Publications by authors named "Mark E Robson"

144 Publications

Morphological and genomic characteristics of breast cancers occurring in individuals with Lynch Syndrome.

Clin Cancer Res 2021 Oct 19. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.

Purpose: Lynch syndrome (LS) is defined by germline pathogenic mutations involving DNA Mismatch Repair (MMR) genes and linked with the development of MMR-deficient (MMRd) colon and endometrial cancers. Whether breast cancers (BC) developing in context of LS are causally related to MMR deficiency (MMRd), remains controversial. Thus, we explored the morphological and genomic characteristics of BCs occurring in LS individuals.

Experimental Design: A retrospective analysis of 20,110 cancer patients who underwent multigene panel genetic testing was performed to identify individuals with a likely pathogenic/pathogenic germline variant in , , or who developed BCs. The histological characteristics and immunohistochemical (IHC) assessment of BCs for MMR proteins and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression were assessed on cases with available materials. DNA samples from paired tumors and blood were sequenced with MSK-IMPACT ({greater than or equal to}468 key cancer genes). MSI status was assessed utilizing MSISensor. Mutational signatures were defined using SigMA.

Results: 272 LS individuals were identified, 13 (5%) of whom had primary BCs. The majority of BCs (92%) were hormone receptor positive tumors. Five (42%) of 12 BCs displayed loss of MMR proteins by IHC. Four (36%) of 11 BCs subjected to tumor-normal sequencing showed dominant microsatellite instability mutational signatures, high tumor mutational burden and indeterminate (27%) or high MSISensor scores (9%). One patient with metastatic MMRd BC received anti-PD1 therapy and achieved a robust and durable response.

Conclusions: A subset of BCs developing in LS individuals are etiologically linked to MMRd and may benefit from anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-21-2027DOI Listing
October 2021

Germline Variants Identified in Patients with Early-onset Renal Cell Carcinoma Referred for Germline Genetic Testing.

Eur Urol Oncol 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medicine, Clinical Genetics Service, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Despite guidelines recommending genetic counseling for patients with early-onset renal cell carcinoma (RCC), studies interrogating the spectrum of germline mutations and clinical associations in patients with early-onset RCC are lacking.

Objective: To define the germline genetic spectrum and clinical associations for patients with early-onset RCC diagnosed at age ≤46 yr who underwent genetic testing.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We retrospectively identified patients with early-onset RCC who underwent germline testing at our institution from February 2003 to June 2020.

Outcome Measurement And Statistical Analysis: The frequency and spectrum of pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were determined. Clinical characteristics associated with mutation status were analyzed using two-sample comparison (Fisher's exact or χ test).

Results And Limitations: Of 232 patients with early-onset RCC, 50% had non-clear-cell histology, including unclassified RCC (12.1%), chromophobe RCC (9.7%), FH-deficient RCC (7.0%), papillary RCC (6.6%), and translocation-associated RCC (4.3%). Overall, 43.5% had metastatic disease. Germline P/LP variants were identified in 41 patients (17.7%), of which 21 (9.1%) were in an RCC-associated gene and 20 (8.6%) in a non-RCC-associated gene, including 17 (7.3%) in DNA damage repair genes such as BRCA1/2, ATM, and CHEK2. Factors associated with RCC P/LP variants include bilateral/multifocal renal tumors, non-clear-cell histology, and additional extrarenal primary malignancies. In patients with only a solitary clear-cell RCC, the prevalence of P/LP variants in RCC-associated and non-RCC-associated genes was 0% and 9.9%, respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with early-onset RCC had high frequencies of germline P/LP variants in genes associated with both hereditary RCC and other cancer predispositions. Germline RCC panel testing has the highest yield when patients have clinical phenotypes suggestive of underlying RCC gene mutations. Patients with early-onset RCC should undergo comprehensive assessment of personal and family history to guide appropriate genetic testing.

Patient Summary: In this study of 232 patients with early-onset kidney cancer who underwent genetic testing, we found a high prevalence of mutations in genes that increase the risk of cancer in both kidneys and other organs for patients and their at-risk family members. Our study suggests that patients with early-onset kidney cancer should undergo comprehensive genetic risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euo.2021.09.005DOI Listing
October 2021

Penetrance of male breast cancer susceptibility genes: a systematic review.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Oct 13. Epub 2021 Oct 13.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Purpose: Several male breast cancer (MBC) susceptibility genes have been identified, but the MBC risk for individuals with a pathogenic variant in each of these genes (i.e., penetrance) remains unclear. We conducted a systematic review of studies reporting the penetrance of MBC susceptibility genes to better summarize current estimates of penetrance.

Methods: A search query was developed to identify MBC-related papers indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE. A validated natural language processing method was applied to identify papers reporting penetrance estimates. These penetrance studies' bibliographies were reviewed to ensure comprehensiveness. We accessed the potential ascertainment bias for each enrolled study.

Results: Fifteen penetrance studies were identified from 12,182 abstracts, covering five purported MBC susceptibility genes: ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2. Cohort (n = 6, 40%) and case-control (n = 5, 33%) studies were the two most common study designs, followed by family-based (n = 3, 20%), and a kin-cohort study (n = 1, 7%). Seven of the 15 studies (47%) adjusted for ascertainment adequately and therefore the MBC risks reported by these seven studies can be considered applicable to the general population. Based on these seven studies, we found pathogenic variants in ATM, BRCA2, CHEK2 c.1100delC, and PALB2 show an increased risk for MBC. The association between BRCA1 and MBC was not statistically significant.

Conclusion: This work supports the conclusion that pathogenic variants in ATM, BRCA2, CHEK2 c.1100delC, and PALB2 increase the risk of MBC, whereas pathogenic variants in BRCA1 may not be associated with increased MBC risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-021-06413-2DOI Listing
October 2021

Improving our model of cascade testing for hereditary cancer risk by leveraging patient peer support: a concept report.

Hered Cancer Clin Pract 2021 Sep 26;19(1):40. Epub 2021 Sep 26.

Georgetown Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington, D.C, USA.

