted failure criteria. It must be anticipated that a different failure mechanism occurs as the confinement level increases and conditions for tensile failure are prevented or strongly diminished. The anisotropy and confinement dependency of coal behavior previously mentioned merit extensive investigation. In this study, a total of 84 samples obtained from a Utah coal mine were investigated by conducting both unconfined and triaxial compressive tests. The results showed that the confining pressure dictated not only the peak compressive strength but also the brittleness as a function of the major to the minor principal stress ratio. Additionally, an s-shaped brittle failure criterion was fitted to the results, showing the development of confinement-dependent strength. Moreover, these mechanical characteristics were found to be strongly anisotropic, which was associated with the orientation of the cleats relative to the loading direction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrmms.2018.03.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5956526PMC
May 2018

Applying robust design to study the effects of stratigraphic characteristics on brittle failure and bump potential in a coal mine.

Int J Min Sci Technol 2018 Jan;28(1):137-144

Spokane Mining Research Division, NIOSH/CDC, Spokane, WA 99207, USA.

Bumps and other types of dynamic failure have been a persistent, worldwide problem in the underground coal mining industry, spanning decades. For example, in just five states in the U.S. from 1983 to 2014, there were 388 reportable bumps. Despite significant advances in mine design tools and mining practices, these events continue to occur. Many conditions have been associated with bump potential, such as the presence of stiff units in the local geology. The effect of a stiff sandstone unit on the potential for coal bumps depends on the location of the stiff unit in the stratigraphic column, the relative stiffness and strength of other structural members, and stress concentrations caused by mining. This study describes the results of a robust design to consider the impact of different lithologic risk factors impacting dynamic failure risk. Because the inherent variability of stratigraphic characteristics in sedimentary formations, such as thickness, engineering material properties, and location, is significant and the number of influential parameters in determining a parametric study is large, it is impractical to consider every simulation case by varying each parameter individually. Therefore, to save time and honor the statistical distributions of the parameters, it is necessary to develop a robust design to collect sufficient sample data and develop a statistical analysis method to draw accurate conclusions from the collected data. In this study, orthogonal arrays, which were developed using the robust design, are used to define the combination of the (a) thickness of a stiff sandstone inserted on the top and bottom of a coal seam in a massive shale mine roof and floor, (b) location of the stiff sandstone inserted on the top and bottom of the coal seam, and (c) material properties of the stiff sandstone and contacts as interfaces using the 3-dimensional numerical model, FLAC3D. After completion of the numerical experiments, statistical and multivariate analysis are performed using the calculated results from the orthogonal arrays to analyze the effect of these variables. As a consequence, the impact of each of the parameters on the potential for bumps is quantitatively classified in terms of a normalized intensity of plastic dissipated energy. By multiple regression, the intensity of plastic dissipated energy and migration of the risk from the roof to the floor via the pillars is predicted based on the value of the variables. The results demonstrate and suggest a possible capability to predict the bump potential in a given rock mass adjacent to the underground excavations and pillars. Assessing the risk of bumps is important to preventing fatalities and injuries resulting from bumps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmst.2017.10.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5798477PMC
January 2018

In vivo modeling of docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid-mediated inhibition of both platelet function and accumulation in arterial thrombi.

Platelets 2019 29;30(2):271-279. Epub 2017 Dec 29.

b Department of Biology , Augustana University , Sioux Falls , SD , USA.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are associated with a variety of cellular alterations that mitigate cardiovascular disease. However, pinpointing the positive therapeutic effects is challenging due to inconsistent clinical trial results and overly simplistic in vitro studies. Here we aimed to develop realistic models of n-3 PUFA effects on platelet function so that preclinical results can better align with and predict clinical outcomes. Human platelets incubated with the n-3 PUFAs docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid were stimulated with agonist combinations mirroring distinct regions of a growing thrombus. Platelet responses were then monitored in a number of ex-vivo functional assays. Furthermore, intravital microscopy was used to monitor arterial thrombosis and fibrin deposition in mice fed an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet. We found that n-3 PUFA treatment had minimal effects on many basic ex-vivo measures of platelet function using agonist combinations. However, n-3 PUFA treatment delayed platelet-derived thrombin generation in both humans and mice. This impaired thrombin production paralleled a reduced platelet accumulation within thrombi formed in either small arterioles or larger arteries of mice fed an n-3 PUFA-enriched diet, without impacting P-selectin exposure. Despite an apparent lack of robust effects in many ex-vivo assays of platelet function, increased exposure to n-3 PUFAs reduces platelet-mediated thrombin generation and attenuates elements of thrombus formation. These data support the cardioprotective value of-3 PUFAs and strongly suggest that they modify elements of platelet function in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537104.2017.1420154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6146071PMC
April 2019

Responses of endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and platelets dependent on the surface topography of polytetrafluoroethylene.

