Publications by authors named "Mark E Newton"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

An Ultrafast Shakedown Reveals the Energy Landscape, Relaxation Dynamics, and Concentration of the NVH Defect in Diamond.

J Phys Chem Lett 2020 Aug 6;11(16):6677-6683. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

School of Engineering, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU, United Kingdom.

Atomic-scale defects can control the exploitable optoelectronic performance of crystalline materials, and several point defects in diamond are emerging functional components for a range of quantum technologies. Nitrogen and hydrogen are common impurities incorporated into diamond, and there is a family of defects that includes both. The NVH defect is a lattice vacancy where three nearest neighbor carbon atoms are replaced with nitrogen atoms and a hydrogen is bonded to the remaining carbon. It is regularly observed in natural and high-temperature annealed synthetic diamond and gives rise to prominent absorption features in the mid-infrared. Here, we combine time- and spectrally resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy to yield unprecedented insight into the NVH defect's vibrational dynamics following infrared excitation of the C-H stretch. In doing so, we gain fundamental information about the energies of quantized vibrational states and corroborate our results with theory. We map out, for the first time, energy relaxation pathways, which include multiphonon relaxation processes and anharmonic coupling to the C-H bend mode. These advances provide new routes to quantify and probe atomic-scale defects.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c01806DOI Listing
August 2020

Nitrogen in Diamond.

Chem Rev 2020 06 12;120(12):5745-5794. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Gemological Institute of America, 50 West 47th Street, New York, New York 10036, United States.

Nitrogen is ubiquitous in both natural and laboratory-grown diamond, but the number and nature of the nitrogen-containing defects can have a profound effect on the diamond material and its properties. An ever-growing fraction of the supply of diamond appearing on the world market is now lab-grown. Here, we survey recent progress in two complementary diamond synthesis methods-high pressure high temperature (HPHT) growth and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), how each is allowing ever more precise control of nitrogen incorporation in the resulting diamond, and how the diamond produced by either method can be further processed (e.g., by implantation or annealing) to achieve a particular outcome or property. The burgeoning availability of diamond samples grown under well-defined conditions has also enabled huge advances in the characterization and understanding of nitrogen-containing defects in diamond-alone and in association with vacancies, hydrogen, and transition metal atoms. Among these, the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond is attracting particular current interest in account of the many new and exciting opportunities it offers for, for example, quantum technologies, nanoscale magnetometry, and biosensing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrev.9b00518DOI Listing
June 2020

Deconvoluting Surface-Bound Quinone Proton Coupled Electron Transfer in Unbuffered Solutions: Toward a Universal Voltammetric pH Electrode.

J Am Chem Soc 2019 01 31;141(2):1035-1044. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

While quinone proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) under buffered conditions is well understood, the situation is more complicated in unbuffered aqueous solutions. With a view to producing a quinone-based voltammetric pH electrode that can function universally in both buffered and unbuffered solutions by following a two-electron (2e)/two-proton (2H) Nernstian pathway over a wide pH range, the voltammetric response of strongly electronically coupled surface-bound quinones, directly integrated into a boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrode, is investigated. A laser ablation process enables integration of quinones into the BDD electrode surface with a high p K (first protonation state) and with controllable, very low surface coverages (as low as 2 orders of magnitude below monolayer coverage). Under buffered conditions, one wave results for all pH values, and the 2e/2H pathway is followed across the entire pH range. The measured ET rate constant values, from Laviron analysis, are also high, indicative of fast ET pathways. Under unbuffered conditions, one wave is again observed for all pH values; however, deviations from the buffered 2e/2H behavior are seen in the neutral region (pH 6-8). While 2e/2H transfer is maintained at all times, we attribute the observed deviation to local pH changes caused by the consumption and generation of protons at the electrode surface during the redox electrochemistry of the quinone. The associated proton fluxes generated at such sparse surface coverages are thought to be sufficiently high enough to prevent ET from occurring exclusively via a proton-independent route. By reducing surface coverage (down to ∼4 × 10 mol cm; the limit of our laser ablation process) local pH changes can be reduced but are not eradicated completely. By moving to a pulsed voltammetric technique, where for each potential step protons consumed at the electrode are immediately replaced, it is possible, provided the surface coverage is low enough, to obtain a Nernstian 2e/2H response across a wide pH range in unbuffered solution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.8b11518DOI Listing
January 2019

Photoactivatable platinum anticancer complex can generate tryptophan radicals.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2018 Dec;54(98):13845-13848

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, Coventry, UK.

l-Tryptophan (Trp), melatonin (MLT) and the Trp-peptide pentagastrin quenched the formation of azidyl radicals generated on irradiation of the anticancer complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(pyridine)2(N3)2(OH)2] with visible light, giving rise to C3-centred indole radicals which were characterized for Trp and MLT using an EPR spin-trap; indole, together with azidyl and hydroxyl radicals, have potential roles in a multitargeting mechanism of action against resistant cancers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8cc06496bDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6336088PMC
December 2018

Tracking Metal Electrodeposition Dynamics from Nucleation and Growth of a Single Atom to a Crystalline Nanoparticle.

