Publications by authors named "Mark Glazebrook"

97 Publications

A Feasibility and Safety Study of a Novel Human Decellularized Dermal Matrix to Accelerate Healing of Neuropathic Diabetic Foot Ulcers in People With Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes.

Can J Diabetes 2022 Apr 6. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

School of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility and safety of a novel decellularized dermal matrix (DDM) for the treatment of chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs).

Methods: An interventional, single-arm, prospective study of DDM for DFU treatment was conducted in 2 Canadian centres from July 1, 2016 to May 30, 2017. Individuals ≥18 years of age, with an active DFU of ≥2 weeks and ulcer area ≥1 cm before debridement and who consented to participate, were enrolled in this clinical trial.

Results: A total of 11 patients were enrolled, with 9 patients (82%) having achieved 100% closure between 2 and 8 weeks. The mean and median times to wound closure for these patients were 3.3 and 2.5 weeks, respectively. The mean and median reductions in wound area at 4 weeks posttreatment were 87% and 100%, respectively. The proportion of patients having achieved complete healing at 12 weeks was 82%. All patients received only 1 DDM application to achieve these results. There were no adverse events related to use of the product. No cases of recurrence during a 1-year follow up after completion of the study were reported for patients who achieved wound closure.

Conclusions: These findings provide evidence that this DDM may be safe and effective for the treatment of chronic, hard-to-heal neuropathic DFUs. Specifically, DDM demonstrated the potential to accelerate healing of DFUs when compared with reported times of 8 to 12 weeks required to achieve closure using the current standard of care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2022.03.010DOI Listing
April 2022

Paediatric ankle cartilage lesions: Proceedings of the International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

J ISAKOS 2022 Apr 13. Epub 2022 Apr 13.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

Background: The evidence supporting best practice guidelines in the field of cartilage repair of the ankle are based on both low quality and low levels of evidence. Therefore, an international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions based on the best available evidence on key topics within cartilage repair of the ankle. The purpose of this article is to report the consensus statements on "Pediatric Ankle Cartilage Lesions" developed at the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Methods: Forty-three international experts in cartilage repair of the ankle representing 20 countries convened to participate in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Questions and statements were drafted within four working groups focusing on specific topics within cartilage repair of the ankle, after which a comprehensive literature review was performed and the available evidence for each statement was graded. Discussion and debate occurred in cases where statements were not agreed upon in unanimous fashion within the working groups. A final vote was then held, and the strength of consensus was characterised as follows: consensus: 51-74%; strong consensus: 75-99%; unanimous: 100%.

Results: A total of 12 statements on paediatric ankle cartilage lesions reached consensus during the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. Five achieved unanimous support, and seven reached strong consensus (>75% agreement). All statements reached at least 84% agreement.

Conclusions: This international consensus derived from leaders in the field will assist clinicians with the management of paediatric ankle cartilage lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jisako.2022.04.001DOI Listing
April 2022

Terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle: proceedings of the International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

J ISAKOS 2022 04 14;7(2):62-66. Epub 2022 Jan 14.

Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: The evidence supporting best practice guidelines in the field of cartilage repair of the ankle is based on both low quality and low levels of evidence. Therefore, an international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions based on the best available evidence on key topics within cartilage repair of the ankle. The purpose of this article is to report the consensus statements on "terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle" developed at the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Methods: Forty-three international experts in cartilage repair of the ankle representing 20 countries were convened and participated in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Questions and statements were drafted within four working groups focusing on specific topics within cartilage repair of the ankle, after which a comprehensive literature review was performed, and the available evidence for each statement was graded. Discussion and debate occurred in cases where statements were not agreed on in unanimous fashion within the working groups. A final vote was then held, and the strength of consensus was characterised as follows: consensus, 51%-74%; strong consensus, 75%-99%; unanimous, 100%.

Results: A total of 11 statements on terminology and classification reached consensus during the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. Definitions are provided for osseous, chondral and osteochondral lesions, as well as bone marrow stimulation and injury chronicity, among others. An osteochondral lesion of the talus can be abbreviated as OLT.

Conclusions: This international consensus derived from leaders in the field will assist clinicians with the appropriate terminology for osteochondral lesions of the ankle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jisako.2021.12.001DOI Listing
April 2022

Sex Differences in End-Stage Ankle Arthritis and Following Total Ankle Replacement or Ankle Arthrodesis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2022 02;104(3):221-228

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Unity Health Network-St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Background: We investigated the influence of sex on patient-reported outcomes preoperatively and following total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis.

Methods: Patients who had undergone total ankle replacement or ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis and who had ≥2 years of follow-up were identified from the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society Prospective Ankle Reconstruction Database. Standard surgical techniques and implantation methods were followed, and STAR, Hintegra, Mobility, and Agility prostheses were used. Data were collected on patient demographics, revisions, secondary procedures, complications, Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) scores, Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores, and expectations and satisfaction. Statistical analyses included 3-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple linear regression models controlling for inflammatory arthritis, age, preoperative scores, and surgery type.

Results: The study included 872 patients: 629 who had undergone total ankle replacement (316 men, 313 women) and 243 who had undergone ankle arthrodesis (154 men, 89 women). The mean duration of follow-up (and standard deviation) was 4.9 ± 2.4 and 4.0 ± 1.9 years for the total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis groups, respectively. Men were older than women (p ≤ 0.001). In both the total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis groups, women had higher AOS pain scores (i.e., more pain) than men preoperatively (p < 0.05). Pain was reduced significantly in both sexes postoperatively (p < 0.05), with no significant difference between sexes. In both the total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis groups, women had higher AOS disability scores (i.e., more disability) and lower SF-36 Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores (i.e., worse function) than men both preoperatively and postoperatively (p < 0.001). Postoperatively, AOS disability and SF-36 PCS scores improved significantly from baseline in both sexes (p < 0.001). After controlling for covariates, sex was not a significant predictor of postoperative SF-36 MCS (Mental Component Summary), AOS pain, or AOS disability scores (p > 0.05) but explained 0.5% of variance in SF-36 PCS scores (p = 0.03). Sex did not significantly influence preoperative expectations or postoperative satisfaction. When patients with inflammatory arthritis were excluded, preoperative and postoperative outcome measures, expectations, and satisfaction were similar.

