Publications by authors named "Mark E Shaffrey"

92 Publications

Identifying patients at risk for nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy: an analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 May 7:1-9. Epub 2021 May 7.

15Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Objective: Optimizing patient discharge after surgery has been shown to impact patient recovery and hospital/physician workflow and to reduce healthcare costs. In the current study, the authors sought to identify risk factors for nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy by using a national spine registry.

Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database cervical module was queried for patients who had undergone surgery for cervical myelopathy between 2016 and 2018. Nonroutine discharge was defined as discharge to postacute care (rehabilitation), nonacute care, or another acute care hospital. A multivariable logistic regression predictive model was created using an array of demographic, clinical, operative, and patient-reported outcome characteristics.

Results: Of the 1114 patients identified, 11.2% (n = 125) had a nonroutine discharge. On univariate analysis, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be older (age ≥ 65 years, 70.4% vs 35.8%, p < 0.001), African American (24.8% vs 13.9%, p = 0.007), and on Medicare (75.2% vs 35.1%, p < 0.001). Among the patients younger than 65 years of age, those who had a nonroutine discharge were more likely to be unemployed (70.3% vs 36.9%, p < 0.001). Overall, patients with a nonroutine discharge were more likely to present with a motor deficit (73.6% vs 58.7%, p = 0.001) and more likely to have nonindependent ambulation (50.4% vs 14.0%, p < 0.001) at presentation. On multivariable logistic regression, factors associated with higher odds of a nonroutine discharge included African American race (vs White, OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.38-5.51, p = 0.004), Medicare coverage (vs private insurance, OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.00-4.65, p = 0.04), nonindependent ambulation at presentation (OR 2.17, 95% CI 1.17-4.02, p = 0.01), baseline modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association severe myelopathy score (0-11 vs moderate 12-14, OR 2, 95% CI 1.07-3.73, p = 0.01), and posterior surgical approach (OR 11.6, 95% CI 2.12-48, p = 0.004). Factors associated with lower odds of a nonroutine discharge included fewer operated levels (1 vs 2-3 levels, OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.96, p = 0.009) and a higher quality of life at baseline (EQ-5D score, OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.25-0.73, p = 0.001). On predictor importance analysis, baseline quality of life (EQ-5D score) was identified as the most important predictor (Wald χ2 = 9.8, p = 0.001) of a nonroutine discharge; however, after grouping variables into distinct categories, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics (age, race, gender, insurance status, employment status) were identified as the most significant drivers of nonroutine discharge (28.4% of total predictor importance).

Conclusions: The study results indicate that socioeconomic and demographic characteristics including age, race, gender, insurance, and employment may be the most significant drivers of a nonroutine discharge after surgery for cervical myelopathy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.11.SPINE201442DOI Listing
May 2021

Clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes for patients who undergo cytoreductive surgery for thoracic meningiomas: a retrospective analysis.

Neurosurg Focus 2021 May;50(5):E18

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Primary spinal meningiomas represent a rare indolent neoplasm usually situated in the intradural-extramedullary compartment. They have a predilection for afflicting the thoracic spine and most frequently present with sensory and/or motor symptoms. Resection is the first-line treatment for symptomatic tumors, whereas other clinical factors will determine the need for adjuvant therapy. In this study, the authors aimed to elucidate clinical presentation, functional outcomes, and long-term outcomes in this population in order to better equip clinicians with the tools to counsel their patients.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of patients treated at the authors' institution between 1998 and 2018. All patients with thoracic meningiomas who underwent resection and completed at least one follow-up appointment were included. Multiple preoperative clinical variables, hospitalization details, and long-term outcomes were collected for the cohort.

Results: Forty-six patients who underwent resection for thoracic meningiomas were included. The average age of the cohort was 59 years, and the median follow-up was 53 months. Persistent sensory and motor symptoms were present in 29 patients (63%). Fifteen lesions were ventrally positioned. There were 43 WHO grade I tumors, 2 WHO grade II tumors, and 1 WHO grade III tumor; the grade III tumor was the only case of recurrence. The median length of hospitalization was 4 days. Seventeen patients (37%) were discharged to rehabilitation facilities. Thirty patients (65.2%) experienced resolution or improvement of symptoms, and there were no deaths within 30 days of surgery. Only 1 patient developed painful kyphosis and was managed medically. Ventral tumor position, new postoperative deficits, and length of stay did not correlate with disposition to a facility. Age, ventral position, blood loss, and increasing WHO grade did not correlate with length of stay.

Conclusions: Outcomes are overall favorable for patients who undergo resection of thoracic meningiomas. Symptomatic patients often experience improvement, and patients generally do not require significant future operations. Tumors located ventrally, while anatomically challenging, do not necessarily herald a significantly worse prognosis or limit the extent of resection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2021.2.FOCUS20977DOI Listing
May 2021

Patient-reported outcome improvements at 24-month follow-up after fusion added to decompression for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: a multicenter study using the Quality Outcomes Database.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Apr 16:1-10. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

16Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

Objective: The ideal surgical management of grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis has not been determined despite extensive prior investigations. In this cohort study, the authors used data from the large, multicenter, prospectively collected Quality Outcomes Database to bridge the gap between the findings in previous randomized trials and those in a more heterogeneous population treated in a typical practice. The objective was to assess the difference in patient-reported outcomes among patients undergoing decompression alone or decompression plus fusion.

Methods: The primary outcome measure was change in 24-month Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. The minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI score change and 30% change in ODI score at 24 months were also evaluated. After adjusting for patient-specific and clinical factors, multivariable linear and logistic regressions were employed to evaluate the impact of fusion on outcomes. To account for differences in age, sex, body mass index, and baseline listhesis, a sensitivity analysis was performed using propensity score analysis to match patients undergoing decompression only with those undergoing decompression and fusion.

Results: In total, 608 patients who had grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis were identified (85.5% with at least 24 months of follow-up); 140 (23.0%) underwent decompression alone and 468 (77.0%) underwent decompression and fusion. The 24-month change in ODI score was significantly greater in the fusion plus decompression group than in the decompression-only group (-25.8 ± 20.0 vs -15.2 ± 19.8, p < 0.001). Fusion remained independently associated with 24-month ODI score change (B = -7.05, 95% CI -10.70 to -3.39, p ≤ 0.001) in multivariable regression analysis, as well as with achieving the MCID for the ODI score (OR 1.767, 95% CI 1.058-2.944, p = 0.029) and 30% change in ODI score (OR 2.371, 95% CI 1.286-4.371, p = 0.005). Propensity score analysis resulted in 94 patients in the decompression-only group matched 1 to 1 with 94 patients in the fusion group. The addition of fusion to decompression remained a significant predictor of 24-month change in the ODI score (B = 2.796, 95% CI 2.228-13.275, p = 0.006) and of achieving the 24-month MCID ODI score (OR 2.898, 95% CI 1.214-6.914, p = 0.016) and 24-month 30% change in ODI score (OR 2.300, 95% CI 1.014-5.216, p = 0.046).

Conclusions: These results suggest that decompression plus fusion in patients with grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis may be associated with superior outcomes at 24 months compared with decompression alone, both in reduction of disability and in achieving clinically meaningful improvement. Longer-term follow-up is warranted to assess whether this effect is sustained.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.9.SPINE201082DOI Listing
April 2021

Diagnostic, Surgical, and Technical Considerations for Lumbar Interbody Fusion in Patients with Osteopenia and Osteoporosis: A Systematic Review.

Brain Sci 2021 Feb 14;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.

