Publications by authors named "Mark Gentry"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Systematic Review of Advocacy Curricula in Graduate Medical Education.

J Gen Intern Med 2019 11;34(11):2592-2601

Section of General Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Professionalism standards encourage physicians to participate in public advocacy on behalf of societal health and well-being. While the number of publications of advocacy curricula for GME-level trainees has increased, there has been no formal effort to catalog them.

Objective: To systematically review the existing literature on curricula for teaching advocacy to GME-level trainees and synthesize the results to provide a resource for programs interested in developing advocacy curricula.

Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify articles published in English that describe advocacy curricula for graduate medical education trainees in the USA and Canada current to September 2017. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts, and full texts to identify articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria, with disagreements resolved by a third reviewer. We abstracted information and themes on curriculum development, implementation, and sustainability. Learning objectives, educational content, teaching methods, and evaluations for each curriculum were also extracted.

Results: After reviewing 884 articles, we identified 38 articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Curricula were offered across a variety of specialties, with 84% offered in primary care specialties. There was considerable heterogeneity in the educational content of included advocacy curriculum, ranging from community partnership to legislative advocacy. Common facilitators of curriculum implementation included the American Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements, institutional support, and preexisting faculty experience. Common barriers were competing curricular demands, time constraints, and turnover in volunteer faculty and community partners. Formal evaluation revealed that advocacy curricula were acceptable to trainees and improved knowledge, attitudes, and reported self-efficacy around advocacy.

Discussion: Our systematic review of the medical education literature identified several advocacy curricula for graduate medical education trainees. These curricula provide templates for integrating advocacy education into GME-level training programs across specialties, but more work needs to be done to define standards and expectations around GME training for this professional activity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-019-05184-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848624PMC
November 2019

Machine Learning to Predict Outcomes in Patients with Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Systematic Review.

Dig Dis Sci 2019 08 4;64(8):2078-2087. Epub 2019 May 4.

Yale School of Medicine Section of Digestive Diseases, P.O. Box 208019, New Haven, CT, 06520-8019, USA.

Risk stratification of patients with gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is recommended, but current risk assessment tools have variable performance. Machine learning (ML) has promise to improve risk assessment. We performed a systematic review to evaluate studies utilizing ML techniques for GIB. Bibliographic databases and conference abstracts were searched for studies with a population of overt GIB that used an ML algorithm with outcomes of mortality, rebleeding, hemostatic intervention, and/or hospital stay. Two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts, reviewed full-text studies, and extracted data from included studies. Risk of bias was assessed with an adapted Quality in Prognosis Studies tool. Area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were the primary assessment of performance with AUC ≥ 0.80 predefined as an acceptable threshold of good performance. Fourteen studies with 30 assessments of ML models met inclusion criteria. No study had low risk of bias. Median AUC reported in validation datasets for predefined outcomes of mortality, intervention, or rebleeding was 0.84 (range 0.40-0.98). AUCs were higher with artificial neural networks (median 0.93, range 0.78-0.98) than other ML models (0.81, range 0.40-0.92). ML performed better than clinical risk scores (Glasgow-Blatchford, Rockall, Child-Pugh, MELD) for mortality in upper GIB. Limitations include heterogeneity of ML models, inconsistent comparisons of ML models with clinical risk scores, and high risk of bias. ML generally provided good-excellent prognostic performance in patients with GIB, and artificial neural networks tended to outperform other ML models. ML was better than clinical risk scores for mortality in upper GIB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-019-05645-zDOI Listing
August 2019

Non-accidental harms ('abuse') in athletes with impairment ('para athletes'): a state-of-the-art review.

Br J Sports Med 2020 Feb 25;54(3):129-138. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Objective: Para athletes reap significant health benefits from sport but are vulnerable to non-accidental harms. Little is known about the types and impacts of non-accidental harms Para athletes face. In this literature review, we summarise current knowledge and suggest priorities for future research related to non-accidental harms in Para athletes.

Design: Six electronic databases were searched between August and September 2017. 2245 articles were identified in the initial title/abstract review, and 202 records were selected for full-text review following preliminary screening. Two independent examiners evaluated each full text, and eight citations were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria.

Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus and Academic Search Premier.

Eligibility Criteria For Selecting Studies: Inclusion criteria: (A) human participants; (B) written in English; (C) descriptive, cohort and case series, case-control, qualitative, mixed methods studies and all clinical trials; and (D) data pertain to harassment/abuse of youth, recreational, collegiate, national-level and/or elite-level athletes with a physical and/or intellectual impairment.

Results: Most studies focused on young, visually impaired athletes and approximately half of all studies described high rates of bullying and its social implications. One study confirmed remarkably high rates of psychological, physical and sexual harms in Para athletes, compared with able-bodied peers.

Conclusions: Bullying in young, visually impaired athletes is described most commonly in the available literature. Due to the limited amount of data, the prevalence of non-accidental harms in Para athletes remains unclear and information on trends over time is similarly unavailable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-099854DOI Listing
February 2020

Medicaid Patients Have Greater Difficulty Scheduling Health Care Appointments Compared With Private Insurance Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

Inquiry 2019 Jan-Dec;56:46958019838118

1 Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Medicaid patients are known to have reduced access to care compared with privately insured patients; however, quantifying this disparity with large controlled studies remains a challenge. This meta-analysis evaluates the disparity in health services accessibility of appointments between Medicaid and privately insured patients through audit studies of health care appointments and schedules. Audit studies evaluating different types of outpatient physician practices were selected. Studies were categorized based on the characteristics of the simulated patient scenario. The relative risk of appointment availability was calculated for all different types of audit scenario characteristics. As a secondary analysis, appointment availability was compared pre- versus post-Medicaid expansion. Overall, 34 audit studies were identified, which demonstrated that Medicaid insurance is associated with a 1.6-fold lower likelihood in successfully scheduling a primary care appointment and a 3.3-fold lower likelihood in successfully scheduling a specialty appointment when compared with private insurance. In this first meta-analysis comparing appointment availability between Medicaid and privately insured patients, we demonstrate Medicaid patients have greater difficulty obtaining appointments compared with privately insured patients across a variety of medical scenarios.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0046958019838118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6452575PMC
August 2019

Acute and Chronic Musculoskeletal Injury in Para Sport: A Critical Review.

Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am 2018 05;29(2):205-243

Centre for Sport and Exercise Science and Medicine (SESAME), School of Sport and Service Management, University of Brighton, Mithras House Lewes Road, Brighton BN2 4AT, UK.

Sport-related injury patterns among Para athletes have been described with increasing frequency. This review summarizes musculoskeletal injuries in Para athletes. Seated Para athletes sustain upper extremity injuries more commonly; ambulant Para athletes frequently sustain lower extremity injuries. The upper extremity is the most commonly injured anatomic area in all Para athletes, unlike able-bodied athletes. Advanced age and spinal cord injury may increase the risk of upper extremity injury. Injury data for recreational and youth Para athletes are sparse. Summarizing current injury epidemiology data may help to accelerate the development of injury prevention strategies and lifetime injury models for Para athletes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2018.01.014DOI Listing
May 2018

Single-Bone Intramedullary Nailing of Pediatric Both-Bone Forearm Fractures A Systematic Review.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2017 Dec;75(4):227-233

Traditional operative management of unstable, pediatric both-bone forearm fractures is fixation of both ulna and radius. Literature suggests single-bone fixation with intramedullary nailing obtains good results and is less technically demanding and invasive. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of single-bone intramedullary nailing of pediatric both-bone forearm fractures. Medline and Embase were searched for English-language primary studies published in peer-reviewed journals. Two independent investigators extracted data. Eleven papers met the criteria for inclusion. Overall, studies found pronation and supination and radiographic angulation outcomes were comparable in single and both-bone fixation cohorts. Rates of pronation and supination loss and re-angulation were similar for radius-only compared to ulna-only fixation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
December 2017

Biomarkers for the detection of renal fibrosis and prediction of renal outcomes: a systematic review.

BMC Nephrol 2017 02 20;18(1):72. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Program of Applied Translational Research, Department of Medicine, Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA.

Background: Fibrosis is the unifying pathway leading to chronic kidney disease. Identifying biomarkers of fibrosis may help predict disease progression.