Conclusions: Men and women with end-stage ankle arthritis benefited from total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis with similar magnitudes of improvement. Small differences in pain and function between men and women undergoing total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis mostly disappeared when controlling for potential confounding variables. Both total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis remain good options for men and women with end-stage ankle arthritis.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.21.00287DOI Listing
February 2022

Osteochondral Lesions of the Tibial Plafond and Ankle Instability With Ankle Cartilage Lesions: Proceedings of the International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Foot Ankle Int 2022 03 5;43(3):448-452. Epub 2022 Jan 5.

Background: An international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions based on the best available evidence on key topics within cartilage repair of the ankle. The purpose of this article is to present the consensus statements on osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond (OLTP) and on ankle instability with ankle cartilage lesions developed at the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Methods: Forty-three experts in cartilage repair of the ankle were convened and participated in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Questions and statements were drafted within 4 working groups focusing on specific topics within cartilage repair of the ankle, after which a comprehensive literature review was performed and the available evidence for each statement was graded. Discussion and debate occurred in cases where statements were not agreed on in unanimous fashion within the working groups. A final vote was then held.

Results: A total of 11 statements on OLTP reached consensus. Four achieved unanimous support and 7 reached strong consensus (greater than 75% agreement). A total of 8 statements on ankle instability with ankle cartilage lesions reached consensus during the 2019 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. One achieved unanimous support, and seven reached strong consensus (greater than 75% agreement).

Conclusion: These consensus statements may assist clinicians in the management of these difficult clinical pathologies.

Level Of Evidence: Level V, mechanism-based reasoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10711007211049169DOI Listing
March 2022

Rising within the leadership of an orthopaedic society: learning from the presidents.

Int Orthop 2022 03 4;46(3):443-447. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Adenbrooke's - Cambridge University Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Orthopaedic societies, with their diverse membership from across the world, serve a mission to endorse the progress and innovation in the field of orthopaedics and traumatology with a focus on improving patient care, as well as to encourage and develop education, teaching and research. Such organizations, whether small or large, have been successful in meeting the professional, educational and training needs of its members. The past and future presidents of these societies share insights addressing their professional experiences, lessons learnt and their vision for future leaders of the field. The objective of this article is to summarize the thoughts of presidents of orthopaedic societies from around the globe and to inspire younger and aspiring members of the global orthopaedic fraternity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00264-021-05295-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8724003PMC
March 2022

Strain patterns in normal anterior talofibular and calcaneofibular ligaments and after anatomical reconstruction using gracilis tendon grafts: A cadaver study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Jun 18;22(1):558. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center Halifax Infirmary (Suite 4867), 1796 Summer Street, Halifax, NS, B3H3A7, Canada.

Background: Inversion ankle sprains, or lateral ankle sprains, often result in symptomatic lateral ankle instability, and some patients need lateral ankle ligament reconstruction to reduce pain, improve function, and prevent subsequent injuries. Although anatomically reconstructed ligaments should behave in a biomechanically normal manner, previous studies have not measured the strain patterns of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) after anatomical reconstruction. This study aimed to measure the strain patterns of normal and reconstructed ATFL and CFLs using the miniaturization ligament performance probe (MLPP) system.

Methods: The MLPP was sutured into the ligamentous bands of the ATFLs and CTLs of three freshly frozen cadaveric lower-extremity specimens. Each ankle was manually moved from 15° dorsiflexion to 30° plantar flexion, and a 1.2-N m force was applied to the ankle and subtalar joint complex.

Results: The normal and reconstructed ATFLs exhibited maximal strain (100) during supination in three-dimensional motion. Although the normal ATFLs were not strained during pronation, the reconstructed ATFLs demonstrated relative strain values of 16-36. During the axial motion, the normal ATFLs started to gradually tense at 0° plantar flexion, with the strain increasing as the plantar flexion angle increased, to a maximal value (100) at 30° plantar flexion; the reconstructed ATFLs showed similar strain patterns. Further, the normal CFLs exhibited maximal strain (100) during plantar flexion-abduction and relative strain values of 30-52 during dorsiflexion in three-dimensional motion. The reconstructed CFLs exhibited the most strain during dorsiflexion-adduction and demonstrated relative strain values of 29-62 during plantar flexion-abduction. During the axial motion, the normal CFLs started to gradually tense at 20° plantar flexion and 5° dorsiflexion.

Conclusion: Our results showed that the strain patterns of reconstructed ATFLs and CFLs are not similar to those of normal ATFLs and CFLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04444-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8214304PMC
June 2021

Orthopedic Versus Podiatric Care of the Foot and Ankle: A Literature Review.

Orthop Clin North Am 2021 Apr 10;52(2):177-180. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Dalhouse University, Queen Elizabeth II Hospital, 1796 Summer Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H 3A7, Canada.

As the scope of podiatric surgery expands, the relative roles and outcomes of orthopedic surgeons and podiatrists need to be defined. With growing demand for foot and ankle services, the roles of podiatrists and orthopedic surgeons are increasingly overlapping. Few studies have examined the overlapping scope of practice of each of the groups or compared the relative costs and outcomes associated with each.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2020.12.004DOI Listing
April 2021

Level of Evidence for the Treatment of Chronic Noninsertional Achilles Tendinopathy.