Objective: Osteoporosis is increasing in incidence as the ageing population continues to grow. Decreased bone mineral density poses a challenge for the spine surgeon. In patients requiring lumbar interbody fusion, differences in diagnostics and surgical approaches may be warranted. In this systematic review, the authors examine studies performing lumbar interbody fusion in patients with osteopenia or osteoporosis and suggest avenues for future study.

Methods: A systematic literature review of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed for studies published between 1986 and 2020. Studies evaluating diagnostics, surgical approaches, and other technical considerations were included.

Results: A total of 13 articles were ultimately selected for qualitative analysis. This includes studies demonstrating the utility of Hounsfield units in diagnosis, a survey of surgical approaches, as well as exploring the use of vertebral augmentation and cortical bone screw trajectory.

Conclusions: This systematic review provides a summary of preliminary findings with respect to the use of Hounsfield units as a diagnostic tool, the benefit or lack thereof with respect to minimally invasive approaches, and the question of whether or not cement augmentation or cortical bone trajectory confers benefit in osteoporotic patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion. While the findings of these studies are promising, the current state of the literature is limited in scope and, for this reason, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from these data. The authors highlight gaps in the literature and the need for further exploration and study of lumbar interbody fusion in the osteoporotic spine.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11020241DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918554PMC
February 2021

Common Challenges and Solutions Associated with the Preparation of Silicone-Injected Human Head and Neck Vessels for Anatomical Study.

Brain Sci 2020 Dec 31;11(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, St. John's Neuroscience Institute, School of Medicine, University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, OK 74104, USA.

Neuroanatomy laboratory training is crucial for the education of neurosurgery residents and medical students. Since the brain is a complex and three-dimensional structure, it is challenging to understand the anatomical relationship of the cortex, internal structures, arteries, and veins without appropriate adjuncts. Several injection agents-including the inks/dyes, latex, polyester, acrylic resins, phenol, polyethylene glycol, and phenoxyethanol-have been explored. Colored silicon injection protocols for the head and neck vessels' perfusion have greatly aided the study of neuroanatomy and surgical planning. This report presents a colored silicone injection method in detail, and also highlights the technical shortcomings of the standard techniques and workarounds for common challenges during 35 human cadaveric head injections. The human cadaveric head preparation and the coloring of the head vessels are divided into decapitation, tissue fixation with 10% formalin, the placement of the Silastic tubing into the parent vessels, the cleaning of the vessels from clots, and the injection of the colored silicone into the vessels. We describe the technical details of the preparation, injection, and preservation of cadaveric heads, and outline common challenges during colored silicone injection, which include the dislocation of the Silastic tubing during the injection, the injection of the wrong or inappropriate colored silicone into the vessel, intracranial vessel perforation, the incomplete silicone casting of the vessel, and silicone leakage from small vessels in the neck. Solutions to these common challenges are provided. Ethyl alcohol fixed, colored human heads provided the long-term preservation of tissue, and improve the sample consistency and preservation for the teaching of neuroanatomy and surgical technique.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11010032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7824057PMC
December 2020

"July Effect" Revisited: July Surgeries at Residency Training Programs are Associated with Equivalent Long-term Clinical Outcomes Following Lumbar Spondylolisthesis Surgery.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2021 Jun;46(12):836-843

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, Ca.

Study Design: Retrospective analysis of a prospective registry.

Objective: We utilized the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry to investigate the "July Effect" at QOD spondylolisthesis module sites with residency trainees.

Summary Of Background Data: There is a paucity of investigation on the long-term outcomes following surgeries involving new trainees utilizing high-quality, prospectively collected data.

Methods: This was an analysis of 608 patients who underwent single-segment surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis at 12 high-enrolling sites. Surgeries were classified as occurring in July or not in July (non-July). Outcomes collected included estimated blood loss, length of stay, operative time, discharge disposition, complications, reoperation and readmission rates, and patient-reported outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI], Numeric Rating Scale [NRS] Back Pain, NRS Leg Pain, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D] and the North American Spine Society [NASS] Satisfaction Questionnaire). Propensity score-matched analyses were utilized to compare postoperative outcomes and complication rates between the July and non-July groups.

Results: Three hundred seventy-one surgeries occurred at centers with a residency training program with 21 (5.7%) taking place in July. In propensity score-matched analyses, July surgeries were associated with longer operative times ( average treatment effect = 22.4 minutes longer, 95% confidence interval 0.9-449.0, P = 0.041). Otherwise, July surgeries were not associated with significantly different outcomes for the remaining perioperative parameters (estimated blood loss, length of stay, discharge disposition, postoperative complications), overall reoperation rates, 3-month readmission rates, and 24-month ODI, NRS back pain, NRS leg pain, EQ-5D, and NASS satisfaction score (P > 0.05, all comparisons).

Conclusion: Although July surgeries were associated with longer operative times, there were no associations with other clinical outcomes compared to non-July surgeries following lumbar spondylolisthesis surgery. These findings may be due to the increased attending supervision and intraoperative education during the beginning of the academic year. There is no evidence that the influx of new trainees in July significantly affects long-term patient-centered outcomes.Level of Evidence: 3.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003903DOI Listing
June 2021

Anatomical Features of the Deep Cervical Lymphatic System and Intrajugular Lymphatic Vessels in Humans.

Brain Sci 2020 Dec 9;10(12). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA 22903, USA.

Background: Studies in rodents have re-kindled interest in the study of lymphatics in the central nervous system. Animal studies have demonstrated that there is a connection between the subarachnoid space and deep cervical lymph nodes (DCLNs) through dural lymphatic vessels located in the skull base and the parasagittal area.

Objective: To describe the connection of the DCLNs and lymphatic tributaries with the intracranial space through the jugular foramen, and to address the anatomical features and variations of the DCLNs and associated lymphatic channels in the neck.

Methods: Twelve formalin-fixed human head and neck specimens were studied. Samples from the dura of the wall of the jugular foramen were obtained from two fresh human cadavers during rapid autopsy. The samples were immunostained with podoplanin and CD45 to highlight lymphatic channels and immune cells, respectively.

Results: The mean number of nodes for DCLNs was 6.91 ± 0.58 on both sides. The mean node length was 10.1 ± 5.13 mm, the mean width was 7.03 ± 1.9 mm, and the mean thickness was 4 ± 1.04 mm. Immunohistochemical staining from rapid autopsy samples demonstrated that lymphatic vessels pass from the intracranial compartment into the neck through the meninges at the jugular foramen, through tributaries that can be called intrajugular lymphatic vessels.

Conclusions: The anatomical features of the DCLNs and their connections with intracranial lymphatic structures through the jugular foramen represent an important possible route for the spread of cancers to and from the central nervous system; therefore, it is essential to have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of these lymphatic structures and their variations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10120953DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763972PMC
December 2020

A single-center retrospective analysis of 3- or 4-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: surgical outcomes in 66 patients.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Oct 9:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia; and.

Objective: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is a safe and effective intervention to treat cervical spine pathology. Although these were originally performed as single-level procedures, multilevel ACDF has been performed for patients with extensive degenerative disc disease. To date, there is a paucity of data regarding outcomes related to ACDFs of 3 or more levels. The purpose of this study was to compare surgical outcomes of 3- and 4-level ACDF procedures.

Methods: The authors performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent 3- and 4-level ACDF at the University of Virginia Health System between January 2010 and December 2017. In patients meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria, demographics, fusion rates, time to fusion, and reoperation rates were evaluated. Fusion was determined by < 1 mm of change in interspinous distance between individual fused vertebrae on lateral flexion/extension radiographs and lack of radiolucency between the grafts and vertebral bodies. Any procedure requiring a surgical revision was considered a failure.