Consensus and evidence suggest that cascade testing is critical to achieve the promise of cancer genetic testing. However, barriers to cascade testing include effective family communication of genetic risk information and family members' ability to cope with genetic risk. These barriers are further complicated by the developmental needs of unaffected family members during critical windows for family communication and adaptation. Peer support could address these barriers. We provide two illustrative examples of ongoing BRCA1/2-related clinical trials that apply a peer support model to improve family communication and functioning. Peer support can augment currently available genetic services to facilitate adjustment to and effective use of cancer genetic risk information. Importantly, this scalable approach can address the presence of cancer risk within families across multiple developmental stages. This applies a family-centered perspective that accommodates all potentially at-risk relatives. This peer support model can be further applied to emerging topics in clinical genetics to expand reach and impact.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13053-021-00198-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8474818PMC
September 2021

Uptake and acceptability of a mainstreaming model of hereditary cancer multigene panel testing among patients with ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer.

Genet Med 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Abramson Cancer Center, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Purpose: To address demands for timely germline information to guide treatments, we evaluated experiences of patients with ovarian, pancreatic, and prostate cancer with a mainstreaming genetic testing model wherein multigene panel testing was ordered by oncologists with standardized pretest patient education, and genetic counselors delivered results and post-test genetic counseling via telephone.

Methods: Among 1,203 eligible patients, we conducted a prospective single-arm study to examine patient uptake and acceptability (via self-report surveys at baseline and three weeks and three months following result return) of this mainstreaming model.

Results: Only 10% of eligible patients declined participation. Among 1,054 tested participants, 10% had pathogenic variants (PV), 16% had variants of uncertain significance (VUS), and 74% had no variant identified (NV). Participants reported high initial acceptability, including high satisfaction with their testing decision. Variability over time in several outcomes existed for participants with PV or NV: those with NV experienced a temporary increase in depression (p < 0.001; p < 0.001), and those with PV experienced a small increase in genetic testing distress (p = 0.03). Findings suggested that result type, sex, and cancer type were also associated with outcomes including clinical depression and uncertainty.

Conclusion: This mainstreaming model may offer a feasible approach for extending access to germline genetic information.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-021-01262-2DOI Listing
July 2021

Tolerability of Breast Radiotherapy Among Carriers of Germline Variants.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 19;5. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

, a gene that controls repair of DNA double-strand breaks, confers an excess lifetime risk of breast cancer among carriers of germline pathogenic variants (PV). PV homozygotes are particularly sensitive to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation. Consequently, there is concern that adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) may cause excess morbidity among heterozygous carriers of PV. We evaluated the tolerability of breast RT among carriers of germline variants.

Methods: Of 167 patients with germline variants presenting to our institution with breast cancer, 91 received RT. Treatment-related toxicity was ascertained from medical records and graded across organ systems. Toxicities grade > 2 were recorded from the end of treatment to last evaluable follow-up and were analyzed according to variant pathogenicity.

Results: Of 91 evaluable carriers of variants, with a median follow-up of 32 months following RT, 25% (n = 23) harbored a PV, whereas 75% (n = 68) harbored a variant of uncertain significance (VUS). Prevalence of grade ≥ 2 toxicity unrelated to post-mastectomy reconstruction among patients with PV was: 32% at the end of treatment ( 34% for VUS carriers), 11% at 1 year of follow-up ( 4% for VUS carriers), and 8% at the last follow-up ( 13% for VUS carriers), consistent with previous studies of RT among unselected populations. No grade 4 or 5 toxicities were observed. variant pathogenicity was not associated with local toxicity, contralateral breast cancer, or secondary malignancy in this limited cohort of patients who received breast RT.

Conclusion: We found no evidence of excess RT-associated toxicity among carriers of pathogenic germline variants. Breast-conserving therapy and adjuvant RT may be safely considered among appropriately selected carriers of germline variants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232182PMC
January 2021

Prevalence and Characterization of Biallelic and Monoallelic and Variant Carriers From a Pan-Cancer Patient Population.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 26;5. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

and have been implicated as autosomal recessive cancer predisposition genes. Although individuals with biallelic and pathogenic variants (PVs) have increased cancer and polyposis risk, risks for monoallelic carriers are uncertain. We sought to assess the prevalence and characterize and from a large pan-cancer patient population.

Materials And Methods: Patients with pan-cancer (n = 11,081) underwent matched tumor-normal sequencing with consent for germline analysis. Medical records and tumors were reviewed and analyzed. Prevalence of PVs was compared with reference controls (Genome Aggregation Database).

Results: -PVs were identified in 40 patients including 39 monoallelic carriers (39/11,081 = 0.35%) and one with biallelic variants (1/11,081 = 0.009%) and a diagnosis of isolated early-onset breast cancer. -associated mutational signature 30 was identified in the tumors of the biallelic patient and two carriers. Colonic polyposis was not identified in any patient. -PVs were identified in 13 patients, including 12 monoallelic carriers (12/11,081 = 0.11%) and one with biallelic variants (1/11,081 = 0.009%) and diagnoses of later-onset cancers, attenuated polyposis, and abnormal MSH3-protein expression. Of the 12 carriers, two had early-onset cancer diagnoses with tumor loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. Ancestry-specific burden tests demonstrated that and prevalence was not significantly different in this pan-cancer population versus controls.

Conclusion: and germline alterations were not enriched in this pan-cancer patient population. However, tumor-specific findings, such as mutational signature 30 and loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele, suggest the potential contribution of monoallelic variants to tumorigenesis in a subset of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232072PMC
February 2021

Genomic and Transcriptomic Analyses of Breast Cancer Primaries and Matched Metastases in AURORA, the Breast International Group (BIG) Molecular Screening Initiative.

Cancer Discov 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.