Foot Ankle Spec 2021 Mar 22:19386400211001261. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy affects both athletes and sedentary individuals, and its incidence is rising. Conservative management is the mainstay of treatment, but a variety of operative techniques have been described to treat recalcitrant cases. We seek to outline the current available evidence for surgical management of noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy.

Study Design And Methods: A systematic review was performed using the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, and all articles were reviewed by at least 2 authors. Each article was assigned a level of evidence in accordance with the standards of . The available data were reviewed and a level of evidence was assigned to each intervention of interest, based on the revised classifications of Wright.

Results And Conclusion: A total of 46 articles met inclusion and exclusion criteria. There is fair evidence (grade B) in support of open debridement with 1 level II study, 1 level III study, and 8 level IV studies. There is fair evidence (grade B) in support of arthroscopic or minimally invasive surgical techniques. There is poor evidence (grade C) in support of flexor hallucis longus transfer, longitudinal tenotomy, peritenolysis, gastrocnemius recession, and plantaris excision. There is insufficient evidence (grade I) to provide a recommendation about other surgical treatment methods for noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/19386400211001261DOI Listing
March 2021

Hybrid Ankle Reconstruction of Lateral Ligaments.

Arthrosc Tech 2021 Mar 22;10(3):e931-e939. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Clinical and Research Institute for Foot and Ankle Surgery, Jujo Hospital, Kisarazu, Japan.

Open anatomic reconstruction of the lateral ligament (AntiRoLL) of the ankle with a gracilis Y graft and the inside-out technique are commonly used and have evolved to minimally invasive surgery, including arthroscopic AntiRoLL (A-AntiRoLL) and percutaneous AntiRoLL procedures. A-AntiRoLL allows assessment and treatment of intra-articular pathologies of the ankle concurrently with stabilization. However, the A-AntiRoLL technique is technically demanding, especially in the process of calcaneofibular ligament reconstruction under subtalar arthroscopy. In contrast, the percutaneous AntiRoLL procedure is a simple concept that does not require the skill of an experienced arthroscopist but requires an extra skin incision to assess and treat intra-articular pathologies of the ankle. This study describes the application of a minimally invasive anatomic reconstruction technique-hybrid AntiRoLL-for chronic instability of the ankle that does not require advanced arthroscopic technique to assess and treat intra-articular pathology simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eats.2020.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953423PMC
March 2021

Three-dimensional analysis of anterior talofibular ligament strain patterns during cadaveric ankle motion using a miniaturized ligament performance probe.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2021 Feb 20;22(1):208. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dokkyo Medical University Saitama Medical Center, 2-1-50, Minamikoshigaya, Koshigaya, Saitama, Japan.

Background: Measuring the strain patterns of ligaments at various joint positions informs our understanding of their function. However, few studies have examined the biomechanical properties of ankle ligaments; further, the tensile properties of each ligament, during motion, have not been described. This limitation exists because current biomechanical sensors are too big to insert within the ankle. The present study aimed to validate a novel miniaturized ligament performance probe (MLPP) system for measuring the strain patterns of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) during ankle motion.

Methods: Six fresh-frozen, through-the-knee, lower extremity, cadaveric specimens were used to conduct this study. An MLPP system, comprising a commercially available strain gauge (force probe), amplifier unit, display unit, and logger, was sutured into the midsubstance of the ATFL fibers. To measure tensile forces, a round, metal disk (a "clock", 150 mm in diameter) was affixed to the plantar aspect of each foot. With a 1.2-Nm load applied to the ankle and subtalar joint complex, the ankle was manually moved from 15° dorsiflexion to 30° plantar flexion. The clock was rotated in 30° increments to measure the ATFL strain detected at each endpoint by the miniature force probe. Individual strain data were aligned with the neutral (0) position value; the maximum value was 100.

Results: Throughout the motion required to shift from 15° dorsiflexion to 30° plantar flexion, the ATFL tensed near 20° (plantar flexion), and the strain increased as the plantar flexion angle increased. The ATFL was maximally tensioned at the 2 and 3 o'clock (inversion) positions (96.0 ± 5.8 and 96.3 ± 5.7) and declined sharply towards the 7 o'clock position (12.4 ± 16.8). Within the elastic range of the ATFL (the range within which it can return to its original shape and length), the tensile force was proportional to the strain, in all specimens.

Conclusion: The MLPP system is capable of measuring ATFL strain patterns; thus, this system may be used to effectively determine the relationship between limb position and ATFL ankle ligament strain patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-021-04058-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897380PMC
February 2021

The Impact of Patient Age on Foot and Ankle Arthrodesis Supplemented with Autograft or an Autograft Alternative (rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP).

JB JS Open Access 2020 Oct-Dec;5(4). Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

A recent survey of orthopaedic surgeons asking about risk factors for nonunion following foot and ankle arthrodesis revealed that patient age is considered to be a relatively low risk factor, despite the potential for autologous graft quality to deteriorate with increasing age. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of patient age and graft type on fusion rates following hindfoot and ankle arthrodesis.

Methods: In this study, we analyzed data from a previously published clinical trial, comparing fusion success in 397 subjects who underwent hindfoot or ankle arthrodesis (597 joints) supplemented with either autograft or an osteoinductive autograft alternative, recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimer carried in beta-tricalcium phosphate (rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP). The odds of fusion success were compared among subjects older or younger than age thresholds of 55, 60, 65, 70, and 75 years. The odds of fusion success were also compared between autograft and rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP among subjects older than each age threshold.

Results: In the autograft group, the joints of subjects who were younger than the age thresholds of 60 and 65 years had >2 times the odds of successful fusion compared with those of older subjects. There was no significant difference in the odds of fusion success between the older and younger subjects at the age threshold of 55 years. In the rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP group, there was no significant difference in the odds of successful fusion between older and younger subjects at any age threshold. When the odds of fusion success were compared between the 2 graft materials in subjects who were older than each age threshold, rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP had approximately 2 times the odds of fusion success compared with autograft for all thresholds, except 55 years.