Results: Sixty-six patients (47 with 3-level and 19 with 4-level ACDFs) met the inclusion/exclusion criteria of having at least one lateral flexion/extension radiograph series ≥ 12 months after surgery. Seventy percent of 3-level patients and 68% of 4-level patients had ≥ 24 months of follow-up. Ninety-four percent of 3-level patients and 100% of 4-level patients achieved radiographic fusion for at least 1 surgical level. Eighty-eight percent and 82% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C3-4; 85% and 89% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C4-5; 68% and 89% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C5-6; 44% and 42% of 3- and 4-level patients achieved fusion at C6-7; and no patients achieved fusion at C7-T1. Time to fusion was not significantly different between levels. Revision was required in 6.4% of patients with 3-level and in 16% of patients with 4-level ACDF. The mean time to revision was 46.2 and 45.4 months for 3- and 4-level ACDF, respectively. The most common reason for revision was worsening of initial symptoms.

Conclusions: The authors' experience with long-segment anterior cervical fusions shows their fusion rates exceeding most of the reported fusion rates for similar procedures in the literature, with rates similar to those reported for short-segment ACDFs. Three-level and 4-level ACDF procedures are viable options for cervical spine pathology, and the authors' analysis demonstrates an equivalent rate of fusion and time to fusion between 3- and 4-level surgeries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.SPINE20171DOI Listing
October 2020

Mini-open lateral retropleural/retroperitoneal approaches for thoracic and thoracolumbar junction anterior column pathologies.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 09;49(3):E13

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Advancements in less invasive lateral retropleural/retroperitoneal approaches aim to address the limitation of posterolateral approaches and avoid complications associated with anterior open thoracotomy or thoracoabdominal approaches.

Methods: Consecutive patients treated with a mini-open lateral approach for thoracic or thoracolumbar anterior column pathologies were analyzed in a retrospective case series including clinical and radiographic outcomes. Special attention is given to operative techniques and surgical nuances.

Results: Eleven patients underwent a mini-open lateral retropleural or combined retropleural/retroperitoneal approach for thoracic or thoracolumbar junction lesions. Surgical indications included chronic fracture/deformity (n = 5), acute fracture (n = 2), neoplasm (n = 2), and osteomyelitis (n = 2). The mean length of postoperative hospital stay was 7.2 days (range 2-19 days). All patients ultimately had successful decompression and reconstruction with a mean follow-up of 16.7 months (range 6-29 months). Axial back pain assessed by the visual analog scale improved from a mean score of 8.2 to 2.2. Complications included 1 patient with deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and 1 with pneumonia. One patient developed increased leg weakness, which subsequently improved. One patient undergoing corpectomy with only lateral plate fixation developed cage subsidence requiring posterior stabilization.

Conclusions: Mini-open lateral retropleural and retroperitoneal corpectomies can safely achieve anterior column reconstruction and spinal deformity correction for various thoracic and thoracolumbar vertebral pathologies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.6.FOCUS20360DOI Listing
September 2020

Gender-Pay Equity in Academic Neurosurgery at United States Public Universities.

Cureus 2020 Jun 16;12(6):e8655. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Neurosurgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, USA.

Background Compensation has historically been unequal for men versus women in medical fields, particularly in surgical subspecialties.  Objective We analyzed associations between gender and compensation and identified factors associated with compensation among male and female academic neurosurgeons in the United States (US) public institutions. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of available data for the 2016-2017 fiscal years associated with male and female neurosurgical faculty from public, academic institutions within the US. The data used for analysis included total annual salary, which consisted of the base salary and additional compensation. Other gleaned data included faculty demographics, training, and academic appointments. The male and female neurosurgeons' data were separated into two respective gender groups and then were compared. Predictors of compensation were identified using univariable and non-imputed and multiply-imputed multivariable statistical models. Results The cohort was comprised of 460 neurosurgery faculty members (female n=34; male n=426). Total annual salaries were comparable between the genders. Females were more likely to be younger (p=0.001), to have completed neurosurgery training recently (p=0.003), to have had fellowship training (p=0.011), and to have lower h--indices (p=0.003) compared to males. Males and females differed in academic ranks (p=0.035) and neurosurgical subspecialties (p=0.038). Midwest (a[Formula: see text])=-US$337,516.7, p=0.002), South (a[Formula: see text]=-US$302,500.5, p=0.003), and West (a[Formula: see text]=-US$276,848.8, p=0.005) practices were independent predictors of lower annual compensation. Chair position (a[Formula: see text]=US$174,180.3, p=0.019) and associate professorship (a[Formula: see text]=US$126,633.4, p=0.037) were independent predictors of higher annual compensation. Gender was not a significant predictor of total annual compensation. Conclusions Total salaries were not different between male and female neurosurgeons in public, academic institutions in the US. Gender was not a significant predictor of total annual compensation. This study is applicable to public institutions in states with Freedom of Information Act reporting requirements.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8655DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7366046PMC
June 2020

Pharmacologic considerations in patients with osteoporosis undergoing lumbar interbody fusion: A systematic review.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2020 09 25;196:106030. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, United States of America. Electronic address:

Objective: As the ageing population continues to grow, the incidence of osteoporosis continues to rise. Patients with osteoporosis are often managed pharmacologically. It is unclear the impact of these medications on osteoporotic patients requiring lumbar interbody fusion, and whether differences exist with respect to patient outcomes among the different medication classes that are often employed. In this systematic review, the authors examine studies evaluating the impact of pharmacologic therapy on osteoporotic patients undergoing lumbar interbody fusion.

Methods: Using PubMed and MEDLINE databases, the authors conducted a systematic literature review for studies published between 1986 and 2020 following PRISMA guidelines.

Results: A total of 12 articles were ultimately selected. Studies assessing bisphosphonate usage, parathyroid hormone analogues, vitamin D, or combination therapies and their impact on lumbar interbody fusion were included.

Conclusions: The evidence regarding bisphosphonate therapy and improved fusion rates with reduced incidence of complications is inconsistent. While some studies suggest bisphosphonates to confer added benefit, other studies suggest no such improvements despite reduction in bone turnover biomarkers. Teriparatide, on the other hand, consistently demonstrated improved fusion rates and may reduce screw loosening events. In comparison studies against bisphosphonates, teriparatide demonstrates greater potential. A single study reported vitamin D3 to increase fusion rates, although more studies are needed to validate this finding. It is important to note that these benefits are only demonstrated in single-level fusion, with multi-level fusions not being significantly enhanced by teriparatide therapy. Combination therapy with denosumab further augment fusion rates. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are necessary before standardized recommendations regarding pharmacological intervention in patients undergoing LIF can be made.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106030DOI Listing
September 2020

Predictors of the Best Outcomes Following Minimally Invasive Surgery for Grade 1 Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

Neurosurgery 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: The factors driving the best outcomes following minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis are not clearly elucidated.

Objective: To investigate the factors that drive the best 24-mo patient-reported outcomes (PRO) following MIS surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Methods: A total of 259 patients from the Quality Outcomes Database lumbar spondylolisthesis module underwent single-level surgery for degenerative grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis with MIS techniques (188 fusions, 72.6%). Twenty-four-month follow-up PROs were collected and included the Oswestry disability index (ODI) change (ie, 24-mo minus baseline value), numeric rating scale (NRS) back pain change, NRS leg pain change, EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire change, and North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Multivariable models were constructed to identify predictors of PRO change.