AURORA aims to study the processes of relapse in metastatic breast cancer (MBC) by performing multi-omics profiling on paired primary tumors and early-course metastases. Among 381 patients (primary tumor and metastasis pairs: 252 targeted gene sequencing, 152 RNA sequencing, 67 single nucleotide polymorphism arrays), we found a driver role for and somatic mutations. Metastases were enriched in , and mutations; and amplifications; and deletions. An increase in clonality was observed in driver genes such as and . Intrinsic subtype switching occurred in 36% of cases. Luminal A/B to HER2-enriched switching was associated with and/or mutations. Metastases had lower immune score and increased immune-permissive cells. High tumor mutational burden correlated to shorter time to relapse in HR/HER2 cancers. ESCAT tier I/II alterations were detected in 51% of patients and matched therapy was used in 7%. Integration of multi-omics analyses in clinical practice could affect treatment strategies in MBC. SIGNIFICANCE: The AURORA program, through the genomic and transcriptomic analyses of matched primary and metastatic samples from 381 patients with breast cancer, coupled with prospectively collected clinical data, identified genomic alterations enriched in metastases and prognostic biomarkers. ESCAT tier I/II alterations were detected in more than half of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1647DOI Listing
June 2021

Therapeutic Implications of Germline Testing in Patients With Advanced Cancers.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 16;39(24):2698-2709. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Tumor mutational profiling is increasingly performed in patients with advanced cancer. We determined the extent to which germline mutation profiling guides therapy selection in patients with advanced cancer.

Methods: Patients with cancer undergoing tumor genomic profiling were prospectively consented for germline cancer predisposition gene analysis (2015-2019). In patients harboring germline likely pathogenic or pathogenic (LP/P) alterations, therapeutic actionability was classified using a precision oncology knowledge base. Patients with metastatic or recurrent cancer receiving germline genotype-directed therapy were determined.

Results: Among 11,947 patients across > 50 malignancies, 17% (n = 2,037) harbored a germline LP/P variant. By oncology knowledge base classification, 9% (n = 1042) had an LP/P variant in a gene with therapeutic implications (4% level 1; 4% level 3B; < 1% level 4). variants accounted for 42% of therapeutically actionable findings, followed by (13%), (12%), mismatch repair genes (11%), and (5%). When limited to the 9,079 patients with metastatic or recurrent cancer, 8% (n = 710) harbored level 1 or 3B genetic findings and 3.2% (n = 289) received germline genotype-directed therapy. Germline genotype-directed therapy was received by 61% and 18% of metastatic cancer patients with level 1 and level 3B findings, respectively, and by 54% of , 75% of mismatch repair, 43% of , 35% of , 24% of , and 19% of carriers. Of patients receiving a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, 45% (84 of 188) had tumors other than breast or ovarian cancer, wherein the drug, at time of delivery, was delivered in an investigational setting.

Conclusion: In a pan-cancer analysis, 8% of patients with advanced cancer harbored a germline variant with therapeutic actionability with 40% of these patients receiving germline genotype-directed treatment. Germline sequence analysis is additive to tumor sequence analysis for therapy selection and should be considered for all patients with advanced cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03661DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8376329PMC
August 2021

PD-L1 Expression in Metaplastic Breast Carcinoma Using the PD-L1 SP142 Assay and Concordance Among PD-L1 Immunohistochemical Assays.

Am J Surg Pathol 2021 09;45(9):1274-1281

Departments of Pathology.

Immunotherapy for the treatment of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) positive locally advanced or metastatic triple negative breast cancer may benefit patients with metaplastic breast cancer (MpBC). Previous study of PD-L1 in MpBC scored tumor cells (TCs), different from Food and Drug Administration-approved scoring methods. We sought to define PD-L1 expression in MpBCs and to evaluate concordance of 3 PD-L1 assays. Primary, treatment naive MpBC treated at our Center from 1998 to 2019 were identified. PD-L1 expression was assessed using SP142, E1L3n, and 73-10. We evaluated PD-L1 expression on tumor infiltrating immune cells (IC) and also in TCs. For each assay, we scored PD-L1 expression using ≥1% IC expression according to the IMpassion130 trial criteria and using combined positive score (CPS) ≥10 according to the KEYNOTE-355 trial cutoff. A total of 42 MpBCs were identified. Most MpBC had PD-L1 positivity in ≥1% IC with all 3 assays (95%, 95%, 86%) in contrast to a maximum 71% with a CPS ≥10. PD-L1 IC expression was comparable between the SP142 and 73-10 assays and was lowest with E1L3n. PD-L1 TC expression was lowest using SP142. The overall concordance for IC scoring was 88% while 62% had concordant CPS. For each assay, the results of the 2 scoring algorithms were not interchangeable. The SP142 assay showed distinct expression patterns between IC (granular, dot-like) and TC (membranous) while 73-10 and E1L3n showed membranous and/or cytoplasmic expression in both IC and TC. Most MpBC in our cohort were positive for PD-L1 indicating eligibility for anti-PD-L1/programmed death-1 immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001760DOI Listing
September 2021

Oncology Patients' Perspectives on Remote Patient Monitoring for COVID-19.

JCO Oncol Pract 2021 09 4;17(9):e1278-e1285. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Oncology patients are vulnerable to adverse outcomes associated with COVID-19, and clinical deterioration must be identified early. Several institutions launched remote patient monitoring programs (RPMPs) to care for patients with COVID-19. We describe patients' perspectives on a COVID-19 RPMP at a National Comprehensive Cancer Center.

Methods: Patients who tested positive for COVID-19 were eligible. Enrolled patients received a daily electronic COVID-19 symptom assessment, and a subset of high-risk patients also received a pulse oximeter. Monitoring was provided by a centralized team and was discontinued 14 days after a patient's positive test result and following 3 days without worsening symptoms. Patients who completed at least one assessment and exited the program were sent a patient engagement survey to evaluate the patient's experience with digital monitoring for COVID-19.

Results: The survey was distributed to 491 patients, and 257 responded (52% completion rate). The net promoter score was 85%. Most patients agreed that the RPMP was worthwhile, enabled better management of their COVID-19 symptoms, made them feel more connected to their healthcare team, and helped prevent emergency room visits. Identified themes regarding patient-perceived value of a RPMP included (1) security: a clinical safety net; (2) connection: a link to their clinical team during a period of isolation; and (3) empowerment: an education on the virus and symptom management.