ACS Nano 2018 Jul 13;12(7):7388-7396. Epub 2018 Jul 13.

Department of Chemistry , University of Warwick , Coventry , CV4 7AL , U.K.

In electrodeposition the key challenge is to obtain better control over nanostructure morphology. Currently, a lack of understanding exists concerning the initial stages of nucleation and growth, which ultimately impact the physicochemical properties of the resulting entities. Using identical location scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), with boron-doped diamond (BDD) serving as both an electron-transparent TEM substrate and electrode, we follow this process, from the formation of an individual metal atom through to a crystalline metal nanoparticle, under potential pulsed conditions. In doing so, we reveal the importance of electrochemically driven atom transport, atom cluster formation, cluster progression to a nanoparticle, and the mechanism by which neighboring particles interact during growth. Such information will help formulate improved nucleation and growth models and promote wider uptake of electrodeposited structures in a wide range of societally important applications. This type of measurement is possible in the TEM because the BDD possesses inherent stability, has an extremely high thermal conductivity, is electron beam transparent, is free from contamination, and is robust enough for multiple deposition and imaging cycles. Moreover, the platform can be operated under conditions such that we have confidence that the dynamic atom events we image are truly due to electrochemically driven deposition and no other factors, such as electron-beam-induced movement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.8b04089DOI Listing
July 2018

Quantitative analysis of trace palladium contamination in solution using electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF).

Analyst 2016 Jun 27;141(11):3349-57. Epub 2016 Apr 27.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

The application of electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), for the detection of palladium (Pd) contamination in a range of solutions containing electrochemically active compounds, present in excess and relevant to the pharmaceutical and food industries, is reported. In EC-XRF, EC is used to electrochemically pre-concentrate metal on an electrode under forced convection conditions, whilst XRF is employed to spectroscopically quantify the amount of metal deposited, which quantitatively correlates with the original metal concentration in solution. Boron doped diamond is used as the electrode due to its very wide cathodic window and the fact that B and C are non-interfering elements for XRF analysis. The effect of several parameters on the Pd XRF signal intensity are explored including: deposition potential (Edep), deposition time (tdep) and Pd(2+) concentration, [Pd(2+)]. Under high deposition potentials (Edep = -1.5 V), the Pd XRF peak intensity varies linearly with both tdep and [Pd(2+)]. Quantification of [Pd(2+)] is demonstrated in the presence of excess acetaminophen (ACM), l-ascorbic acid, caffeine and riboflavin. We show the same Pd XRF signal intensity (for [Pd(2+)] = 1.1 μM and tdep = 325 s) is observed, i.e. same amount of Pd is deposited on the electrode surface, irrespective of whether these redox active molecules are present or absent. For tdep = 900 s we report a limit of detection for [Pd(2+)] of 3.6 ppb (34 nM). Even lower LODs are possible by increasing tdep or by optimising the X-ray source specifically for Pd. The work presented for Pd detection in the presence of ACM, achieves the required detection sensitivity stipulated by international pharmacopeia guidelines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6an00340kDOI Listing
June 2016

Dynamic Nuclear Polarization enhanced NMR at 187 GHz/284 MHz using an Extended Interaction Klystron amplifier.