Results: The mean age was 64.2 ± 11.5 yr and consisted of 148 (57.1%) women and 111 (42.9%) men. In multivariable analyses, employment was associated with superior postoperative ODI change (β-7.8; 95% CI [-12.9 to -2.6]; P = .003), NRS back pain change (β -1.2; 95% CI [-2.1 to -0.4]; P = .004), EQ-5D change (β 0.1; 95% CI [0.01-0.1]; P = .03), and NASS satisfaction (OR = 3.7; 95% CI [1.7-8.3]; P < .001). Increasing age was associated with superior NRS leg pain change (β -0.1; 95% CI [-0.1 to -0.01]; P = .03) and NASS satisfaction (OR = 1.05; 95% CI [1.01-1.09]; P = .02). Fusion surgeries were associated with superior ODI change (β -6.7; 95% CI [-12.7 to -0.7]; P = .03), NRS back pain change (β -1.1; 95% CI [-2.1 to -0.2]; P = .02), and NASS satisfaction (OR = 3.6; 95% CI [1.6-8.3]; P = .002).

Conclusion: Preoperative employment and surgeries, including a fusion, were predictors of superior outcomes across the domains of disease-specific disability, back pain, leg pain, quality of life, and patient satisfaction. Increasing age was predictive of superior outcomes for leg pain improvement and satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa206DOI Listing
June 2020

A Comparison of Minimally Invasive and Open Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion for Grade 1 Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: An Analysis of the Prospective Quality Outcomes Database.

Neurosurgery 2020 09;87(3):555-562

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: It remains unclear if minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is comparable to traditional, open TLIF because of the limitations of the prior small-sample-size, single-center studies reporting comparative effectiveness.

Objective: To compare MI-TLIF to traditional, open TLIF for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis in the largest study to date by sample size.

Methods: We utilized the prospective Quality Outcomes Database registry and queried patients with grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis who underwent single-segment surgery with MI- or open TLIF methods. Outcomes were compared 24 mo postoperatively.

Results: A total of 297 patients were included: 72 (24.2%) MI-TLIF and 225 (75.8%) open TLIF. MI-TLIF surgeries had lower mean body mass indexes (29.5 ± 5.1 vs 31.3 ± 7.0, P = .0497) and more worker's compensation cases (11.1% vs 1.3%, P < .001) but were otherwise similar. MI-TLIF had less blood loss (108.8 ± 85.6 vs 299.6 ± 242.2 mL, P < .001), longer operations (228.2 ± 111.5 vs 189.6 ± 66.5 min, P < .001), and a higher return-to-work (RTW) rate (100% vs 80%, P = .02). Both cohorts improved significantly from baseline for 24-mo Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Numeric Rating Scale back pain (NRS-BP), NRS leg pain (NRS-LP), and Euro-Qol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) (P > .001). In multivariable adjusted analyses, MI-TLIF was associated with lower ODI (β = -4.7; 95% CI = -9.3 to -0.04; P = .048), higher EQ-5D (β = 0.06; 95% CI = 0.01-0.11; P = .02), and higher satisfaction (odds ratio for North American Spine Society [NASS] 1/2 = 3.9; 95% CI = 1.4-14.3; P = .02). Though trends favoring MI-TLIF were evident for NRS-BP (P = .06), NRS-LP (P = .07), and reoperation rate (P = .13), these results did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusion: For single-level grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis, MI-TLIF was associated with less disability, higher quality of life, and higher patient satisfaction compared with traditional, open TLIF. MI-TLIF was associated with higher rates of RTW, less blood loss, but longer operative times. Though we utilized multivariable adjusted analyses, these findings may be susceptible to selection bias.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyaa097DOI Listing
September 2020

Open versus minimally invasive decompression for low-grade spondylolisthesis: analysis from the Quality Outcomes Database.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 May 8:1-11. Epub 2020 May 8.

5Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objective: Lumbar decompression without arthrodesis remains a potential treatment option for cases of low-grade spondylolisthesis (i.e., Meyerding grade I). Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques have recently been increasingly used because of their touted benefits including lower operating time, blood loss, and length of stay. Herein, the authors analyzed patients enrolled in a national surgical registry and compared the baseline characteristics and postoperative clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) between patients undergoing open versus MIS lumbar decompression.

Methods: The authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients with grade I lumbar degenerative spondylolisthesis undergoing a surgical intervention between July 2014 and June 2016. Among more than 200 participating sites, the 12 with the highest enrollment of patients into the lumbar spine module came together to initiate a focused project to assess the impact of fusion on PROs in patients undergoing surgery for grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis. For the current study, only patients in this cohort from the 12 highest-enrolling sites who underwent a decompression alone were evaluated and classified as open or MIS (tubular decompression). Outcomes of interest included PROs at 2 years; perioperative outcomes such as blood loss and complications; and postoperative outcomes such as length of stay, discharge disposition, and reoperations.

Results: A total of 140 patients undergoing decompression were selected, of whom 71 (50.7%) underwent MIS and 69 (49.3%) underwent an open decompression. On univariate analysis, the authors observed no significant differences between the 2 groups in terms of PROs at 2-year follow-up, including back pain, leg pain, Oswestry Disability Index score, EQ-5D score, and patient satisfaction. On multivariable analysis, compared to MIS, open decompression was associated with higher satisfaction (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.41-23.2, p = 0.0005). Patients undergoing MIS decompression had a significantly shorter length of stay compared to the open group (0.68 days [SD 1.18] vs 1.83 days [SD 1.618], p < 0.001).

Conclusions: In this multiinstitutional prospective study, the authors found comparable PROs as well as clinical outcomes at 2 years between groups of patients undergoing open or MIS decompression for low-grade spondylolisthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.3.SPINE191239DOI Listing
May 2020

Orbitofrontal extensions of the insular glioma based on subdivision of the uncinate fasciculus.

J Clin Neurosci 2020 Aug 4;78:376-386. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA; Department of Neurosurgery, Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey. Electronic address:

The insular gliomas were classified based on their locations and extensions to the adjacent areas. The insular and orbitofrontal cortices with underlying fiber tracts were studied on ten (20 sides) human cadaveric brains and two heads. Twenty patients with insular gliomas with the orbitofrontal or septal region extensions were studied on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Insular gliomas can extend to the orbitofrontal area dorsolaterally and/or ventromedially through the subdivision of the uncinate fasciculus. The dorsolateral part of the uncinate fasciculus interconnects the temporopolar area to the lateral orbitofrontal cortex through insula, and the ventromedial part of the uncinate fasciculus interconnects the temporopolar area to the medial orbital cortex, gyrus rectus, and septal region. The gyrus rectus infiltration on MRI indicates a ventromedial involvement by passing through the ventromedial part of the uncinate fasciculus. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) MRI demonstration of the UF is difficult due to the interruption of the fiber tracts by tumor. Tumor infiltration extending to the gyrus rectus requires a 15° lateral tilting with vertex toward contralateral side, as well as 70° head rotation to the contralateral side of lesion, for exposure of frontal base, septal region, and lateral border of the anterior perforating substance at the same time with the exposure of whole sylvian fissure via transsylvian approach of the insular tumors. An understanding of the orbitofrontal extension of the insular tumor based on the subdivisions of UF is useful in preoperative surgical planning and can assist for gross total resection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.04.091DOI Listing
August 2020

Correlation of return to work with patient satisfaction after surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis: an analysis of the Quality Outcomes Database.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 05;48(5):E5

17Geisinger Health, Danville, Pennsylvania.

Objective: Return to work (RTW) and satisfaction are important outcome measures after surgery for degenerative spine disease. The authors queried the prospective Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) to determine if RTW correlated with patient satisfaction.

Methods: The QOD was queried for patients undergoing surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis. The primary outcome of interest was correlation between RTW and patient satisfaction, as measured by the North American Spine Society patient satisfaction index (NASS). Secondarily, data on satisfied patients were analyzed to see what patient factors correlated with RTW.