Conclusions: The presented evidence suggests that age is an identifiable and concerning risk factor for hindfoot and ankle arthrodesis nonunion, a finding in contrast to the wider perception in the surgeon community. Notably, patients ≥60 years of age had significantly lower odds of fusion success with the use of autograft. The data reveal that use of rhPDGF-BB/β-TCP as an alternative bone-healing adjunct may help mitigate the risk of nonunion when these procedures are performed in the elderly population.

Level Of Evidence: Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.OA.20.00056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7757837PMC
November 2020

Clinical outcome results of total ankle replacement and ankle arthrodesis: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Apr 17;27(3):326-331. Epub 2020 Oct 17.

University of Toronto, Surgery, 55 Queen Street East 800, Toronto, ON, M5N 1R6, Canada.

Background: Ankle arthrodesis (AA) and replacement (TAA) are widely accepted options in managing end-stage ankle arthritis (ESAA). We hypothesize that clinical outcomes would be similar for both interventions.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter randomized controlled trial that collected data on patient demographics, complication rates, Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36) scores. We evaluated pre and postoperative scores within and between cohorts.

Results: The thirty-nine ankles enrolled had a mean follow-up of 5.1 ± 2.8 years. Total AOS scores improved significantly in both groups; 59.4 ± 15.9 to 38 ± 20 (p-value = 0.002) for TAA and 64.6 ± 19.7 to 31.8 ± 16.5 (p-value < 0.001) for AA at last follow-up. Complication rate was higher in the AA cohort with four major complications (20%).

Conclusion: We observed a statistically significant benefit with TAA and AA. As a pilot trial, this study is meant to inform on design and feasibility of future RCTs.

Level Of Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.10.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Clinical outcomes of concurrent surgery with weight bearing after modified lasso-loop stitch arthroscopic ankle stabilization.

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 2021 Jun 15;29(6):2006-2014. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center Halifax Infirmary (Suite 4867), Dalhousie University, 1796 Summer Street 902 473-7137, Halifax, NS, B3H3A7, Canada.

Purpose: To determine the effects of unilateral and bilateral ankle stabilization surgery with or without additional concurrent procedures for other pathologies on return to activity in patients who were allowed unrestricted weight bearing postoperatively.

Methods: Ninety-three athletes underwent 120 ankle stabilization surgeries including 27 that underwent bilateral simultaneous surgery using the all-inside arthroscopy-modified lasso-loop technique and were divided into two groups: arthroscopic ligament repair alone without concurrent procedures (group A) and with simultaneous procedures for other pathologies (group B). Group A was further subdivided into unilateral (group A1) and simultaneous bilateral ankle surgery (group A2), and group B into ankle stabilization surgery with simultaneous procedures not requiring weight bearing postoperatively (Group B1) and with concurrent procedures allowing weight bearing (Group B2). Return to activity postoperatively was assessed by recording the time to walk without any support, jog, and return to full athletic activities. Clinical outcomes were assessed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively using a subjective clinical score.

Results: The average time between surgery and unsupported walk, jog, and return to full athletic activities was 1.6 ± 2.5, 16.9 ± 3.7, and 42.4 ± 19.3 days in group A, 17.2 ± 19.6, 34.5 ± 20.8, and 60.9 ± 22.8 days in group B, 1.7 ± 2.9, 16.1 ± 2.4, and 41.6 ± 18.2 days in group A1, 1.3 ± 0.6, 18.9 ± 5.5, and 44.6 ± 22.5 days in group A2, 25.3 ± 20.2, 43.3 ± 21.1, and 70.7 ± 23.1 days in group B1, and 4.8 ± 11.7, 20.7 ± 11.7, and 45.0 ± 13.7 days in group B2, respectively. These results indicate that the patients in group B2 showed a statistically significant faster time to return to activity than did those restricted from weight bearing. Differences in ankle stabilization alone between patients in groups A1 and A2 as well as groups B2 and A were not statistically significant. Clinical outcomes were similar for patients in groups B2 and A1 versus group A2.

Conclusion: Time to return to activity and clinical outcomes after ankle stabilization surgery using the modified lasso-loop technique were negatively affected if simultaneous bilateral surgery or simultaneous concurrent procedures were added or if weight bearing was unrestricted. However, a delay in return to athletic activity was observed when ankle stabilization surgery was performed using the modified lasso-loop technique with concurrent procedures that require non-weight bearing postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: Level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00167-020-06264-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Surgical interventions of Freiberg's disease: A systematic review.

Foot Ankle Surg 2021 Aug 27;27(6):606-614. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Dalhousie University, Orthopedic, 1796 Summer Street, Halifax, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Freiberg's disease is an osteonecrosis of the metatarsal head bone. Numerous surgical interventions can be provided; however, the literature is limited in systematic reviews discussing the various options. The study aimed to systematically review the quantity and quality of literatures exploring the surgical interventions.

Methods: Fifty articles were found to be relevant for assessing the efficacy of common surgical interventions. The articles were assigned a level of evidence (I-V) to assess their quality. Next, the studies were reviewed to provide a grade of recommendation (A-C, I).

Results: Two studies were found at level III that explored osteotomy and autologous transplantation; the other studies were level IV-V. There is poor evidence (grade C) in supporting of joint sparing and joint sacrificing for Freiberg's disease.

Conclusion: Poor evidence exists to support the surgical interventions for Freiberg's disease, higher quality trials are needed to support the increasing application of these surgical techniques.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, Systematic review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2020.08.005DOI Listing
August 2021

Long-term Autograft Harvest Site Pain After Ankle and Hindfoot Arthrodesis.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 08 20;41(8):911-915. Epub 2020 May 20.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Pain following autograft harvest has been studied; however, published literature has typically focused on the iliac crest with follow-up limited to only a few years. It remains unknown if pain continues or improves over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate long-term pain associated with autograft harvest to supplement hindfoot or ankle arthrodesis.