J Biomed Mater Res A 2016 09 17;104(9):2291-304. Epub 2016 May 17.

Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of South Dakota, 4800 N. Career Avenue, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57107.

In this study, the effect of different structures (flat, expanded, and electrospun) of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the interactions of endothelial cells (ECs), smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and platelets was investigated. In addition, the mechanisms that govern the interactions between ECs, SMCs, and platelets with different structures of PTFE were discussed. The surface characterizations showed that the different structures of PTFE have the same surface chemistry, similar surface wettability and zeta potential, but uniquely different surface topography. The viability, proliferation, morphology, and phenotype of ECs and SMCs interacted with different structures of PTFE were investigated. Expanded PTFE (ePTFE) provided a relatively better surface for the growth of ECs. In case of SMC interactions, although all the different structures of PTFE inhibited SMC growth, a maximum inhibitory effect was observed for ePTFE. In case of platelet interactions, the electrospun PTFE provided a better surface for preventing the adhesion and activation of platelets. Thus, this study demonstrated that the responses of ECs, SMCs, and platelets strongly dependent on the surface topography of the PTFE. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 2291-2304, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.a.35763DOI Listing
September 2016

Surface modification of CoCr alloy using varying concentrations of phosphoric and phosphonoacetic acids: albumin and fibrinogen adsorption, platelet adhesion, activation, and aggregation studies.

Langmuir 2015 19;31(1):358-70. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Biomedical Engineering Program, The University of South Dakota , 4800 N. Career Avenue, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57107, United States.

CoCr alloy is commonly used in various cardiovascular medical devices for its excellent physical and mechanical properties. However, the formation of blood clots on the alloy surfaces is a serious concern. This research is focused on the surface modification of CoCr alloy using varying concentrations (1, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mM) of phosphoric acid (PA) and phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) to generate various surfaces with different wettability, chemistry, and roughness. Then, the adsorption of blood plasma proteins such as albumin and fibrinogen and the adhesion, activation, and aggregation of platelets with the various surfaces generated were investigated. Contact angle analysis showed PA and PAA coatings on CoCr provided a gradient of hydrophilic surfaces. FTIR showed PA and PAA were covalently bound to CoCr surface and formed different bonding configurations depending on the concentrations of coating solutions used. AFM showed the formation of homogeneous PA and PAA coatings on CoCr. The single and dual protein adsorption studies showed that the amount of albumin and fibrinogen adsorbed on the alloy surfaces strongly depend on the type of PA and PAA coatings prepared by different concentrations of coating solutions. All PA coated CoCr showed reduced platelet adhesion and activation when compared to control CoCr. Also, 75 and 100 mM PA-CoCr showed reduced platelet aggregation. For PAA coated CoCr, no significant difference in platelet adhesion and activation was observed between PAA coated CoCr and control CoCr. Thus, this study demonstrated that CoCr can be surface modified using PA for potentially reducing the formation of blood clots and improving the blood compatibility of the alloy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la5038712DOI Listing
March 2016

n-3 Fatty acids affect haemostasis but do not increase the risk of bleeding: clinical observations and mechanistic insights.

Br J Nutr 2014 May 28;111(9):1652-62. Epub 2014 Jan 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Sanford School of Medicine, Health Science Center, The University of South Dakota, 1400 West 22nd Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA.