Results: Of 608 total patients in the QOD spondylolisthesis data set, there were 292 patients for whom data were available on both satisfaction and RTW status. Of these, 249 (85.3%) were satisfied with surgery (NASS score 1-2), and 224 (76.7%) did RTW after surgery. Of the 68 patients who did not RTW after surgery, 49 (72.1%) were still satisfied with surgery. Of the 224 patients who did RTW, 24 (10.7%) were unsatisfied with surgery (NASS score 3-4). There were significantly more people who had an NASS score of 1 in the RTW group than in the non-RTW group (71.4% vs 42.6%, p < 0.05). Failure to RTW was associated with lower level of education, worse baseline back pain (measured with a numeric rating scale), and worse baseline disability (measured with the Oswestry Disability Index [ODI]).

Conclusions: There are a substantial number of patients who are satisfied with surgery even though they did not RTW. Patients who were satisfied with surgery and did not RTW typically had worse preoperative back pain and ODI and typically did not have a college education. While RTW remains an important measure after surgery, physicians should be mindful that patients who do not RTW may still be satisfied with their outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.2.FOCUS191022DOI Listing
May 2020

Quality Outcomes Database Spine Care Project 2012-2020: milestones achieved in a collaborative North American outcomes registry to advance value-based spine care and evolution to the American Spine Registry.

Neurosurg Focus 2020 05;48(5):E2

4Department of Neurologic Surgery, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

The Quality Outcomes Database (QOD), formerly known as the National Neurosurgery Quality Outcomes Database (N2QOD), was established by the NeuroPoint Alliance (NPA) in collaboration with relevant national stakeholders and experts. The overarching goal of this project was to develop a centralized, nationally coordinated effort to allow individual surgeons and practice groups to collect, measure, and analyze practice patterns and neurosurgical outcomes. Specific objectives of this registry program were as follows: "1) to establish risk-adjusted national benchmarks for both the safety and effectiveness of neurosurgical procedures, 2) to allow practice groups and hospitals to analyze their individual morbidity and clinical outcomes in real time, 3) to generate both quality and efficiency data to support claims made to public and private payers and objectively demonstrate the value of care to other stakeholders, 4) to demonstrate the comparative effectiveness of neurosurgical and spine procedures, 5) to develop sophisticated 'risk models' to determine which subpopulations of patients are most likely to benefit from specific surgical interventions, and 6) to facilitate essential multicenter trials and other cooperative clinical studies." The NPA has launched several neurosurgical specialty modules in the QOD program in the 7 years since its inception including lumbar spine, cervical spine, and spinal deformity and cerebrovascular and intracranial tumor. The QOD Spine modules, which are the primary subject of this paper, have evolved into the largest North American spine registries yet created and have resulted in unprecedented cooperative activities within our specialty and among affiliated spine care practitioners. Herein, the authors discuss the experience of QOD Spine programs to date, with a brief description of their inception, some of the key achievements and milestones, as well as the recent transition of the spine modules to the American Spine Registry (ASR), a collaboration between the American Association of Neurological Surgeons and the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.2.FOCUS207DOI Listing
May 2020

The Caudate Nucleus: Its Connections, Surgical Implications, and Related Complications.

World Neurosurg 2020 07 18;139:e428-e438. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Department of Neurological Surgery and Neuroscience, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The caudate nucleus is a C-shaped structure that is located in the center of the brain and is divided into 3 parts: the head, body, and tail.

Methods: We detail the anatomic connections, relationships with other basal ganglia structures, and clinical implications of injury to the caudate nucleus.

Results: Anatomically, the most inferior transcapsular gray matter is the lentiform peduncle, which is the connection between the lentiform nucleus and caudate nucleus as well as the amygdala. The border between the tail and body of the caudate nucleus is the posterior insular point. The tail of the caudate nucleus is extraependymal in some parts and intraependymal in some parts of the roof of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. The tail of the caudate nucleus crosses the inferior limiting sulcus (temporal stem), and section of the tail during approaches to lesions involving the temporal stem may cause motor apraxia. The mean distance from the temporal limen point, which is the junction of the limen insula and inferior limiting sulcus, to the tail of the caudate nucleus in the temporal stem is 15.87 ± 3.10 mm.

Conclusions: Understanding of the functional anatomy and connections of the distinct parts of the caudate nucleus is essential for deciding the extent of resection of lesions involving the caudate nucleus and the types of deficits that may be found postoperatively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.04.027DOI Listing
July 2020

Sacral insufficiency fractures after lumbosacral arthrodesis: salvage lumbopelvic fixation and a proposed management algorithm.

J Neurosurg Spine 2020 Mar 27:1-12. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia; and.

Objective: Sacral insufficiency fracture after lumbosacral (LS) arthrodesis is an uncommon complication. The objective of this study was to report the authors' operative experience managing this complication, review pertinent literature, and propose a treatment algorithm.

Methods: The authors analyzed consecutive adult patients treated at their institution from 2009 to 2018. Patients who underwent surgery for sacral insufficiency fractures after posterior instrumented LS arthrodesis were included. PubMed was queried to identify relevant articles detailing management of this complication.

Results: Nine patients with a minimum 6-month follow-up were included (mean age 73 ± 6 years, BMI 30 ± 6 kg/m2, 56% women, mean follow-up 35 months, range 8-96 months). Six patients had osteopenia/osteoporosis (mean dual energy x-ray absorptiometry hip T-score -1.6 ± 0.5) and 3 received treatment. Index LS arthrodesis was performed for spinal stenosis (n = 6), proximal junctional kyphosis (n = 2), degenerative scoliosis (n = 1), and high-grade spondylolisthesis (n = 1). Presenting symptoms of back/leg pain (n = 9) or lower extremity weakness (n = 3) most commonly occurred within 4 weeks of index LS arthrodesis, which prompted CT for fracture diagnosis at a mean of 6 weeks postoperatively. All sacral fractures were adjacent or involved S1 screws and traversed the spinal canal (Denis zone III). H-, U-, or T-type sacral fracture morphology was identified in 7 patients. Most fractures (n = 8) were Roy-Camille type II (anterior displacement with kyphosis). All patients underwent lumbopelvic fixation via a posterior-only approach; mean operative duration and blood loss were 3.3 hours and 850 ml, respectively. Bilateral dual iliac screws were utilized in 8 patients. Back/leg pain and weakness improved postoperatively. Mean sacral fracture anterolisthesis and kyphotic angulation improved (from 8 mm/11° to 4 mm/5°, respectively) and all fractures were healed on radiographic follow-up (mean duration 29 months, range 8-90 months). Two patients underwent revision for rod fractures at 1 and 2 years postoperatively. A literature review found 17 studies describing 87 cases; potential risk factors were osteoporosis, longer fusions, high pelvic incidence (PI), and postoperative PI-to-lumbar lordosis (LL) mismatch.

Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed to diagnose sacral insufficiency fracture after LS arthrodesis. A trial of conservative management is reasonable for select patients; potential surgical indications include refractory pain, neurological deficit, fracture nonunion with anterolisthesis or kyphotic angulation, L5-S1 pseudarthrosis, and spinopelvic malalignment. Lumbopelvic fixation with iliac screws may be effective salvage treatment to allow fracture healing and symptom improvement. High-risk patients may benefit from prophylactic lumbopelvic fixation at the time of index LS arthrodesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.12.SPINE191148DOI Listing
March 2020

Regional Variance in Disability and Quality-of-Life Outcomes After Surgery for Grade I Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis: A Quality Outcomes Database Analysis.