Methods: Subjects in the control arm of a previously conducted trial comparing autograft with a synthetic bone graft for hindfoot or ankle arthrodesis were invited back for a single visit at a minimum of 5 years following their initial surgery. Harvest site, fusion site, and weight-bearing pain were evaluated using a 100-point visual analog scale (VAS). Of the 130 invited subjects, 60 (46.1%) returned for assessment, 58 of whom completed pain assessments.

Results: At a mean follow-up of 9.0 years (range, 7.8-10.5), more than a third (36.6%) of subjects had some level of harvest site pain. Using VAS greater than 20 mm as a threshold of clinical significance, pain remained clinically significant in 5.2% of subjects. There was a significant correlation between harvest site pain and both weight-bearing and fusion site pain. There was not a significant correlation between harvest site pain and volume of graft harvested.

Conclusion: Autograft harvest can result in chronic, clinically significant pain that can last up to 10 years. In the era of shared decision making, this information will help surgeons and patients quantify the risks of chronic pain after arthrodesis procedures that include a secondary operative incision for graft harvest.

Level Of Evidence: Level II, prospective comparative study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100720920846DOI Listing
August 2020

Strain pattern of each ligamentous band of the superficial deltoid ligament: a cadaver study.

BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2020 May 9;21(1):289. Epub 2020 May 9.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center Halifax Infirmary (Suite 4867), 1796 Summer Street Halifax, Halifax, Nova Scotia, B3H3A7, Canada.

Background: There are few reports on the detailed biomechanics of the deltoid ligament, and no studies have measured the biomechanics of each ligamentous band because of the difficulty in inserting sensors into the narrow ligaments. This study aimed to measure the strain pattern of the deltoid ligament bands directly using a Miniaturization Ligament Performance Probe (MLPP) system.

Methods: The MLPP was sutured into the ligamentous bands of the deltoid ligament in 6 fresh-frozen lower extremity cadaveric specimens. The strain was measured using a round metal disk (clock) fixed on the plantar aspect of the foot. The ankle was manually moved from 15° dorsiflexion to 30° plantar flexion, and a 1.2-N-m force was applied to the ankle and subtalar joint complex. Then the clock was rotated every 30° to measure the strain of each ligamentous band at each endpoint.

Results: The tibionavicular ligament (TNL) began to tense at 10° plantar flexion, and the tension becomes stronger as the angle increased; the TNL worked most effectively in plantar flex-abduction. The tibiospring ligament (TSL) began to tense gradually at 15° plantar flexion, and the tension became stronger as the angle increased. The TSL worked most effectively in abduction. The tibiocalcaneal ligament (TCL) began to tense gradually at 0° dorsiflexion, and the tension became stronger as the angle increased. The TCL worked most effectively in pronation (dorsiflexion-abduction). The superficial posterior tibiotalar ligament (SPTTL) began to tense gradually at 0° dorsiflexion, and the tension became stronger as the angle increased, with the SPTTL working most effectively in dorsiflexion.

Conclusion: Our results show the biomechanical function of the superficial deltoid ligament and may contribute to determining which ligament is damaged during assessment in the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12891-020-03296-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7211342PMC
May 2020

Agonizing and Expensive: A Review of Institutional Costs of Ankle Fusion Nonunions.

Orthopedics 2020 Jul 12;43(4):e219-e224. Epub 2020 Apr 12.

Nonunion after ankle arthrodesis requiring revision is a challenging operative complication, and bone graft substitutes are costly. This study sought to summarize all institutional expenditures related to the revision of an ankle fusion nonunion, presuming that cost and skin-to-skin time would exceed those of the index surgery. The electronic records from 2 foot and ankle centers were reviewed, leading to a list of patients with 2 or more entries for tibiotalar fusions being generated. A total of 24 cases were found to match the criteria. Demographic factors and skin-to-skin time of the remaining patients were compiled. This cohort included 24 patients (6 female and 18 male) with a mean age of 64 years and body mass index of 30.4 kg/m. Supplemental clinic visits and investigations were included either after computed tomography to assess union or 365 days after index surgery. Total cost of the revision was calculated from billing codes, length of operation, and period of hospitalization. Postrevision outpatient fees were included as well. The revisions were performed open in all cases, and 21 patients received autograft and/or bone substitute. Mean postoperative hospitalization was 3 days. The additional costs (in US dollars) associated with nonunion were $1061 for imaging, $627 for prerevision visits, $3026 for the revision, $3432 for the hospital stay, and $1754 for postrevision follow-up. The total mean amount was $9683, equivalent to 9 nights of acute inpatient stay. Mean index skin-to-skin time was 114 minutes, being 126 minutes for revisions (P=.26). Additional care related to ankle fusion nonunion represents a financial burden equivalent to 9 nights of acute inpatient stay. The use of an orthobiologic would need to be less than $436 to be cost saving. Revision surgery is not significantly longer intraoperatively than index surgery. [Orthopedics. 2020;43(4):e219-e224.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3928/01477447-20200404-01DOI Listing
July 2020

Preliminary Experience With SPECT/CT to Evaluate Periarticular Arthritis Progression and the Relationship With Clinical Outcome Following Ankle Arthrodesis.

Foot Ankle Int 2020 04 6;41(4):392-397. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Division of Orthopedic Surgery, Nova Scotia Health Authority, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.