n-3 Fatty acids (EPA and DHA, from fish oil) are essential fatty acids that are approved for the treatment of severe hypertriacylglycerolaemia and, in some countries, used for reducing the risk of CVD. Because of their inhibitory effects on platelet function, some practitioners have, perhaps unnecessarily, discontinued their use in patients undergoing invasive procedures or being treated with anti-platelet or anticoagulation drugs. Thus, the aim of the present study was to review the effects of n-3 fatty acids on bleeding complications in a wide variety of clinical settings, and to summarise their biochemical mechanism of action in platelet function and coagulation. We surveyed recent publications that either directly studied the effects of n-3 fatty acids on the risk of bleeding or focused on different end-points and also reported the effects on bleeding. n-3 Fatty acid treatment had no effect on the risk of clinically significant bleeding in either monotherapy or combination therapy settings. Although originally believed to operate primarily via the cyclo-oxygenase system, these fatty acids have been shown to affect multiple signalling pathways and thrombotic processes beyond simply affecting platelet aggregation. The present overview found no support for discontinuing the use of n-3 fatty acid treatment before invasive procedures or when given in combination with other agents that affect bleeding. On the contrary, the use of these fatty acids in several settings improved clinical outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S000711451300425XDOI Listing
May 2014

Exogenous modification of platelet membranes with the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA reduces platelet procoagulant activity and thrombus formation.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 2013 Feb 21;304(3):C273-9. Epub 2012 Nov 21.

Department of Biology, Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD 57197, USA.

Several studies have implicated the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in inhibition of normal platelet function, suggesting a role for platelets in EPA- and DHA-mediated cardioprotection. However, it is unclear whether the cardioprotective mechanisms arise from alterations to platelet-platelet, platelet-matrix, or platelet-coagulation factor interactions. Our previous results led us to hypothesize that EPA and DHA alter the ability of platelets to catalyze the generation of thrombin. We tested this hypothesis by exogenously modifying platelet membranes with EPA and DHA, which resulted in compositional changes analogous to increased dietary EPA and DHA intake. Platelets treated with EPA and DHA showed reductions in the rate of thrombin generation and exposure of platelet phosphatidylserine. In addition, treatment of platelets with EPA and DHA decreased thrombus formation and altered the processing of thrombin precursor proteins. Furthermore, treatment of whole blood with EPA and DHA resulted in increased occlusion time and a sharply reduced accumulation of fibrin under flow conditions. These results demonstrate that EPA and DHA inhibit, but do not eliminate, the ability of platelets to catalyze thrombin generation in vitro. The ability of EPA and DHA to reduce the procoagulant function of platelets provides a possible mechanism behind the cardioprotective phenotype in individuals consuming high levels of EPA and DHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00174.2012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566437PMC
February 2013

Basal omega-3 fatty acid status affects fatty acid and oxylipin responses to high-dose n3-HUFA in healthy volunteers.

J Lipid Res 2012 Aug 24;53(8):1662-9. Epub 2012 May 24.

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.

A subject's baseline FA composition may influence the ability of dietary highly unsaturated omega-3 FAs (n3-HUFA) to change circulating profiles of esterified FAs and their oxygenated metabolites. This study evaluates the influence of basal n3-HUFA and n3-oxylipin status on the magnitude of response to n3-HUFA consumption. Blood was collected from fasting subjects (n = 30) before and after treatment (4 weeks; 11 ± 2 mg/kg/day n3-HUFA ethyl esters). Esterified FAs were quantified in erythrocytes, platelets, and plasma by GC-MS. Esterified oxylipins were quantified in plasma by LC-MS/MS. Treatment with n3-HUFAs increased n3-HUFAs and decreased n6-HUFAs in all reservoirs and increased plasma n3-oxylipins without significantly changing n6-oxylipin concentrations. As subject basal n3-HUFAs increased, treatment-associated changes decreased, and this behavior was reflected in the percentage of 20:5n3 + 22:6n3 in red blood cell membrane FAs (i.e., the omega-3 index). To maintain an omega-3 index of 8% and thus reduce cardiovascular disease risk, our analyses suggest a maintenance dose of 7 mg/kg/day n3-HUFA ethyl esters for a 70-kg individual. These results suggest that the basal n3 index may have clinical utility to establish efficacious therapeutic experimental feeding regimens and to evaluate the USDA Dietary Guidelines recommendations for n3-HUFA consumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.P025577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3540841PMC
August 2012

The Effects of EPA+DHA and Aspirin on Inflammatory Cytokines and Angiogenesis Factors.

World J Cardiovasc Dis 2012 Jan 30;2(1):14-19. Epub 2011 Dec 30.

Department of Community and Preventive Medicine, the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York.