World Neurosurg 2020 06 28;138:e336-e344. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Department of Neurosurgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Electronic address:

Objective: Regional differences in outcomes after spine surgery are poorly understood. We assessed disability and quality-of-life outcomes by geographic region in the United States using the NeuroPoint Alliance Quality Outcomes Database.

Methods: We queried the prospective Quality Outcomes Database patient registry to identify patients who underwent elective 1- or 2-level lumbar surgery for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis from July 2014 through June 2016. Primary outcome measures included Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and EuroQOL-5D (EQ-5D) reported at 24 months postoperatively. Differences in EQ-5D and ODI were compared across geographic regions of the United States (Northeast, Midwest, South, West).

Results: We identified 608 patients from 12 centers who underwent surgery. Of these, 517 (85.0%) had ODI data and 492 (80.9%) had EQ-5D data at 24 months. Southern states had the largest representation (304 patients; 5 centers), followed by Northeastern (114 patients; 3 centers), Midwestern (96 patients; 2 centers), and Western (94 patients; 2 centers) states. Baseline ODI scores were significantly different among regions, with the South having the greatest baseline disability burden (Northeast: 40.9 ± 16.9, South: 51.2 ± 15.8, Midwest: 40.9 ± 17.8, West: 45.0 ± 17.1, P < 0.001). The change in ODI at 24 months postoperatively was significantly different among regions, with the South showing the greatest ODI improvement (Northeast: -21.1 ± 18.2, South: -26.5 ± 20.2, Midwest: -18.2 ± 22.9, West: -21.7 ± 19.6, P < 0.001). All regions had ≥60% achievement of the minimum clinically important difference in ODI at 24 months postoperatively. No regional differences were observed for EQ-5D.

Conclusion: Significant regional variation exists for disability outcomes, but not quality of life, at 24 months after spinal surgery for grade I degenerative spondylolisthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.02.117DOI Listing
June 2020

Outcomes and Complications With Age in Spondylolisthesis: An Evaluation of the Elderly From the Quality Outcomes Database.

Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2020 Jul;45(14):1000-1008

Department of Neurological Surgery, Clinical Neurosciences Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Study Design: Prospective database analysis.

Objective: To assess the effect of age on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and complication rates after surgical treatment for spondylolisthesis SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis affects 3% to 20% of the population and up to 30% of the elderly. There is not yet consensus on whether age is a contraindication for surgical treatment of elderly patients.

Methods: The Quality Outcomes Database lumbar registry was used to evaluate patients from 12 US academic and private centers who underwent surgical treatment for grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis between July 2014 and June 2016.

Results: A total of 608 patients who fit the inclusion criteria were categorized by age into the following groups: less than 60 (n = 239), 60 to 70 (n = 209), 71 to 80 (n = 128), and more than 80 (n = 32) years. Older patients showed lower mean body mass index (P < 0.001) and higher rates of diabetes (P = 0.007), coronary artery disease (P = 0.0001), and osteoporosis (P = 0.005). A lower likelihood for home disposition was seen with higher age (89.1% in <60-year-old vs. 75% in >80-year-old patients; P = 0.002). There were no baseline differences in PROs (Oswestry Disability Index, EuroQol health survey [EQ-5D], Numeric Rating Scale for leg pain and back pain) among age categories. A significant improvement for all PROs was seen regardless of age (P < 0.05), and most patients met minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) for improvement in postoperative PROs. No differences in hospital readmissions or reoperations were seen among age groups (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that, after controlling other variables, a higher age did not decrease the odds of achieving MCID at 12 months for the PROs.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that well-selected elderly patients undergoing surgical treatment of grade 1 spondylolisthesis can achieve meaningful outcomes. This modern, multicenter US study reflects the current use and limitations of spondylolisthesis treatment in the elderly, which may be informative to patients and providers.

Level Of Evidence: 4.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003441DOI Listing
July 2020

Deformity Correction Through the Use of Reduction Towers: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 08;19(2):E157-E158

Duke Medical Center, Department: Duke Spine Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Spinal deformity management can be difficult. The decision for surgery, approach, number of levels, and surgical technique all present challenges. Even when other issues are managed appropriately the process of how to correct the deformity needs special consideration. Numerous techniques have been studied including vertebra-to-rod, rod de-rotation, 3-rod-techniques, and cantilever maneuvers. While cantilever is the preferred technique when treating sagittal plane deformity, scoliosis often requires a combination of techniques due to the complexity of deformity in coronal and transverse planes. This video illustrates an adult scoliosis correction using sequential reduction towers and de-rotation techniques. Using this method the step of hook holders is eliminated and tension is distributed evenly across the rod using sequential reduction of the reduction towers across the length of the rod. This has led to a very efficient correction of our deformity as well as a powerful de-rotation tool. We routinely use this technique for flexible and rigid deformities, which is assessed pre-op with a computed tomography. The patient is a 67-yr-old female with prior lumbar decompressions and worsening back pain with radiculopathy. No significant sagittal malalignment is present but pelvic tilt is elevated and a coronal deformity exists. pelvic incidence measures 59°, LL50°, PT28° and lumbar scoliosis shows a coronal Cobb angle of 50.8°. Briefly, surgery involved transpedicular instrumentation from T10-S1 with bilateral iliac screw fixation. To achieve mobility posterior column osteotomies were performed at T12-L1, L1-2, L2-3, L3-4, L4-5, and L5-S1 levels. TLIF was performed at L4-5, L5-S1 for fusion. Postoperative scoliosis X-rays demonstrated improved sagittal and coronal alignment with PI59°, LL59°, PT22°, and coronal Cobb angle of 12°.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz356DOI Listing
August 2020

Sexual Dysfunction: Prevalence and Prognosis in Patients Operated for Degenerative Lumbar Spondylolisthesis.

Neurosurgery 2020 08;87(2):200-210

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: There is a paucity of investigation on the impact of spondylolisthesis surgery on back pain-related sexual inactivity.

Objective: To investigate predictors of improved sex life postoperatively by utilizing the prospective Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) registry.

Methods: A total of 218 patients who underwent surgery for grade 1 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were included who were sexually active. Sex life was assessed by Oswestry Disability Index item 8 at baseline and 24-mo follow-up.

Results: Mean age was 58.0 ± 11.0 yr, and 108 (49.5%) patients were women. At baseline, 178 patients (81.7%) had sex life impairment. At 24 mo, 130 patients (73.0% of the 178 impaired) had an improved sex life. Those with improved sex lives noted higher satisfaction with surgery (84.5% vs 64.6% would undergo surgery again, P = .002). In multivariate analyses, lower body mass index (BMI) was associated with improved sex life (OR = 1.14; 95% CI [1.05-1.20]; P < .001). In the younger patients (age < 57 yr), lower BMI remained the sole significant predictor of improvement (OR = 1.12; 95% CI [1.03-1.23]; P = .01). In the older patients (age ≥ 57 yr)-in addition to lower BMI (OR = 1.12; 95% CI [1.02-1.27]; P = .02)-lower American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grades (1 or 2) (OR = 3.7; 95% CI [1.2-12.0]; P = .02) and ≥4 yr of college education (OR = 3.9; 95% CI [1.2-15.1]; P = .03) were predictive of improvement.