Background: Single photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT/CT) could potentially aid in diagnosing periarticular arthritis/activity and progression, facilitate effective treatment options, and evaluate the effect surgery has on the clinical outcome of patients with ankle arthritis. The goal of our study was to assess SPECT/CT activity in the ankle and periarticular joints before and after ankle fusion surgery and determine whether it was associated with clinical pain and function scores.

Methods: Thirty-four patients recruited into this study underwent either arthroscopic or open ankle fusion. X-ray (XR) and SPECT/CT imaging was obtained as well as completion of patient Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and 36-item Short Form Survey (SF-36) questionnaires preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. Ankle, subtalar, and talonavicular joint arthritis grading on XR and CT, along with SPECT/CT activity, was evaluated by 2 nuclear medicine radiologists. Data were assessed for normality and analyzed with the appropriate comparative test. value was set at <.05. Thirty patients (31 ankles) completed follow-up and were analyzed.

Results: SPECT/CT activity showed no significant difference in the ankle joint at 6 months postoperatively while periarticular joint activity significantly increased ( < .05). Six months postoperatively, patients had significant improvements in their AOS and SF-36 scores ( < .05). SPECT/CT grading of all joints analyzed, however, was not associated with AOS or SF-36 scores preoperatively or at 6 months postoperatively.

Conclusion: In this study, intensity of activity as evaluated by SPECT/CT in periarticular hindfoot joints in patients who had ankle arthrodesis was not associated with clinical/functional scores at 6 months postoperatively.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719898279DOI Listing
April 2020

Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of an Arabic version of the American Orthopedics Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS).

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Dec 6;26(8):876-882. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Dalhousie Department of Surgery and QEII HSC, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: The evaluation process is essential to optimize the management of patients with foot and ankle pathologies and disorders. This study aimed to translate and culturally adapt the four scoring systems of the American Orthopedics Foot and ankle Score (AOFAS) into Arabic and explore its psychometric properties.

Methods: A multicenter observational design was used, following the forward-backward translation method. One hundred and twenty patients with foot and ankle problems were included. Construct validity and test-retest reliability were analyzed using Intra-class correlation coefficients; internal consistency was analyzed with Cronbach's alpha, and the responsiveness was analyzed using a paired-sample test.

Results: The validity ranged from 0.303 to 0.542 and from 0.018 to 0.753 when correlated to the SF-12 physical and mental component scores, respectively. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.727 to 0.974; from 0.826 to 0.983 for internal consistency and from 0.001 to 0.182 for sensitivity.

Conclusion: The AOFAS's four systems were successfully translated and culturally adapted into Arabic with sufficient psychometric properties.

Level Of Clinical Evidence: II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2019.11.001DOI Listing
December 2020

Outcomes of Total Ankle Replacement, Arthroscopic Ankle Arthrodesis, and Open Ankle Arthrodesis for Isolated Non-Deformed End-Stage Ankle Arthritis.

J Bone Joint Surg Am 2019 Sep;101(17):1523-1529

Division of Distal Extremities, Department of Orthopaedics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: End-stage ankle arthritis is a disabling condition that has a similar effect on morbidity, pain, and loss of function to hip arthritis. We compared clinical outcomes of total ankle replacement (TAR) involving the HINTEGRA prosthesis (Integra LifeSciences), arthroscopic ankle arthrodesis (AAA), and open ankle arthrodesis (OAA) in patients with isolated, non-deformed end-stage ankle arthritis.

Methods: Patients ≥18 years old who underwent TAR, AAA, or OAA from 2002 to 2012 with a minimum follow-up of 2 years were retrospectively identified from the Canadian Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (COFAS) Prospective Ankle Reconstruction Database. All patients had symptomatic COFAS Type-1 end-stage ankle arthritis without intra-articular or extra-articular deformity or surrounding joint arthritis. Clinical outcomes included the Ankle Osteoarthritis Scale (AOS) and Short Form-36 (SF-36). Revision was defined as removal of 1 or both metal ankle prosthesis components for TAR and as reoperation for malposition, malunion, or nonunion for AAA and OAA.

Results: Analysis included 238 ankles (88 TAR, 50 AAA, and 100 OAA) in 229 patients with a mean follow-up of 43.3 ± 18.5 months. The TAR group had more female patients (55%; p = 0.0318) and a higher mean age (p = 0.0005). Preoperative AOS pain, disability, and total scores were similar for all groups. SF-36 physical and mental component summary scores were similar across groups, both preoperatively and postoperatively. Improvement in AOS total score was significantly larger for TAR (34.4 ± 22.6) and AAA (38.3 ± 23.6) compared with OAA (25.8 ± 25.5; p = 0.005). Improvement in AOS disability score was also significantly larger for TAR (36.7 ± 24.3) and AAA (40.5 ± 26.4) compared with OAA (26.0 ± 26.2; p = 0.0013). However, the greater improvements did not meet the minimal clinically important difference. The TAR group underwent more reoperations than AAA and OAA groups (p < 0.0001). Revision rates were similar for all 3 groups (p = 0.262).

Conclusions: AAA and OAA resulted in comparable clinical outcomes to TAR in patients with non-deformed, COFAS Type-1 end-stage ankle arthritis. The rate of component revision in patients who underwent TAR was similar to the rate of revision for patients who underwent AAA or OAA; however, TAR patients underwent a greater number of additional procedures. Overall, AAA and TAR involving the HINTEGRA prosthesis were not significantly different surgical options in terms of short-term outcomes; patients should be counseled regarding higher reoperation rates for TAR.

Level Of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.18.01012DOI Listing
September 2019

Preliminary Experience With Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel Implant for Pathology of the Second Metatarsal Head.

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Nov 5;40(11):1304-1308. Epub 2019 Aug 5.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background: There is no consensus regarding which surgical technique is most beneficial for pathology of the second metatarsophalangeal joint. We report the use of polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel synthetic cartilage implant hemiarthroplasty for pathology of the second metatarsal head that has failed nonoperative treatment and present 5 cases with a minimum 15 months of follow-up.