Conclusion: RPMPs are perceived to be of value to oncology patients with COVID-19. Policymakers should consider how these programs can be reimbursed to keep vulnerable patients at home and out of the acute care setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/OP.21.00269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457795PMC
September 2021

Integrating Clinical and Polygenic Factors to Predict Breast Cancer Risk in Women Undergoing Genetic Testing.

JCO Precis Oncol 2021 28;5. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Screening and prevention decisions for women at increased risk of developing breast cancer depend on genetic and clinical factors to estimate risk and select appropriate interventions. Integration of polygenic risk into clinical breast cancer risk estimators can improve discrimination. However, correlated genetic effects must be incorporated carefully to avoid overestimation of risk.

Materials And Methods: A novel Fixed-Stratified method was developed that accounts for confounding when adding a new factor to an established risk model. A combined risk score (CRS) of an 86-single-nucleotide polymorphism polygenic risk score and the Tyrer-Cuzick v7.02 clinical risk estimator was generated with attenuation for confounding by family history. Calibration and discriminatory accuracy of the CRS were evaluated in two independent validation cohorts of women of European ancestry (N = 1,615 and N = 518). Discrimination for remaining lifetime risk was examined by age-adjusted logistic regression. Risk stratification with a 20% risk threshold was compared between CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick in an independent clinical cohort (N = 32,576).

Results: Simulation studies confirmed that the Fixed-Stratified method produced accurate risk estimation across patients with different family history. In both validation studies, CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick were significantly associated with breast cancer. In an analysis with both CRS and Tyrer-Cuzick as predictors of breast cancer, CRS added significant discrimination independent of that captured by Tyrer-Cuzick ( < 10 in validation 1; < 10 in validation 2). In an independent cohort, 18% of women shifted breast cancer risk categories from their Tyrer-Cuzick-based risk compared with risk estimates by CRS.

Conclusion: Integrating clinical and polygenic factors into a risk model offers more effective risk stratification and supports a personalized genomic approach to breast cancer screening and prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8140787PMC
January 2021

PARP (Poly ADP-Ribose Polymerase) inhibitors for locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 Apr 22;4:CD011395. Epub 2021 Apr 22.

NHMRC Clinical Trials Centre, The University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Background: Locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer remains a challenge to treat. With emerging study results, it is important to interpret the available clinical data and apply the evidence offering the most effective treatment to the right patient. Poly(ADP Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors are a new class of drug and their role in the treatment of locally advanced and metastatic breast cancer is being established.

Objectives: To determine the efficacy, safety profile, and potential harms of Poly(ADP-Ribose) Polymerase (PARP) inhibitors in the treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer. The primary outcome of interest was overall survival; secondary outcomes included progression-free survival, tumour response rate, quality of life, and adverse events.

Search Methods: On 8 June 2020, we searched the Cochrane Breast Cancer Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE via OvidSP, Embase via OvidSP, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) search portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also searched proceedings from the major oncology conferences as well as scanned reference lists from eligible publications and contacted corresponding authors of trials for further information, where needed.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials on participants with locally advanced or metastatic breast cancer comparing 1) chemotherapy in combination with PARP inhibitors, compared to the same chemotherapy without PARP inhibitors or 2) treatment with PARP inhibitors, compared to treatment with other chemotherapy. We included studies that reported on our primary outcome of overall survival and secondary outcomes including progression-free survival, tumour response rate, quality of life, and adverse events.

Data Collection And Analysis: We used standard methodological procedures defined by Cochrane. Summary statistics for the endpoints used hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall survival and progression-free survival, and odds ratios (OR) for response rate (RR) and toxicity.

Main Results: We identified 49 articles for qualitative synthesis, describing five randomised controlled trials that were included in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). A sixth trial was assessed as eligible but had ended prematurely and no data were available for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Risk of bias was predominately low to unclear across all studies except in regards to performance bias (3/5 high risk) and detection bias for the outcomes of quality of life (2/2 high risk) and reporting of adverse events (3/5 high risk). High-certainty evidence shows there may be a small advantage in overall survival (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.00; 4 studies; 1435 patients). High-certainty evidence shows that PARP inhibitors offer an improvement in PFS in locally advanced/metastatic HER2-negative, BRCA germline mutated breast cancer patients (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.71; 5 studies; 1474 patients). There was no statistical heterogeneity for these outcomes. Subgroup analyses for PFS outcomes based on trial level data were performed for triple-negative breast cancer, hormone-positive and/or HER2-positive breast cancer, BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations, and patients who had received prior chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer or not. The subgroup analyses showed a persistent PFS benefit regardless of the subgroup chosen. Pooled analysis shows PARP inhibitors likely result in a moderate improvement in tumour response rate compared to other treatment arms (66.9% vs 48.9%; RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.54; 5 studies; 1185 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The most common adverse events reported across all five studies included neutropenia, anaemia and fatigue. Grade 3 or higher adverse events probably occur no less frequently in patients receiving PARP inhibitors (59.4% for PARP arm versus 64.5% for non-PARP arm, RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04; 5 studies; 1443 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Only two studies reported quality of life outcomes so this was not amenable to meta-analysis. However, both studies that did assess quality of life showed PARP inhibitors were superior compared to physician's choice of chemotherapy in terms of participant-reported outcomes.

Authors' Conclusions: In people with locally advanced or metastatic HER2-negative, BRCA germline mutated breast cancer, PARP inhibitors offer an improvement in progression-free survival, and likely improve overall survival and tumour response rates. This systematic review provides evidence supporting the use of PARP inhibitors as part of the therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients in this subgroup. The toxicity profile for PARP inhibitors is probably no worse than chemotherapy but more information is required regarding quality of life outcomes, highlighting the importance of collecting such data in future studies. Future studies should also be powered to detect clinically important differences in overall survival and could focus on the role of PARP inhibitors in other relevant breast cancer populations, including HER2-positive, BRCA-negative/homologous recombination repair-deficient and Programmed Death-Ligand 1 (PDL1) positive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011395.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092476PMC
April 2021

TBCRC 048: Phase II Study of Olaparib for Metastatic Breast Cancer and Mutations in Homologous Recombination-Related Genes.