Conclusion: Over 80% of patients who present for surgery for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis report a negative effect of the disease on sex life. However, most patients (73%) report improvement postoperatively. Sex life improvement was associated with greater satisfaction with surgery. Lower BMI was predictive of improved sex life. In older patients-in addition to lower BMI-lower ASA grade and higher education were predictive of improvement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz406DOI Listing
August 2020

Mini-Open Lateral Corpectomy for Thoracolumbar Junction Lesions.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 06;18(6):640-647

Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Background: Neoplastic, traumatic, infectious, and degenerative pathologies affecting the thoracolumbar junction pose a unique challenge to spine surgeons. Posterior or anterior approaches have traditionally been utilized to treat these lesions. Although minimally invasive surgeries through a lateral approach to the thoracic or lumbar spine have gained popularity, lateral access to the thoracolumbar junction remains technically challenging due to the overlying diaphragm positioned at the interface of the peritoneum and pleura.

Objective: To describe a mini-open lateral retropleural retroperitoneal approach for pathologies with spinal cord/cauda equina compression at the thoracolumbar junction.

Methods: A mini-open lateral corpectomy is described in detail in a patient with an L1 metastatic tumor.

Results: Satisfactory decompression and spinal column reconstruction were achieved. The patient obtained neural function recovery following the procedure with no intra- or postoperative complications.

Conclusion: The morbidities associated with traditional posterior or anterior approaches to thoracolumbar junction pathologies have led to a growing interest in minimally invasive alternatives. The mini-open lateral approach allows for a safe and efficacious corpectomy and reconstruction for thoracolumbar junction pathologies. Thorough understanding of the anatomy, particularly of the diaphragm, is critical. This approach will have expanded roles in the management of patients with thoracolumbar neoplasms, fractures, infections, deformities, or degenerative diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz298DOI Listing
June 2020

Kickstand Rod Technique for Correcting Coronal Imbalance in Adult Scoliosis: 2-Dimensional Operative Video.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2020 08;19(2):E163-E164

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Restoration of spinal alignment and balance is a major goal of adult scoliosis surgery. In the past, sagittal alignment has been emphasized and was shown to have the greatest impact on functional outcomes. However, recent evidence suggests the impact of coronal imbalance on pain and functional outcomes has likely been underestimated.1,2 In addition, iatrogenic coronal imbalance may be common and frequently results from inadequate correction of the lumbosacral fractional curve.2,3 The "kickstand rod" is a recently described technique to achieve and maintain significant coronal-plane correction.4 Also, of secondary benefit, the kickstand rod may function as an accessory supplemental rod to offload stress and bolster primary instrumentation. This may reduce occurrence of rod fracture (RF) or pseudarthrosis (PA).5  Briefly, this technique involves positioning the kickstand rod on the side of coronal imbalance (along the major curve concavity or fractional curve convexity in our video demonstration). The kickstand rod spans the thoracolumbar junction proximally to the pelvis distally and is secured with an additional iliac screw placed just superior to the primary iliac screw. By using the iliac wing as a base, powerful distraction forces can reduce the major curve to achieve more normal coronal balance. This operative video illustrates the technical nuances of utilizing the kickstand rod technique for correction of severe lumbar scoliosis and coronal malalignment in a 60-yr-old male patient. Alignment correction was achieved and maintained without evidence of RF/PA after nearly 6 mo postoperatively. The patient gave informed consent for surgery and to use imaging for medical publication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ons/opz306DOI Listing
August 2020

Surgical correction of severe adult lumbar scoliosis (major curves ≥ 75°): retrospective analysis with minimum 2-year follow-up.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 Jun 21:1-14. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Objective: Prior reports have demonstrated the efficacy of surgical correction for adult lumbar scoliosis. Many of these reports focused on mild to moderate scoliosis. The authors' objective was to report their experience and to assess outcomes and complications after deformity correction for severe adult scoliosis.

Methods: The authors retrospectively analyzed consecutive adult scoliosis patients with major thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves ≥ 75° who underwent deformity correction at their institution. Those eligible with a minimum 2 years of follow-up were included. Demographic, surgical, coronal and sagittal plane radiographic measurements, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) scores were analyzed.

Results: Among 26 potentially eligible patients, 22 (85%) had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (range 24-89 months) and were included in the study (mean age 57 ± 11 years; 91% women). The cohort comprised 16 (73%), 4 (18%), and 2 (9%) patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis, de novo degenerative scoliosis, and iatrogenic scoliosis, respectively. The surgical approach was posterior-only and multistage anterior-posterior in 18 (82%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. Three-column osteotomy was performed in 5 (23%) patients. Transforaminal and anterior lumbar interbody fusion were performed in 14 (64%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. All patients had sacropelvic fixation with uppermost instrumented vertebra in the lower thoracic spine (46% [10/22]) versus upper thoracic spine (55% [12/22]). The mean fusion length was 14 ± 3 levels. Preoperative major TL/L and lumbosacral fractional (L4-S1) curves were corrected from 83° ± 8° to 28° ± 13° (p < 0.001) and 34° ± 8° to 13° ± 6° (p < 0.001), respectively. Global coronal and sagittal balance significantly improved from 5 ± 4 cm to 1 ± 1 cm (p = 0.001) and 9 ± 8 cm to 2 ± 3 cm (p < 0.001), respectively. Pelvic tilt significantly improved from 33° ± 9° to 23° ± 10° (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in HRQL measures included the following: Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) pain score (p = 0.009), SRS appearance score (p = 0.004), and SF-12/SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score (p = 0.026). Transient and persistent neurological deficits occurred in 8 (36%) and 2 (9%) patients, respectively. Rod fracture/pseudarthrosis occurred in 6 (27%) patients (supplemental rods were utilized more recently in 23%). Revisions were performed in 7 (32%) patients.

Conclusions: In this single-center surgical series for severe adult scoliosis (major curves ≥ 75°), a posterior-only or multistage anterior-posterior approach provided major curve correction of 66% and significant improvements in global coronal and sagittal spinopelvic alignment. Significant improvements were also demonstrated in HRQL measures (SRS pain, SRS appearance, and SF-12/SF-36 PCS). Complications and revisions were comparable to those of other reports involving less severe scoliosis. The results of this study warrant future prospective multicenter studies to further delineate outcomes and complication risks for severe adult scoliosis correction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.3.SPINE1966DOI Listing
June 2019

Cervical disc arthroplasty: 10-year outcomes of the Prestige LP cervical disc at a single level.

J Neurosurg Spine 2019 May;31(3):317-325

4SPIRITT Research, St. Louis, Missouri.

Objective: Food and Drug Administration-approved investigational device exemption (IDE) studies have provided level I evidence supporting cervical disc arthroplasty (CDA) as a safe and effective alternative to anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Long-term CDA outcomes continue to be evaluated. Here, the authors present outcomes at 10 years postoperatively for the single-level CDA arm of an IDE study (postapproval study).

Methods: The primary endpoint was overall success, a composite variable composed of five criteria: 1) Neck Disability Index score improvement ≥ 15 points; 2) maintenance or improvement in neurological status; 3) no decline in anterior or posterior functional spinal unit (FSU) height of more than 2 mm compared to 6 weeks postoperatively; 4) no serious adverse event (AE) caused by the implant or the implant and the surgical procedure; and 5) no additional surgery classified as a failure. Additional safety and effectiveness measures included numeric rating scales for neck pain and arm pain, SF-36 quality-of-life physical and mental components, patient satisfaction, range of motion, and AEs.

Results: From the reported assessments at 7 years postoperatively to the 10-year postoperative follow-up, the scores for all patient-reported outcomes, rate of overall success (without FSU), and proportion of patients at least maintaining their neurological function remained stable for the CDA group. Nine patients had secondary surgery at the index level, increasing the secondary surgery cumulative rate from 6.6% to 10.3%. In that same time frame, four patients experienced a serious implant or implant/surgical procedure-related AE, for a 10-year cumulative rate of 7.8%. Seven patients had any second surgery at adjacent levels, for a 10-year cumulative rate of 13.8%. Average angular motion at both the index and adjacent levels was well maintained without creating hypermobility. Class IV heterotopic ossification increased from 1.2% at 2 years to 4.6% at 7 years and 9.0% at 10 years. Patient satisfaction was > 90% at 10 years.