Methods: The technique for synthetic cartilage hemiarthroplasty of the second metatarsal head is described. The postoperative protocol included weightbearing as tolerated for 2 weeks and moderate limitations in activities of daily living to respect wound healing, followed by physiotherapy for range of motion exercises. Charts for patients who underwent this procedure between 2015 and 2017 were retrospectively reviewed. Outcome measures collected postoperatively included a pain visual analog scale, Short-Form 36 (SF-36) Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS) scores, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Sports and Activities of Daily Living (ADL) current level of function percentages.

Results: At 15 to 38 months of follow-up, patients reported little to no pain and good range of motion, with no complications. Mean outcome measure scores were 89 for FAAM ADL, 75 for FAAM Sports, 44.4 for SF-36 PCS, and 52.1 for SF-36 MCS.

Conclusion: This preliminary study of synthetic cartilage hemiarthroplasty for treatment of joint-destructive conditions of the second metatarsal head demonstrated good outcomes and no complications in 5 cases at a mean 25 months of follow-up. Large prospective cohort studies are needed to prove the efficacy and safety of this new surgical technique for the treatment of pathology of the second metatarsal head.

Level Of Evidence: Level IV, retrospective case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100719866700DOI Listing
November 2019

Functional Rehabilitation for Nonsurgical Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture.

Foot Ankle Clin 2019 Sep 22;24(3):387-398. Epub 2019 Jun 22.

Citadel Physiotherapy, 1554 Dresdon Row, Suite 3070, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3J 2X2, Canada.

The use of early functional rehabilitation in the treatment of nonoperative Achilles tendon ruptures has been shown to provide patients with outcomes similar to operative treatments. This article describes a high-quality accelerated functional rehabilitation program that begins with early diagnosis and appropriate patient selection to allow initiation of the nonoperative protocol. Complications with nonoperative treatment of Achilles ruptures are significantly lower than with operative treatment; however, re-rupture and elongation of the tendon resulting in decreased strength are problematic and more common if patients are non-compliant. These can be minimized with good patient education, close supervision, and good communication between physical therapist and physician.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2019.05.001DOI Listing
September 2019

Varus talar tilt combined with an internal rotation pivot stress assesses the supination instability vector in lateral ankle ligaments' injury - cadaver study.

Foot Ankle Surg 2020 Apr 27;26(3):258-264. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Department of Anatomy and Human Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Orthopaedics, Clinica del Remei, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: The lack of consensus on the relevance of the varus talar tilt test (VTTT) might be due to the divergence between the insufficiency vector of lateral ankle instability and the direction of this clinical test. Our hypothesis is that the VTTT is more accurate to diagnose lateral ankle ligaments rupture when it's applied with a pre-positioning of the foot in internal rotation (IR).

Methods: We compared, in 12 cadaver ankles, the varus opening during a classic VTTT with the same test starting in an IR pivot, using a new arthrometer.

Results: The classic VTTT caused a 13° tilt after ATFL section and 23,8° after ATFL and CFL section. The application of a VTTT with an IR prepositioning caused a 21,2° tilt after ATFL section (p = 0,002) and 29,5° after ATFL and CFL section (p = 0,006).

Conclusion: The VTTT is better to identify lateral ankle ligaments' insufficiency when it's applied with a pre-positioning of the foot in internal rotation. The resulting vector is similar to the supination trauma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fas.2019.03.007DOI Listing
April 2020

Midterm Outcomes of a Synthetic Cartilage Implant for the First Metatarsophalangeal Joint in Advanced Hallux Rigidus.

Foot Ankle Int 2019 Apr 3;40(4):374-383. Epub 2018 Dec 3.

13 Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Background:: A prospective, randomized, noninferiority clinical trial of synthetic cartilage implant hemiarthroplasty for hallux rigidus demonstrated functional outcomes and safety equivalent to first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint arthrodesis at 24 months. We prospectively assessed safety and efficacy outcomes for synthetic cartilage implant hemiarthroplasty at a minimum of 5 years.

Methods:: Of 135 eligible patients from the original trial, 112 (83.0%) were enrolled (mean age, 58.2 ± 8.8 years; 87 females). Pain visual analog scale (VAS), Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and FAAM Sports subscales were completed preoperatively and 2 and 5 years postoperatively. Great toe active dorsiflexion, weightbearing radiographs, secondary procedures, and safety parameters were also evaluated.

Results:: At 24 months, 14/152 (9.2%) patients had undergone implant removal and conversion to arthrodesis. In years 2 to 5, 9/119 (7.6%) patients underwent implant removal and conversion to arthrodesis. At mean 5.8 ± 0.7 (range, 4.4-8.0) years' follow-up, pain VAS, FAAM ADL, and FAAM Sports scores improved by 57.9 ± 18.6 points, 33.0 ± 17.6 points, and 47.9 ± 27.1 points, respectively, from baseline. Clinically significant changes in VAS pain, FAAM ADL, and FAAM Sports were reported by 103/106 (97.2%), 95/105 (90.5%), and 97/104 (93.3%) patients, respectively. Patient-reported outcomes at 24 months were maintained at 5.8 years in patients who were not revised. Active MTP joint peak dorsiflexion was maintained. Ninety-nine of 106 (93.4%) patients would have the procedure again.

Conclusion:: Clinical and safety outcomes for synthetic cartilage implant hemiarthroplasty observed at 2 years were maintained at 5.8 years. The implant remains a viable treatment option to decrease pain, improve function, and maintain motion for advanced hallux rigidus.

Level Of Evidence:: Level IV, case series.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100718815469DOI Listing
April 2019

New Technology in the Treatment of Hallux Rigidus with a Synthetic Cartilage Implant Hemiarthroplasty.