J Magn Reson 2016 Apr 2;265:77-82. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer which uses a 187 GHz (corresponding to (1)H NMR frequency of 284 MHz) Extended Interaction Klystron (EIK) amplifier as the microwave source is briefly described. Its performance is demonstrated for a biomolecule (bacteriorhodopsin), a pharmaceutical, and surface functionalised silica. The EIK is very compact and easily incorporated into an existing spectrometer. The bandwidth of the amplifier is sufficient that it obviates the need for a sweepable magnetic field, once set, for all commonly used radicals. The variable power (CW or pulsed) output from the EIK is transmitted to the DNP-NMR probe using a quasi-optic system with a high power isolator and a corrugated waveguide which feeds the microwaves into the DNP-NMR probe. Curved mirrors inside the probe project the microwaves down the axis of the MAS rotor, giving a very efficient system such that maximum DNP enhancement is achieved with less than 3 W output from the microwave source. The DNP-NMR probe operates with a sample temperature down to 90K whilst spinning at 8 kHz. Significant enhancements, in excess of 100 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane (bR in PM), are shown along with spectra which are enhanced by ≈25 with respect to room temperature, for both the pharmaceutical furosemide and surface functionalised silica. These enhancements allow hitherto prohibitively time consuming experiments to be undertaken. The power at which the DNP enhancement in bR in PM saturates does not change significantly between 90K and 170 K even though the enhancement drops by a factor of ≈11. As the DNP build up time decreases by a factor 3 over this temperature range, the reduction in T1n is presumably a significant contribution to the drop in enhancement.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2016.01.021DOI Listing
April 2016

Controlled sp(2) Functionalization of Boron Doped Diamond as a Route for the Fabrication of Robust and Nernstian pH Electrodes.

Anal Chem 2016 Jan 18;88(1):974-80. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Departments of Chemistry and ‡Physics, University of Warwick , Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

The development of a voltammetric boron doped diamond (BDD) pH sensor is described. To obtain pH sensitivity, laser micromachining (ablation) is utilized to introduce controlled regions of sp(2) carbon into a high quality polycrystalline BDD electrode. The resulting sp(2) carbon is activated to produce electrochemically reducible quinone groups using a high temperature acid treatment, followed by anodic polarization. Once activated, no further treatment is required. The quinone groups show a linear (R(2) = 0.999) and Nernstian (59 mV/(pH unit)) pH-dependent reductive current-voltage response over a large analyzable pH range, from pH 2 to pH 12. Using the laser approach, it is possible to optimize sp(2) coverage on the BDD surface, such that a measurable pH response is recorded, while minimizing background currents arising from oxygen reduction reactions on sp(2) carbon in the potential region of interest. This enables the sensor to be used in aerated solutions, boding well for in situ analysis. The voltammetric response of the electrode is not compromised by the presence of excess metal ions such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+). Furthermore, the pH sensor is stable over a 3 month period (the current time period of testing), can be stored in air between measurements, requires no reactivation of the surface between measurements, and can be reproducibly fabricated using the proposed approach. The efficacy of this pH sensor in a real-world sample is demonstrated with pH measurements in U.K. seawater.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b03732DOI Listing
January 2016

Electrochemical electron paramagnetic resonance utilizing loop gap resonators and micro-electrochemical cells.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2015 Sep;17(36):23438-47

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

A miniaturised electrochemical cell design for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) studies is reported. The cell incorporates a Loop Gap Resonator (LGR) for EPR investigation of electrochemically generated radicals in aqueous (and other large dielectric loss) samples and achieves accurate potential control for electrochemistry by using micro-wires as working electrodes. The electrochemical behaviour of the cell is analysed with COMSOL finite element models and the EPR sensitivity compared to a commercial TE011 cavity resonator using 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) as a reference. The electrochemical EPR performance is demonstrated using the reduction of methyl viologen as a redox probe in both water and acetonitrile. The data reported herein suggest that sub-micromolar concentrations of radical species can be detected in aqueous samples with accurate potential control, and that subtle solution processes coupled to electron transfer, such as comproportionation reactions, can be studied quantitatively using EPR.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5cp04259cDOI Listing
September 2015

Direct identification and analysis of heavy metals in solution (Hg, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni) by use of in situ electrochemical X-ray fluorescence.

Anal Chem 2015 23;87(9):4933-40. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

†Department of Chemistry and ‡Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

The development and application of a new methodology, in situ electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described that enables direct identification and quantification of heavy metals in solution. A freestanding film of boron-doped diamond serves as both an X-ray window and the electrode material. The electrode is biased at a suitable driving potential to electroplate metals from solution onto the electrode surface. Simultaneously, X-rays that pass through the back side of the electrode interrogate the time-dependent electrodeposition process by virtue of the XRF signals, which are unique to each metal. In this way it is possible to unambiguously identify which metals are in solution and relate the XRF signal intensity to a concentration of metal species in solution. To increase detection sensitivity and reduce detection times, solution is flown over the electrode surface by use of a wall-jet configuration. Initial studies focused on the in situ detection of Pb(2+), where concentration detection limits of 99 nM were established in this proof-of-concept study (although significantly lower values are anticipated with system refinement). This is more than 3 orders of magnitude lower than that achievable by XRF alone in a flowing solution (0.68 mM). In situ EC-XRF measurements were also carried out on a multimetal solution containing Hg(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+), and Fe(3+) (all at 10 μM concentration). Identification of five of these metals was possible in one simple measurement. In contrast, while anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) also revealed five peaks, peak identification was not straightforward, requiring further experiments and prior knowledge of the metals in solution. Time-dependent EC-XRF nucleation data for the five metals, recorded simultaneously, demonstrated similar deposition rates. Studies are now underway to lower detection limits and provide a quantitative understanding of EC-XRF responses in real, multimetal solutions. Finally, the production of custom-designed portable in situ EC-XRF instrumentation will make heavy metal analysis at the source a very realistic possibility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.5b00597DOI Listing
November 2015