Conclusions: CDA remained safe and effective out to 10 years postoperatively, with results comparable to 7-year outcomes and with high patient satisfaction.Clinical trial registration no.: NCT00667459 (clinicaltrials.gov).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.SPINE1956DOI Listing
May 2019

A comparison of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and decompression alone for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.

Neurosurg Focus 2019 05;46(5):E13

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, California.

OBJECTIVEThe optimal minimally invasive surgery (MIS) approach for grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis is not clearly elucidated. In this study, the authors compared the 24-month patient-reported outcomes (PROs) after MIS transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and MIS decompression for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.METHODSA total of 608 patients from 12 high-enrolling sites participating in the Quality Outcomes Database (QOD) lumbar spondylolisthesis module underwent single-level surgery for degenerative grade 1 lumbar spondylolisthesis, of whom 143 underwent MIS (72 MIS TLIF [50.3%] and 71 MIS decompression [49.7%]). Surgeries were classified as MIS if there was utilization of percutaneous screw fixation and placement of a Wiltse plane MIS intervertebral body graft (MIS TLIF) or if there was a tubular decompression (MIS decompression). Parameters obtained at baseline through at least 24 months of follow-up were collected. PROs included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), numeric rating scale (NRS) for back pain, NRS for leg pain, EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) questionnaire, and North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Multivariate models were constructed to adjust for patient characteristics, surgical variables, and baseline PRO values.RESULTSThe mean age of the MIS cohort was 67.1 ± 11.3 years (MIS TLIF 62.1 years vs MIS decompression 72.3 years) and consisted of 79 (55.2%) women (MIS TLIF 55.6% vs MIS decompression 54.9%). The proportion in each cohort reaching the 24-month follow-up did not differ significantly between the cohorts (MIS TLIF 83.3% and MIS decompression 84.5%, p = 0.85). MIS TLIF was associated with greater blood loss (mean 108.8 vs 33.0 ml, p < 0.001), longer operative time (mean 228.2 vs 101.8 minutes, p < 0.001), and longer length of hospitalization (mean 2.9 vs 0.7 days, p < 0.001). MIS TLIF was associated with a significantly lower reoperation rate (14.1% vs 1.4%, p = 0.004). Both cohorts demonstrated significant improvements in ODI, NRS back pain, NRS leg pain, and EQ-5D at 24 months (p < 0.001, all comparisons relative to baseline). In multivariate analyses, MIS TLIF-as opposed to MIS decompression alone-was associated with superior ODI change (β = -7.59, 95% CI -14.96 to -0.23; p = 0.04), NRS back pain change (β = -1.54, 95% CI -2.78 to -0.30; p = 0.02), and NASS satisfaction (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.82; p = 0.02).CONCLUSIONSFor symptomatic, single-level degenerative spondylolisthesis, MIS TLIF was associated with a lower reoperation rate and superior outcomes for disability, back pain, and patient satisfaction compared with posterior MIS decompression alone. This finding may aid surgical decision-making when considering MIS for degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.FOCUS18722DOI Listing
May 2019

Predictive model for long-term patient satisfaction after surgery for grade I degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis: insights from the Quality Outcomes Database.

Neurosurg Focus 2019 05;46(5):E12

13Atlanta Brain and Spine Care, Atlanta, Georgia; and.

OBJECTIVESince the enactment of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, providers and hospitals have increasingly prioritized patient-centered outcomes such as patient satisfaction in an effort to adapt the "value"-based healthcare model. In the current study, the authors queried a prospectively maintained multiinstitutional spine registry to construct a predictive model for long-term patient satisfaction among patients undergoing surgery for Meyerding grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis.METHODSThe authors queried the Quality Outcomes Database for patients undergoing surgery for grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis between July 1, 2014, and June 30, 2016. The primary outcome of interest for the current study was patient satisfaction as measured by the North American Spine Surgery patient satisfaction index, which is measured on a scale of 1-4, with 1 indicating most satisfied and 4 indicating least satisfied. In order to identify predictors of higher satisfaction, the authors fitted a multivariable proportional odds logistic regression model for ≥ 2 years of patient satisfaction after adjusting for an array of clinical and patient-specific factors. The absolute importance of each covariate in the model was computed using an importance metric defined as Wald chi-square penalized by the predictor degrees of freedom.RESULTSA total of 502 patients, out of a cohort of 608 patients (82.5%) with grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis, undergoing either 1- or 2-level decompression (22.5%, n = 113) or 1-level decompression and fusion (77.5%, n = 389), met the inclusion criteria; of these, 82.1% (n = 412) were satisfied after 2 years. On univariate analysis, satisfied patients were more likely to be employed and working (41.7%, n = 172, vs 24.4%, n = 22; overall p = 0.001), more likely to present with predominant leg pain (23.1%, n = 95, vs 11.1%, n = 10; overall p = 0.02) but more likely to present with lower Numeric Rating Scale score for leg pain (median and IQR score: 7 [5-9] vs 8 [6-9]; p = 0.05). Multivariable proportional odds logistic regression revealed that older age (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.09-2.76; p = 0.009), preoperative active employment (OR 2.06, 95% CI 1.27-3.67; p = 0.015), and fusion surgery (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.30-4.06; p = 0.002) were the most important predictors of achieving satisfaction with surgical outcome.CONCLUSIONSCurrent findings from a large multiinstitutional study indicate that most patients undergoing surgery for grade I lumbar spondylolisthesis achieved long-term satisfaction. Moreover, the authors found that older age, preoperative active employment, and fusion surgery are associated with higher odds of achieving satisfaction.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2019.2.FOCUS18734DOI Listing
May 2019

The Impact of Alvimopan on Return of Bowel Function After Major Spine Surgery - A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study.

Neurosurgery 2019 08;85(2):E233-E239

Department of Anesthesiology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia.

Background: Pain management following major spine surgery requires high doses of opioids and is associated with a risk of opioid-induced constipation. Peripheral mu-receptor antagonists decrease the gastrointestinal complications of perioperative systemic opioid administration without antagonizing the analgesic benefits of these drugs.

Objective: To investigate the impact of alvimopan in opioid-naive patients undergoing major spine surgery.

Methods: Patients undergoing >3 levels of thoracic and/or lumbar spine surgery were enrolled in this prospective, randomized, double-blind study to receive either alvimopan or placebo prior to and following surgery. Opioid consumption; pain scores; and time of first oral intake, flatus, and bowel movement were recorded.

Results: A total of 24 patients were assigned to the active group and 25 were assigned to the placebo group. There was no significant difference in demographics between the groups. Postoperatively, the alvimopan group reported earlier time to first solid intake [median (range): alvimopan: 15 h (3-25) vs placebo: 17 h (3-46), P < .001], passing of flatus [median (range): alvimopan: 22 h (7-63) vs placebo: 28 h (10-58), P < .001], and first bowel movement [median (range): alvimopan: 50 h (22-80) vs placebo: 64 h (40-114), P < .001]. The alvimopan group had higher pain scores (maximum, minimum, and median); however, there was no significant difference between the groups with postoperative opioid use.

Conclusion: This study shows that the perioperative use of alvimopan significantly reduced the time to return of bowel function with no increase in postoperative opioid use despite a slight increase in pain scores.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuros/nyz005DOI Listing
August 2019