Orthop Clin North Am 2019 Jan;50(1):109-118

Dalhousie University, Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax Infirmary, Room 4867, 1796 Summer Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3A7, Canada.

Synthetic cartilage implant surgery is an excellent option for the patient with great toe arthritis and good alignment of the toe who wishes to retain first metatarsophalangeal motion and obtain 90% improved pain relief and function. Patients with osteoporosis, osteopenia, or bone defects from surgery or disease may not maintain the implant position due to poor bone quality, resulting in less than desired outcomes. Despite this being a straightforward surgery, patients need to be aware that the pain relief may not begin until 3+ months after surgery because this procedure does require bone resection and implant placement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ocl.2018.08.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Percutaneous Ankle Reconstruction of Lateral Ligaments.

Foot Ankle Clin 2018 Dec 28;23(4):581-592. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Teikyo Institute of Sports Science & Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; Department of Sport and Medical Science, Teikyo Institute of Sports Science & Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.

Chronic ankle instability following ankle sprains causes pain and functional problems such as recurrent giving way. Within the 3 ligaments of the lateral ligament complex, 80% of patients tear the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL), whereas the other 20% of patients tear the ATFL and calcaneofibular ligament (CFL). Rarely, the posterior talofibular ligament is involved. An incidence of 10% to 30% of patients will fail conservative treatment and result in chronic ankle instability that may require surgical treatment. To date, numerous open surgical procedures for anatomic repair or reconstruction of ATFL and/or CFL provide good clinical results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fcl.2018.07.013DOI Listing
December 2018

Subchondral Pathology: Proceedings of the International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Foot Ankle Int 2018 07;39(1_suppl):48S-53S

10 Dalhousie University & Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: The evidence supporting best practice guidelines in the field of cartilage repair of the ankle are based on both low quality and low levels of evidence. Therefore, an international consensus group of experts was convened to collaboratively advance toward consensus opinions based on the best available evidence on key topics within cartilage repair of the ankle. The purpose of this article is to report the consensus statements on "Subchondral Pathology" developed at the 2017 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle.

Methods: Seventy-five international experts in cartilage repair of the ankle representing 25 countries and 1 territory were convened and participated in a process based on the Delphi method of achieving consensus. Questions and statements were drafted within 11 working groups focusing on specific topics within cartilage repair of the ankle, after which a comprehensive literature review was performed and the available evidence for each statement was graded. Discussion and debate occurred in cases where statements were not agreed upon in unanimous fashion within the working groups. A final vote was then held, and the strength of consensus was characterized as follows: consensus, 51% to 74%; strong consensus, 75% to 99%; unanimous, 100%.

Results: A total of 9 statements on subchondral pathology reached consensus during the 2017 International Consensus Meeting on Cartilage Repair of the Ankle. No statements achieved unanimous support, but all statements reached strong consensus (greater than 75% agreement). All statements reached at least 81% agreement.

Conclusions: This international consensus statements regarding subchondral pathology of the talus derived from leaders in the field will assist clinicians in the assessment and management of this difficult pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1071100718781866DOI Listing
July 2018

Safety Profile and Short-term Outcomes of BST-CarGel as an Adjunct to Microfracture for the Treatment of Chondral Lesions of the Hip.

Orthop J Sports Med 2018 Aug 10;6(8):2325967118789871. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.

Background: Acetabular cartilage lesions are a common abnormality found in patients undergoing hip arthroscopic surgery and may cause pain and functional limitations. Several strategies have been developed to treat chondral defects, with no overwhelming success. Recently, BST-CarGel has gained interest as a scaffolding material that can be injected into the microfracture site to stabilize the clot and facilitate cartilage repair.

Purpose: To perform a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data to evaluate the safety profile and short-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients treated arthroscopically with BST-CarGel for acetabular chondral defects in conjunction with microfracture.

Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4.

Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients who underwent hip arthroscopic surgery by the senior surgeon to identify those who had BST-CarGel applied to their hip from November 2014 to July 2016, and basic demographic information for those patients was obtained. Operative reports and patient charts were reviewed to assess intraoperative and postoperative complications as well as to obtain the details of surgery, including lesion size and treatment method of the labrum (repair vs reconstruction). All patients filled out self-reported questionnaires, including the international Hip Outcome Tool (iHOT), Hip Outcome Score-Activities of Daily Living (HOS-ADL), and Hip Outcome Score-Sports Profile (HOS-SP) at the time of consultation and at 1 year postoperatively, and results were used to assess the clinical outcomes of surgery.

Results: Thirty-seven patients (37 hips) with a mean age of 36.19 years at the time of the index procedure were evaluated. There were 30 male patients, and 20 procedures were performed on the right hip. The minimum follow-up was 1 year, with a mean follow-up of 12.72 months. There were no major adverse events of deep vein thrombosis, blood vessel or nerve damage, hemarthrosis, arthralgia, or device-related adverse events. Two patients (5.4%) were readmitted because of pain, probably resulting from an inflammatory reaction to BST-CarGel. At 1 year postoperatively, there were statistically significant improvements in the iHOT (40.4 to 59.1; < .001), HOS-ADL (60.6 to 71.4; = .02), and HOS-SP (36.9 to 51.6; = .01) scores. When the patients were subdivided based on the chondral defect size, the iHOT score improved for all chondral defect sizes, and the HOS-SP score improved in patients with medium (2-4 cm) and very large (>6 cm) chondral defects. In addition, the iHOT score improved whether the patients had their labrum repaired or reconstructed ( < .001 and = .02, respectively).

Conclusion: The arthroscopic treatment of chondral acetabular defects with BST-CarGel demonstrates a satisfactory safety profile, with statistically significant improvement in patient-reported clinical outcome scores, even for those with very large chondral defect sizes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2325967118789871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088484PMC
August 2018
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