OBJECTIVE: In a recent study, we showed that the combination of aspirin plus the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) synergistically inhibited platelet function. As aspirin, EPA, and DHA have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties, we hypothesized that the ingestion of EPA and DHA, with and without aspirin, would reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis factors more than aspirin alone and before aspirin was ingested. METHODS: Using multiplex technology, we investigated the effects of aspirin (single-dose 650 mg on day 1), EPA+DHA (3.4 g/d for days 2-29), and aspirin with EPA+DHA (day 30) on plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines and angiogenesis factors in healthy adults. RESULTS: Aspirin alone had no effect on any factor versus baseline, but EPA+DHA, with and without aspirin, significantly reduced concentrations of 8 of 9 factors. Although EPA+DHA plus aspirin reduced concentrations of a subset of the factors compared to baseline, neither aspirin alone nor the combination significantly reduced the level of any analyte more robustly than EPA+DHA alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that EPA+DHA has more pronounced down-regulatory effects on inflammation and angiogenesis than aspirin. The implications of these findings for the use of combined therapy for cardiovascular disease remain to be clarified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/wjcd.2012.21003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3331709PMC
January 2012

Cytoskeletal mechanics of proplatelet maturation and platelet release.

J Cell Biol 2010 Nov;191(4):861-74

Translational Medicine Division, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Megakaryocytes generate platelets by remodeling their cytoplasm into long proplatelet extensions, which serve as assembly lines for platelet production. Although the mechanics of proplatelet elongation have been studied, the terminal steps of proplatelet maturation and platelet release remain poorly understood. To elucidate this process, released proplatelets were isolated, and their conversion into individual platelets was assessed. This enabled us to (a) define and quantify the different stages in platelet maturation, (b) identify a new intermediate stage in platelet production, the preplatelet, (c) delineate the cytoskeletal mechanics involved in preplatelet/proplatelet interconversion, and (d) model proplatelet fission and platelet release. Preplatelets are anucleate discoid particles 2-10 µm across that have the capacity to convert reversibly into elongated proplatelets by twisting microtubule-based forces that can be visualized in proplatelets expressing GFP-β1-tubulin. The release of platelets from the ends of proplatelets occurs at an increasing rate in time during culture, as larger proplatelets undergo successive fission, and is potentiated by shear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201006102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2983072PMC
November 2010

Effects of omega-3 acid ethyl esters and aspirin, alone and in combination, on platelet function in healthy subjects.

Thromb Haemost 2008 Oct;100(4):634-41

Sanford Research/USD, 1100 E. 21st Street, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA.

Omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) from oily fish are clinically useful for lowering triglycerides and reducing risk of heart attacks. Accordingly, patients at risk are often advised to take both aspirin and n-3 FA. However, both of these agents can increase bleeding times, and the extent to which the combination inhibits platelet function is unknown. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effects of a prescription omega-3 FA product (P-OM3) and aspirin, alone and in combination, on platelet aggregation assessed by whole blood impedance aggregometry (WBA). Ten healthy volunteers provided blood samples on four separate occasions: Day 1, baseline; Day 2, one day after taking aspirin (2 x 325 mg tablets); Day 29, after 28 days of P-OM3 (4 capsules/day); and Day 30, after one day of combined P-OM3 and aspirin. WBA was tested with two concentrations of collagen, with ADP and with a thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP). Compared to baseline, aspirin alone inhibited aggregation only with low-dose collagen stimulation; P-OM3 alone did not inhibit aggregation with any agonist; and combined therapy inhibited aggregation with all agonists but TRAP. Significant interactions between interventions were not observed in response to any agonist. In conclusion, P-OM3 alone did not inhibit platelet aggregation, but did (with two agonists) when combined with aspirin. Since previous studies have not reported a clinically significant risk for bleeding in subjects on combined therapy, P-OM3 may safely enhance the anti-platelet effect of aspirin.
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October 2008

A novel role for PECAM-1 in megakaryocytokinesis and recovery of platelet counts in thrombocytopenic mice.

Blood 2007 May 18;109(10):4237-44. Epub 2007 Jan 18.

Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Institute of Biomedical Research, Division of Medical Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom.