J Clin Oncol 2020 12 29;38(36):4274-4282. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor (PARPi), is approved for the treatment of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) in germline (g)/ mutation carriers. Olaparib Expanded, an investigator-initiated, phase II study, assessed olaparib response in patients with MBC with somatic (s)/ mutations or g/s mutations in homologous recombination (HR)-related genes other than 2.

Methods: Eligible patients had MBC with measurable disease and germline mutations in non-/ HR-related genes (cohort 1) or somatic mutations in these genes or / (cohort 2). Prior PARPi, platinum-refractory disease, or progression on more than two chemotherapy regimens (metastatic setting) was not allowed. Patients received olaparib 300 mg orally twice a day until progression. A single-arm, two-stage design was used. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR); the null hypothesis (≤ 5% ORR) would be rejected within each cohort if there were four or more responses in 27 patients. Secondary endpoints included clinical benefit rate and progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Fifty-four patients enrolled. Seventy-six percent had estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative disease. Eighty-seven percent had mutations in s/, or . In cohort 1, ORR was 33% (90% CI, 19% to 51%) and in cohort 2, 31% (90% CI, 15% to 49%). Confirmed responses were seen only with g (ORR, 82%) and s/ (ORR, 50%) mutations. Median PFS was 13.3 months (90% CI, 12 months to not available/computable [NA]) for g and 6.3 months (90% CI, 4.4 months to NA) for s/ mutation carriers. No responses were observed with or mutations alone.

Conclusion: PARP inhibition is an effective treatment for patients with MBC and g or s/ mutations, significantly expanding the population of patients with breast cancer likely to benefit from PARPi beyond g/ mutation carriers. These results emphasize the value of molecular characterization for treatment decisions in MBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02151DOI Listing
December 2020

Cancer therapy shapes the fitness landscape of clonal hematopoiesis.

Nat Genet 2020 11 26;52(11):1219-1226. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Oncology, University of Cambridge, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK.

Acquired mutations are pervasive across normal tissues. However, understanding of the processes that drive transformation of certain clones to cancer is limited. Here we study this phenomenon in the context of clonal hematopoiesis (CH) and the development of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (tMNs). We find that mutations are selected differentially based on exposures. Mutations in ASXL1 are enriched in current or former smokers, whereas cancer therapy with radiation, platinum and topoisomerase II inhibitors preferentially selects for mutations in DNA damage response genes (TP53, PPM1D, CHEK2). Sequential sampling provides definitive evidence that DNA damage response clones outcompete other clones when exposed to certain therapies. Among cases in which CH was previously detected, the CH mutation was present at tMN diagnosis. We identify the molecular characteristics of CH that increase risk of tMN. The increasing implementation of clinical sequencing at diagnosis provides an opportunity to identify patients at risk of tMN for prevention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00710-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7891089PMC
November 2020

The genomic landscape of metastatic histologic special types of invasive breast cancer.

NPJ Breast Cancer 2020 14;6:53. Epub 2020 Oct 14.

Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY USA.

Histologic special types of breast cancer (BC) account for ~20% of BCs. Large sequencing studies of metastatic BC have focused on invasive ductal carcinomas of no special type (IDC-NSTs). We sought to define the repertoire of somatic genetic alterations of metastatic histologic special types of BC. We reanalyzed targeted capture sequencing data of 309 special types of BC, including metastatic and primary invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs;  = 132 and  = 127, respectively), mixed mucinous ( = 5 metastatic and  = 14 primary), micropapillary ( = 12 metastatic and  = 8 primary), and metaplastic BCs ( = 6 metastatic and  = 5 primary), and compared metastatic histologic special types of BC to metastatic IDC-NSTs matched according to clinicopathologic characteristics and to primary special type BCs. The genomic profiles of metastatic and primary special types of BC were similar. Important differences, however, were noted: metastatic ILCs harbored a higher frequency of genetic alterations in , , , , and than primary ILCs, and in , , , , , and than metastatic IDC-NSTs. Metastatic ILCs displayed a higher mutational burden, and more frequently dominant APOBEC mutational signatures than primary ILCs and matched metastatic IDC-NSTs. and mutations were frequently detected in metastatic mixed mucinous BCs, whereas and were the most frequently altered genes in metastatic micropapillary and metaplastic BCs, respectively. Taken together, primary and metastatic BCs histologic special types have remarkably similar repertoires of somatic genetic alterations. Metastatic ILCs more frequently harbor APOBEC mutational signatures than primary ILCs and metastatic IDC-NSTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41523-020-00195-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7560857PMC
October 2020

Mutation Rates in Cancer Susceptibility Genes in Patients With Breast Cancer With Multiple Primary Cancers.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 19;4. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Basser Center for BRCA and Abramson Cancer Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown.

Patients And Methods: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with -negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]).

Results: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% 4.9% [ = .02] and 7.1% 4.2% [ = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. and mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas and mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC.

Conclusion: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.19.00301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7496037PMC
August 2020

Endometrial Cancers in or Germline Mutation Carriers: Assessment of Homologous Recombination DNA Repair Defects.

JCO Precis Oncol 2019 29;3. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Purpose: Endometrial cancer (EC) is not considered a component of the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome but can arise in patients with germline (g) mutations. Biallelic alterations are associated with genomic features of homologous recombination DNA repair deficiency (HRD) in cancer. We sought to determine if ECs in g mutation carriers harbor biallelic alterations and/or features of HRD.

Methods: Of 769 patients with EC who underwent germline panel testing, 10 pathogenic g mutation carriers were identified, and their tumor- and normal-derived DNA was subjected to massively parallel sequencing targeting at least 410 cancer-related genes. Three g-associated ECs were identified in 232 ECs subjected to whole-exome sequencing by The Cancer Genome Atlas. Somatic mutations, copy number alterations, loss of heterozygosity, microsatellite instability (MSI), and genomic HRD features were assessed.