Methods: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the reliability of blood and urine biomarkers in identifying fibrosis on biopsy as well as predicting renal outcomes. Using MEDLINE and EMBASE, a two-stage search strategy was implemented. Stage I identified a library of biomarkers correlating with fibrosis on biopsy. Stage II evaluated the association between biomarkers identified in stage I, and renal outcomes. Only biomarkers with moderate positive correlation with fibrosis (r > 0.40) or acceptable area under the curve (AUC >0.65) advanced to stage II.

Results: Stage I identified 17 studies and 14 biomarkers. Five biomarkers met criteria to advance to stage II, but only three were independently associated with renal outcomes. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) correlated with fibrosis (r = 0.60), and was associated with 1.7-3.9 times the risk of worsening renal function in 426 patients. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) diagnosed fibrosis with AUC of 0.66 and was associated with 2.3-11.0 times the risk of worsening renal function in 596 patients. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) correlated with fibrosis (r = 0.41), and was associated with 2.5 times the risk of worsening renal function.

Conclusions: Given the heterogeneity of the data due to diverse patient populations along with differing renal outcomes, a meta-analysis could not be conducted. Nonetheless we can conclude from the published data that TGF-β, MCP-1 and MMP-2 may identify patients at risk for renal fibrosis and hence worse renal outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12882-017-0490-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5319065PMC
February 2017

Phenotypes in obstructive sleep apnea: A definition, examples and evolution of approaches.

Sleep Med Rev 2017 10 12;35:113-123. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; Clinical Epidemiology Research Center (CERC), VA Connecticut Healthcare System, West Haven, CT, USA.

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder and the apnea hypopnea index alone can not capture the diverse spectrum of the condition. Enhanced phenotyping can improve prognostication, patient selection for clinical trials, understanding of mechanisms, and personalized treatments. In OSA, multiple condition characteristics have been termed "phenotypes." To help classify patients into relevant prognostic and therapeutic categories, an OSA phenotype can be operationally defined as: "A category of patients with OSA distinguished from others by a single or combination of disease features, in relation to clinically meaningful attributes (symptoms, response to therapy, health outcomes, quality of life)." We review approaches to clinical phenotyping in OSA, citing examples of increasing analytic complexity. Although clinical feature based OSA phenotypes with significant prognostic and treatment implications have been identified (e.g., excessive daytime sleepiness OSA), many current categorizations lack association with meaningful outcomes. Recent work focused on pathophysiologic risk factors for OSA (e.g., arousal threshold, craniofacial morphology, chemoreflex sensitivity) appears to capture heterogeneity in OSA, but requires clinical validation. Lastly, we discuss the use of machine learning as a promising phenotyping strategy that can integrate multiple types of data (genomic, molecular, cellular, clinical) to identify unique, meaningful OSA phenotypes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.smrv.2016.10.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5389934PMC
October 2017

Histological Disease Activity as a Predictor of Clinical Relapse Among Patients With Ulcerative Colitis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Gastroenterol 2016 12 11;111(12):1692-1701. Epub 2016 Oct 11.

Section of Digestive Diseases, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.

Objectives: Endoscopic remission in ulcerative colitis (UC) is associated with improved clinical outcomes. We assessed whether histological remission predicts clinical outcomes, estimated the magnitude of effect, and determined whether histological remission provides additional prognostic utility beyond clinical or endoscopic remission.

Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched for studies in inflammatory bowel disease providing baseline histological status and relation to an outcome of clinical relapse or exacerbation. Our primary analysis compared the proportion of patients with study-defined histological remission vs. the proportion with histological activity who developed clinical relapse/exacerbation. Additional analyses compared the proportion with relapse/exacerbation for the presence vs. absence of different histological features and for histological remission vs. endoscopic remission and clinical remission. A fixed-effect model was used for meta-analysis, with a random-effects model if statistical heterogeneity was present.