During thrombopoiesis, maturing megakaryocytes (MKs) migrate within the complex bone marrow stromal microenvironment from the proliferative osteoblastic niche to the capillary-rich vascular niche where proplatelet formation and platelet release occurs. This physiologic process involves proliferation, differentiation, migration, and maturation of MKs before platelet production occurs. In this study, we report a role for the glycoprotein PECAM-1 in thrombopoiesis. We show that following induced thrombocytopenia, recovery of the peripheral platelet count is impaired in PECAM-1-deficient mice. Whereas MK maturation, proplatelet formation, and platelet production under in vitro conditions were unaffected, we identified a migration defect in PECAM-1-deficient MKs in response to a gradient of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1), a major chemokine regulating MK migration within the bone marrow. This defect could be explained by defective PECAM-1(-/-) MK polarization of the SDF1 receptor CXCR4 and an increase in adhesion to immobilized bone marrow matrix proteins that can be explained by an increase in integrin activation. The defect of migration and polarization was confirmed in vivo with demonstration of altered spatial localization of MKs within the bone marrow in PECAM-1-deficient mice, following immune-induced thrombocytopenia. This study identifies a novel role for PECAM-1 in regulating MK migration and thrombopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2006-10-050740DOI Listing
May 2007

A product of their environment: do megakaryocytes rely on extracellular cues for proplatelet formation?

Platelets 2006 Nov;17(7):435-40

Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research, Division of Medical Sciences, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK B15 2TT, UK.

Megakaryocytes have long been observed to form abundant filamentous extensions called proplatelets. A strong body of evidence strongly suggests these proplatelets are the mechanism by which platelets are released into the vasculature. Despite the recent advances in understanding proplatelet architecture, surprisingly little attention has been paid to identifying the ways in which the bone marrow environment regulates proplatelet formation. This review summarises this field and how these findings suggest a spatial and temporal regulation to ensure that platelets are produced in the correct location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537100600772637DOI Listing
November 2006

Regulation of proplatelet formation and platelet release by integrin alpha IIb beta3.

Blood 2006 Sep 2;108(5):1509-14. Epub 2006 May 2.

Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, Institute for Biomedical Research, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Mature megakaryocytes form structures called proplatelets that serve as conduits for platelet packaging and release at vascular sinusoids. Since the megakaryocyte expresses abundant levels of integrin alpha IIb beta3, we have examined a role for fibrinogen in proplatelet development and platelet release alongside that of other matrices. Primary mature murine megakaryocytes from bone marrow aspirates readily formed proplatelets when plated on fibrinogen at a degree that was significantly higher than that seen on other matrices. In addition, alpha IIb beta3 was essential for proplatelet formation on fibrinogen, as megakaryocytes failed to develop proplatelets in the presence of alpha IIb beta3 antagonists. Interestingly, inhibition of Src kinases or Ca2+ release did not inhibit proplatelet formation, indicating that alpha IIb beta3-mediated outside-in signals are not required for this response. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that fibrinogen is localized to the bone marrow sinusoids, a location that would allow it to readily influence platelet release. Further, thrombopoietin-stimulated alpha IIb-/- mice had a reduced increase in platelet number relative to controls. A similar observation was not observed for platelet recovery in alpha IIb-/- mice in response to antibody-induced thrombocytopenia, indicating the existence of additional pathways of regulation of proplatelet formation. These results demonstrate that fibrinogen is able to regulate proplatelet formation via integrin alpha IIb beta3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2005-11-011957DOI Listing
September 2006

CIB1 is an endogenous inhibitor of agonist-induced integrin alphaIIbbeta3 activation.

J Cell Biol 2006 Jan;172(2):169-75

Department of Pharmacology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

In response to agonist stimulation, the alphaIIbbeta3 integrin on platelets is converted to an active conformation that binds fibrinogen and mediates platelet aggregation. This process contributes to both normal hemostasis and thrombosis. Activation of alphaIIbbeta3 is believed to occur in part via engagement of the beta3 cytoplasmic tail with talin; however, the role of the alphaIIb tail and its potential binding partners in regulating alphaIIbbeta3 activation is less clear. We report that calcium and integrin binding protein 1 (CIB1), which interacts directly with the alphaIIb tail, is an endogenous inhibitor of alphaIIbbeta3 activation; overexpression of CIB1 in megakaryocytes blocks agonist-induced alphaIIbbeta3 activation, whereas reduction of endogenous CIB1 via RNA interference enhances activation. CIB1 appears to inhibit integrin activation by competing with talin for binding to alphaIIbbeta3, thus providing a model for tightly controlled regulation of alphaIIbbeta3 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200505131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2063547PMC
January 2006

Rac1 is essential for platelet lamellipodia formation and aggregate stability under flow.