Results: Of the 13 patients included who had EC, eight harbored pathogenic g mutations and five harbored g mutations. Eight (100%) and two (40%) ECs harbored biallelic and alterations through loss of heterozygosity of the wild-type allele. All ECs harbored somatic mutations. One monoallelic/sporadic g-associated EC had promoter methylation and was MSI high. High large-scale state transition scores, a genomic feature of HRD, were found only in ECs with bi- but not monoallelic alterations. The Signature Multivariate Analysis HRD signature Sig3 was enriched in biallelic g ECs, and the three ECs from The Cancer Genome Atlas with biallelic alterations subjected to whole-exome sequencing displayed a dominant HRD-related mutational signature 3.

Conclusion: A subset of g-associated ECs harbor biallelic alterations and genomic features of HRD, which may benefit from homologous recombination-directed treatment regimens. ECs in mutation carriers might be sporadic and even MSI high, and may potentially benefit from immune-checkpoint inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.19.00103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7446423PMC
August 2019

Alterations in and promote clinical resistance to alpelisib plus aromatase inhibitors.

Nat Cancer 2020 Apr 23;1(4):382-393. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, MSKCC, New York, NY.

Alpelisib is a selective inhibitor of PI3Kα, shown to improve outcomes for mutant, hormone receptor positive (HR+) metastatic breast cancers (MBC) when combined with antiestrogen therapy. To uncover mechanisms of resistance, we conducted a detailed, longitudinal analysis of tumor and plasma circulating tumor DNA among such patients from a phase I/II trial combining alpelisib with an aromatase inhibitor (AI) (NCT01870505). The trial's primary objective was to establish safety with maculopapular rash emerging as the most common grade 3 adverse event (33%). Among 44 evaluable patients, the observed clinical benefit rate was 52%. Correlating genetic alterations with outcome, we identified loss-of-function mutations in 25% of patients with resistance. activating mutations also expanded in number and allele fraction during treatment and were associated with resistance. These data indicate that genomic alterations that mediate resistance to alpelisib or antiestrogen may promote disease progression and highlight loss as a recurrent mechanism of resistance to PI3Kα inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43018-020-0047-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450824PMC
April 2020

Pharmacogenomics of aromatase inhibitors in postmenopausal breast cancer and additional mechanisms of anastrozole action.

JCI Insight 2020 08 20;5(16). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) reduce breast cancer recurrence and prolong survival, but up to 30% of patients exhibit recurrence. Using a genome-wide association study of patients entered on MA.27, a phase III randomized trial of anastrozole versus exemestane, we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CUB And Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1) associated with breast cancer-free interval, with the variant allele associated with fewer distant recurrences. Mechanistically, CSMD1 regulates CYP19 expression in an SNP- and drug-dependent fashion, and this regulation is different among 3 AIs: anastrozole, exemestane, and letrozole. Overexpression of CSMD1 sensitized AI-resistant cells to anastrozole but not to the other 2 AIs. The SNP in CSMD1 that was associated with increased CSMD1 and CYP19 expression levels increased anastrozole sensitivity, but not letrozole or exemestane sensitivity. Anastrozole degrades estrogen receptor α (ERα), especially in the presence of estradiol (E2). ER+ breast cancer organoids and AI- or fulvestrant-resistant breast cancer cells were more sensitive to anastrozole plus E2 than to AI alone. Our findings suggest that the CSMD1 SNP might help to predict AI response, and anastrozole plus E2 serves as a potential new therapeutic strategy for patients with AI- or fulvestrant-resistant breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137571DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7455128PMC
August 2020

Single-nucleotide polymorphism biomarkers of adjuvant anastrozole-induced estrogen suppression in early breast cancer.

Pharmacogenet Genomics 2021 01;31(1):1-9

Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Department of Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Objectives: Based on our previous findings that postmenopausal women with estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2) concentrations at or above 1.3 pg/ml and 0.5 pg/ml, respectively, after 6 months of adjuvant anastrozole therapy had a three-fold risk of recurrence, we aimed to identify a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based model that would predict elevated E1 and E2 and then validate it in an independent dataset.

Patients And Methods: The test set consisted of 322 women from the M3 study and the validation set consisted of 152 patients from MA.27. All patients were treated with adjuvant anastrozole, had on-anastrozole E1 and E2 concentrations and genome-wide genotyping.

Results: SNPs were identified from the M3 genome-wide association study. The best model to predict the E1-E2 phenotype with high balanced accuracy was a support vector machine model using clinical factors plus 46 SNPs. We did not have an independent cohort that is similar to the M3 study with clinical, E1-E2 phenotypes and genotype data to test our model. Hence, we chose a nested matched case-control cohort (MA.27 study) for testing. Our E1-E2 model was not validated but we found the MA.27 validation cohort was both clinically and genomically different.

Conclusions: We identified a SNP-based model that had excellent performance characteristics for predicting the phenotype of elevated E1 and E2 in women treated with anastrozole. This model was not validated in an independent dataset but that dataset was clinically and genomically substantially different. The model will need validation in a prospective study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FPC.0000000000000415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7655717PMC
January 2021

Genomic Methods Identify Homologous Recombination Deficiency in Pancreas Adenocarcinoma and Optimize Treatment Selection.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 07 22;26(13):3239-3247. Epub 2020 May 22.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Purpose: Genomic methods can identify homologous recombination deficiency (HRD). Rigorous evaluation of their outcome association to DNA damage response-targeted therapies like platinum in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is essential in maximizing therapeutic outcome.

Experimental Design: We evaluated progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with advanced-stage PDAC, who had both germline- and somatic-targeted gene sequencing. Homologous recombination gene mutations (HRm) were evaluated: , and HRm status was grouped as: (i) germline versus somatic; (ii) core ( and versus non-core (other HRm); and (iii) monoallelic versus biallelic. Genomic instability was compared using large-scale state transition, signature 3, and tumor mutation burden.

Results: Among 262 patients, 50 (19%) had HRD (15% germline and 4% somatic). Both groups were analyzed together due to lack of difference in their genomic instability and outcome. Median [95% confidence interval (CI)] follow-up was 21.9 (1.4-57.0) months. Median OS and PFS were 15.5 (14.6-19) and 7 (6.1-8.1) months, respectively. Patients with HRD had improved PFS compared with no HRD when treated with first-line (1L) platinum [HR, 0.44 (95% CI: 0.29-0.67); < 0.01], but not with 1L-non-platinum. Multivariate analysis showed HRD patients had improved OS regardless of their first-line treatment, but most had platinum exposure during their course. Biallelic HRm (11%) and core HRm (12%) had higher genomic instability, which translated to improved PFS on first-line platinum (1L-platinum) versus 1L-non-platinum.