Results: Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria. The major methodological shortcoming was lack of blinding of the assessor of clinical relapse/exacerbation to baseline histological status in 13 of the 15 studies. Relapse/exacerbation was less frequent with baseline histological remission vs. histological activity (relative risk (RR)=0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39-0.60) and vs. baseline clinical and endoscopic remission (RR=0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94). Relapse/exacerbation was also less common in the absence vs. presence of specific histological features: neutrophils in epithelium (RR=0.32, 95% CI 0.23-0.45), neutrophils in lamina propria (RR=0.43, 95% CI 0.32-0.59), crypt abscesses (RR=0.38, 95% CI 0.27-0.54), eosinophils in the lamina propria (RR=0.43, 95% CI 0.21-0.91), and chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate (RR=0.28, 95% CI 0.10-0.75). Histological remission was present in 964 (71%) of the 1360 patients with combined endoscopic and clinical remission at baseline.

Conclusions: UC patients with histological remission have a significant 52% RR reduction in clinical relapse/exacerbation compared with those with histological activity. Histological remission is also superior to endoscopic and clinical remission in predicting clinical outcomes. As ~30% of patients with endoscopic and clinical remission still have histological activity, addition of histological status as an end point in clinical trials or practice has the potential to improve clinical outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ajg.2016.418DOI Listing
December 2016

Left ventricular thrombi after STEMI in the primary PCI era: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Cardiol 2016 Oct 6;221:554-9. Epub 2016 Jul 6.

Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, United States.

Background: Left ventricular (LV) thrombus formation following myocardial infarction (MI) has not been well characterized since the advent of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI). Ascertainment of the utility of prophylactic anticoagulation is hindered by the lack of reliable information on its modern incidence. We sought to provide an estimate of the rate of LV thrombus formation in patients treated with pPCI for ST segment elevation MI (STEMI) by means of a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: We searched Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid EMBASE databases for studies between 1990 and 2015 documenting LV thrombi after STEMI treated with pPCI. We estimated the rate of echocardiographically-diagnosed LV thrombi within 90days of pPCI, calculating the rate of LV thrombi after STEMI in any infarct territory as well as only anterior infarcts.

Results: From an initial yield of 1144 studies, inclusion criteria were met by 19 studies, including 10,076 patients across 27 centers in 9 countries. Rate of LV thrombi after all STEMI was 2.7% (95% CI 1.9%-3.5%) and 9.1% (95% CI 6.6%-11.6%) after anterior STEMI. Among anterior STEMI, there was an inverse relationship between size of study and rate of LV thrombi.

Conclusions: LV thrombi persist as an important part of the management of STEMI after pPCI, particularly among anterior infarcts. Estimating risk of thrombus formation and embolization as well as utility of treatment remains critical.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.07.069DOI Listing
October 2016

Amino-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide for Diagnosis and Prognosis in Patients With Renal Dysfunction: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

JACC Heart Fail 2015 Dec;3(12):977-89

Department of Internal Medicine and Applied Translational Research, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to determine if amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) has different diagnostic and prognostic utility in patients with renal dysfunction.

Background: Patients with renal dysfunction have higher NT-proBNP, which may complicate interpretation for diagnosis of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) or prognosis.

Methods: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE through August 2014 for studies with a subgroup analysis by renal function of the diagnostic or prognostic ability of NT-proBNP.

Results: For diagnosis, 9 studies were included with 4,287 patients and 1,325 ADHF events. Patients were mostly divided into subgroups with and without renal dysfunction by an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). In patients with renal dysfunction, the area under the curve (AUC) for NT-proBNP ranged from 0.66 to 0.89 with a median cutpoint of 1,980 pg/ml, while the AUC ranged from 0.72 to 0.95 with a cutpoint of 450 pg/ml in patients with preserved renal function. For prognosis, 30 studies with 32,203 patients were included, and mortality in patients with renal dysfunction (25.4%) was twice that of patients with preserved renal function (12.2%). The unadjusted pooled risk ratio for NT-proBNP and mortality was 3.01 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.53 to 3.58) in patients with preserved renal function and was similar in patients with renal dysfunction (3.25; 95% CI: 2.45 to 4.30). Upon meta-regression, heterogeneity was partially explained if patients with heart failure or coronary artery disease were enrolled.

Conclusions: NT-proBNP retains utility for diagnosis of ADHF in patients with renal dysfunction with higher cutpoints. Elevated NT-proBNP confers a worse prognosis regardless of renal function.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchf.2015.07.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683413PMC
December 2015
-->