J Biol Chem 2005 Nov 29;280(47):39474-84. Epub 2005 Sep 29.

Centre for Cardiovascular Sciences, the Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.

The role of Rac family proteins in platelet spreading on matrix proteins under static and flow conditions has been investigated by using Rac-deficient platelets. Murine platelets form filopodia and undergo limited spreading on fibrinogen independent of Rac1 and Rac2. In the presence of thrombin, marked lamellipodia formation is observed on fibrinogen, which is abrogated in the absence of Rac1. However, Rac1 is not required for thrombin-induced aggregation or elevation of F-actin levels. Formation of lamellipodia on collagen and laminin is also Rac1-dependent. Analysis of platelet adhesion dynamics on collagen under flow conditions in vitro revealed that Rac1 is required for platelet aggregate stability at arterial rates of shear, as evidenced by a dramatic increase in platelet embolization. Furthermore, studies employing intravital microscopy demonstrated that Rac1 plays a critical role in the development of stable thrombi at sites of vascular injury in vivo. Thus, our data demonstrated that Rac1 is essential for lamellipodia formation in platelets and indicated that Rac1 is required for aggregate integrity leading to thrombus formation under physiologically relevant levels of shear both in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M504672200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1395485PMC
November 2005

The unique N-terminus of R-ras is required for Rac activation and precise regulation of cell migration.

Mol Biol Cell 2005 May 16;16(5):2458-69. Epub 2005 Mar 16.

Department of Pharmacology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA.

The Ras family GTPase, R-Ras, elicits important integrin-dependent cellular behaviors such as adhesion, spreading and migration. While oncogenic Ras GTPases and R-Ras share extensive sequence homology, R-Ras induces a distinct set of cellular behaviors. To explore the structural basis for these differences, we asked whether the unique N-terminal 26 amino acid extension of R-Ras was responsible for R-Ras-specific signaling events. Using a 32D mouse myeloid cell line, we show that full-length R-Ras activates Rac and induces Rac-dependent cell spreading. In contrast, truncated R-Ras lacking its first 26 amino acids fails to activate Rac, resulting in reduced cell spreading. Truncated R-Ras also stimulates more beta3 integrin-dependent cell migration than full-length R-Ras, suggesting that the N-terminus may negatively regulate cell movement. However, neither the subcellular localization of R-Ras nor its effects on cell adhesion are affected by the presence or absence of the N-terminus. These results indicate that the N-terminus of R-Ras positively regulates specific R-Ras functions such as Rac activation and cell spreading but negatively regulates R-Ras-mediated cell migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1091/mbc.e03-12-0917DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1087249PMC
May 2005

Identification of P2Y12-dependent and -independent mechanisms of glycoprotein VI-mediated Rap1 activation in platelets.

Blood 2003 Feb 17;101(4):1409-15. Epub 2002 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 27599, USA.

Glycoprotein (GP) VI is a critical platelet collagen receptor, yet the steps involved in GPVI-mediated platelet activation remain incompletely understood. Because activation of Rap1, an abundant small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) in platelets, contributes to integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3) activation, we asked whether and how GPVI signaling activates Rap1 in platelets. Here we show that platelet Rap1 is robustly activated upon addition of convulxin, a GPVI-specific agonist. Using a reconstituted system in RBL-2H3 cells, we found that GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation is dependent on FcRgamma but independent of another platelet collagen receptor, alpha(2)beta(1). Interestingly, GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation in human platelets is largely dependent on adenosine diphosphate (ADP) signaling through the P2Y(12) and not the P2Y(1) receptor. However, experiments with specific ADP receptor antagonists and platelets from knockout mice deficient in P2Y(1) or the P2Y(12)-associated G-protein, Galphai(2), indicate that human and murine platelets also have a significant P2Y(12)-independent component of GPVI-mediated Rap1 activation. The P2Y(12)-independent component is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and is augmented by epinephrine-mediated signaling. P2Y(12)-dependent and -independent components are also observed in GPVI-mediated platelet aggregation, further supporting a role for Rap1 in aggregation. These results define mechanisms of GPVI-mediated platelet activation and implicate Rap1 as a key signaling protein in GPVI-induced platelet signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2002-05-1533DOI Listing
February 2003