Conclusions: Pathogenic HRm identifies HRD in patients with PDAC with the best outcome when treated with 1L-platinum. Biallelic HRm and core HRm further enriched benefit from 1L-platinum from HRD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-0418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7380542PMC
July 2020

Protein-altering germline mutations implicate novel genes related to lung cancer development.

Nat Commun 2020 05 11;11(1):2220. Epub 2020 May 11.

Radboud University Medical Center, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Few germline mutations are known to affect lung cancer risk. We performed analyses of rare variants from 39,146 individuals of European ancestry and investigated gene expression levels in 7,773 samples. We find a large-effect association with an ATM L2307F (rs56009889) mutation in adenocarcinoma for discovery (adjusted Odds Ratio = 8.82, P = 1.18 × 10) and replication (adjusted OR = 2.93, P = 2.22 × 10) that is more pronounced in females (adjusted OR = 6.81 and 3.19 and for discovery and replication). We observe an excess loss of heterozygosity in lung tumors among ATM L2307F allele carriers. L2307F is more frequent (4%) among Ashkenazi Jewish populations. We also observe an association in discovery (adjusted OR = 2.61, P = 7.98 × 10) and replication datasets (adjusted OR = 1.55, P = 0.06) with a loss-of-function mutation, Q4X (rs150665432) of an uncharacterized gene, KIAA0930. Our findings implicate germline genetic variants in ATM with lung cancer susceptibility and suggest KIAA0930 as a novel candidate gene for lung cancer risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15905-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7214407PMC
May 2020

Management of Hereditary Breast Cancer: American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and Society of Surgical Oncology Guideline.

J Clin Oncol 2020 06 3;38(18):2080-2106. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Beaumont Health, Royal Oak, MI.

Purpose: To develop recommendations for management of patients with breast cancer (BC) with germline mutations in BC susceptibility genes.

Methods: The American Society of Clinical Oncology, American Society for Radiation Oncology, and Society of Surgical Oncology convened an Expert Panel to develop recommendations based on a systematic review of the literature and a formal consensus process.

Results: Fifty-eight articles met eligibility criteria and formed the evidentiary basis for the local therapy recommendations; six randomized controlled trials of systemic therapy met eligibility criteria.

Recommendations: Patients with newly diagnosed BC and / mutations may be considered for breast-conserving therapy (BCT), with local control of the index cancer similar to that of noncarriers. The significant risk of a contralateral BC (CBC), especially in young women, and the higher risk of new cancers in the ipsilateral breast warrant discussion of bilateral mastectomy. Patients with mutations in moderate-risk genes should be offered BCT. For women with mutations in / or moderate-penetrance genes who are eligible for mastectomy, nipple-sparing mastectomy is a reasonable approach. There is no evidence of increased toxicity or CBC events from radiation exposure in / carriers. Radiation therapy should not be withheld in carriers. For patients with germline mutations, mastectomy is advised; radiation therapy is contraindicated except in those with significant risk of locoregional recurrence. Platinum agents are recommended versus taxanes to treat advanced BC in carriers. In the adjuvant/neoadjuvant setting, data do not support the routine addition of platinum to anthracycline- and taxane-based chemotherapy. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (olaparib and talazoparib) are preferable to nonplatinum single-agent chemotherapy for treatment of advanced BC in / carriers. Data are insufficient to recommend PARP inhibitor use in the early setting or in moderate-penetrance carriers. Additional information available at www.asco.org/breast-cancer-guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.00299DOI Listing
June 2020

Illustrating Cancer Risk: Patient Risk Communication Preferences and Interest regarding a Novel BRCA1/2 Genetic Risk Modifier Test.

Public Health Genomics 2020 19;23(1-2):6-19. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York, USA.

Introduction: Genetic risk modifier testing (GRMT), an emerging form of genetic testing based on common single nucleotide polymorphisms and polygenic risk scores, has the potential to refine estimates of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers' breast cancer risks. However, for women to benefit from GRMT, effective approaches for communicating this novel risk information are needed.

Objective: To evaluate patient preferences regarding risk communication materials for GRMT.

Methods: We developed four separate presentations (panel of genes, icon array, verbal risk estimate, graphical risk estimate) of hypothetical GRMT results, each using varying risk communication strategies to convey different information elements including number of risk modifier variants present, variant prevalence among BRCA1/2 carriers, and implications and uncertainties of test results for cancer risk. Thirty BRCA1/2 carriers evaluated these materials (randomized to low, moderate, or high breast cancer risk versions). Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained through in-person interviews.

Results: Across risk versions, participants preferred the presentation of the graphical risk estimate, often in combination with the verbal risk estimate. Interest in GRMT was high; 76.7% of participants wanted their own GRMT. Participants valued the potential for GRMT to clarify their cancer susceptibility and provide actionable information. Many (65.5%) anticipated that GRMT would make risk management decisions easier.

Conclusions: Women with BRCA1/2 mutations could be highly receptive to GRMT, and the minimal amount of necessary information to be included in result risk communication materials includes graphical and verbal estimates of future cancer risk. Findings will inform clinical translation of GRMT in a manner consistent with patients' preferences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000505854DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7272266PMC
December 2020

Radiation Treatment, ATM, BRCA1/2, and CHEK2*1100delC Pathogenic Variants and Risk of Contralateral Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 12;112(12):1275-1279

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY, USA.

Whether radiation therapy (RT) affects contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk in women with pathogenic germline variants in moderate- to high-penetrance breast cancer-associated genes is unknown. In a population-based case-control study, we examined the association between RT; variants in ATM, BRCA1/2, or CHEK2*1100delC; and CBC risk. We analyzed 708 cases of women with CBC and 1399 controls with unilateral breast cancer, all diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer between 1985 and 2000 and aged younger than 55 years at diagnosis and screened for variants in breast cancer-associated genes. Rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. RT did not modify the association between known pathogenic variants and CBC risk (eg, BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers without RT: RR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.76 to 7.01; BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers with RT: RR = 4.46, 95% CI = 2.96 to 6.71), suggesting that modifying RT plans for young women with breast cancer is unwarranted. Rare ATM missense variants, not currently identified as pathogenic, were associated with increased risk of RT-associated CBC (carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance without RT: RR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.09 to 1.55; carriers of ATM rare missense variants of uncertain significance with RT: RR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.31 to 6.80). Further mechanistic studies will aid clinical decision-making related to RT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7735763PMC
December 2020

Germline alterations in patients with biliary tract cancers: A spectrum of significant and previously underappreciated findings.

Cancer 2020 01 3;126(9):1995-2002. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: With limited information on germline mutations in biliary tract cancers, this study performed somatic and germline testing for patients at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center with known biliary tract carcinoma with the aim of determining the frequency and range of pathogenic germline alterations (PGAs).

Methods: Patients with biliary tract carcinoma were consented for somatic tumor and matched blood testing of up to 468 genes via the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets next-generation sequencing platform. A germline variant analysis was performed on a panel of up to 88 genes associated with an increased predisposition for cancer. Demographic and diagnostic details were collected.

Results: Germline mutations were tested in 131 patients. Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma was the most common cancer (63.4%), and it was followed by gallbladder adenocarcinoma (16.8%), extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (16%), and otherwise unspecified biliary tract cancer (3.8%). Known and likely PGAs were present in 21 patients (16.0%), with 9.9% harboring a PGA in a high/moderate-penetrance cancer predisposition gene. Among high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, PGAs were most commonly observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (33.3%), which made up 5.3% of the entire cohort, and they were followed by PALB2, BAP1, and PMS2. Mutations in ATM, MITF, and NBN, moderate-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes, were identified in 1 patient each. There was no observed difference in the types of mutations among the subtypes of biliary tract cancer.

Conclusions: The frequency of PGAs found was comparable to existing data on the prevalence of germline mutations in other solid tumor types with matched tumor analysis. This provides support for the role of the BRCA1/2, ATM, and BAP1 genes in biliary tract cancer susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.32740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7584349PMC
January 2020

Cascading After Peridiagnostic Cancer Genetic Testing: An Alternative to Population-Based Screening.

J Clin Oncol 2020 05 10;38(13):1398-1408. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Clinical Genetics Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center; and Program in Cancer Biology and Genetics, Sloan Kettering Institute, New York, NY.

Purpose: Despite advances in DNA sequencing technology and expanded medical guidelines, the vast majority of individuals carrying pathogenic variants of common cancer susceptibility genes have yet to be identified. An alternative to population-wide genetic screening of healthy individuals would exploit the trend for genetic testing at the time of cancer diagnosis to guide therapy and prevention, combined with augmented familial diffusion or "cascade" of genomic risk information.

Methods: Using a multiple linear regression model, we derived the time interval to detect an estimated 3.9 million individuals in the United States with a pathogenic variant in 1 of 18 cancer susceptibility genes. We analyzed the impact of the proportion of incident patients sequenced, varying observed frequencies of pathogenic germline variants in patients with cancer, differential rates of diffusion of genetic information in families, and family size.

Results: The time to detect inherited cancer predisposing variants in the population is affected by the extent of cascade to first-, second-, and third-degree relatives (FDR, SDR, TDR, respectively), family size, prevalence of mutations in patients with cancer, and the proportion of patients with cancer sequenced. In a representative scenario, assuming a 7% prevalence of pathogenic variants across cancer types, an average family size of 3 per generation, and 15% of incident patients with cancer in the United States undergoing germline testing, the time to detect all 3.9 million individuals with pathogenic variants in 18 cancer susceptibility genes would be 46.2, 22.3, 13.6, and 9.9 years if 10%, 25%, 50%, and 70%, respectively, of all FDR, SDR, and TDR were tested for familial mutations.

Conclusion: Peridiagnostic and cascade cancer genetic testing offers an alternative strategy to achieve population-wide identification of cancer susceptibility mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.02010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7193752PMC
May 2020

Novel Germline Mutations in DNA Damage Repair in Patients with Malignant Pleural Mesotheliomas.

J Thorac Oncol 2020 04 28;15(4):655-660. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Thoracic Oncology Service, Division of Solid Tumor Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Introduction: Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) has brought insight into critical mutations or pathways (e.g., DNA damage sensing and repair) involved in the etiology of many cancers and has directed new screening, prevention, and therapeutic approaches for patients and families, it has only recently been used in malignant pleural mesotheliomas (MPMs).

Methods: We analyzed the blood samples from patients with MPM using the NGS platform MSK-IMPACT to explore cancer-predisposing genes. The loss-of-function variants or pathogenic entries were identified, and clinicopathologic information was collected.

Results: Of 84 patients with MPM, 12% (10 of 84) had pathogenic variants. Clinical characteristics were similar between cohorts, although patients with germline pathogenic variants were more likely to have more than two first-degree family members with cancer than those without germline mutations (40% versus 12%; Fisher's exact test, p < 0.05). Novel, deleterious variants in mesotheliomas included MutS homolog 3 (1% [one of 84]; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0%-7%), breast cancer gene 1-associated ring domain 1 (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%), and RecQ-like helicase 4 (2% [two of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-9%). Pathogenic variants previously reported on germline testing in patients with mesotheliomas were breast cancer gene 1-associated protein 1 (4% [three of 84]; 95% CI: 1%-10%), breast cancer gene 2 (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%), and MRE11 homolog, double strand break repair nuclease (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%). One patient (1% [one of 84]; 95% CI: 0%-7%) had a likely pathogenic alteration in SHQ1, H/ACA ribonucleoprotein assembly factor that has not been associated with a heritable susceptibility to cancer.

Conclusions: Our study lends further support for the role of aberrations in DNA damage repair genes in the pathogenesis of MPMs and suggests that targeting the members of these pathways for screening and treatment warrants further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.12.111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526793PMC
April 2020
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