Laser heated boron doped diamond electrodes: effect of temperature on outer sphere electron transfer processes.

Faraday Discuss 2014 ;172:421-38

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Thermoelectrochemical experiments can reveal significant information about electrochemical processes compared to ambient only measurements. Typical thermoelectrochemistry is performed using resistively heated wires or laser heated electrodes, both of which can suffer drawbacks associated with the electrode material employed. Boron doped diamond (BDD) is ideal for thermoelectrochemical investigations due to its extremely high thermal conductivity and diffusivity, extreme resistance to thermal ablation (can withstand laser power densities, Pd, of GW cm(-2) for nanosecond pulses) and excellent electrochemical properties (low background currents and wide potential window). In this paper we describe the use of a pulsed laser technique to heat the rear of a 1 mm diameter conducting BDD disc electrode, which drives electrochemical solution reactions at the front face. Maximum electrode temperatures of 90.0 °C were recorded experimentally and confirmed by finite element modelling (FEM). The effect of laser pulsed heating (maximum 3.8 kW cm(-2); 10 ms on and 90 ms off) on the cyclic voltammetric response of two fast (reversible) outer sphere electron transfer redox mediators (Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and IrCl6(2-/3-)) are investigated. In particular, we observe pulsed increases in the current, which increase with increasing Pd. The potential of the peak current is shifted positively for the Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) couple (in accordance with a positive temperature coefficient, β, +0.68 mV K(-1)) and negatively for the IrCl6(3-/2-) couple (β = -0.48 mV K(-1)). Scanning backwards, in contrast to that observed for a macrodisc electrode in ambient solution, a cathodic peak is again observed for Ru(NH3)6(3+/2+) and an anodic peak for IrCl6(3-/2-) couple. We attribute this response to the entropy of the redox reaction and the time-dependant change in mass transport due to the induced thermal gradients at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The observed responses are in qualitative agreement with FEM simulations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4fd00044gDOI Listing
May 2015

Electrochemical "read-write" microscale patterning of boron doped diamond electrodes.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2015 Jan;51(1):164-7

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

Scanning electrochemical cell microscopy is utilised as a read-write pipette-based probe to both electrochemically modify the local surface chemistry of boron doped diamond and "read" the resulting modification, at the micron scale. In this specific application, localised electrochemical oxidation results in conversion of the H-terminated surface to -O, electrochemically visualised by monitoring the current change for reduction of Ru(NH3)6(3+). This methodology, in general, provides a platform for read-write analysis of electrodes, opening up new analytical avenues, particularly as the pipette can be viewed as a microfluidic device.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4cc07830fDOI Listing
January 2015

In situ optimization of pH for parts-per-billion electrochemical detection of dissolved hydrogen sulfide using boron doped diamond flow electrodes.

Anal Chem 2014 Nov 14;86(21):10834-40. Epub 2014 Oct 14.

Departments of Chemistry and ‡Physics, University of Warwick , Coventry CV4 7AL, U.K.

A novel electrochemical approach to the direct detection of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), in aqueous solutions, covering a wide pH range (acid to alkali), is described. In brief, a dual band electrode device is employed, in a hydrodynamic flow cell, where the upstream electrode is used to controllably generate hydroxide ions (OH(-)), which flood the downstream detector electrode and provide the correct pH environment for complete conversion of H2S to the electrochemically detectable, sulfide (HS(-)) ion. All-diamond, coplanar conducting diamond band electrodes, insulated in diamond, were used due to their exceptional stability and robustness when applying extreme potentials, essential attributes for both local OH(-) generation via the reduction of water, and for in situ cleaning of the electrode, post oxidation of sulfide. Using a galvanostatic approach, it was demonstrated the pH locally could be modified by over five pH units, depending on the initial pH of the mobile phase and the applied current. Electrochemical detection limits of 13.6 ppb sulfide were achieved using flow injection amperometry. This approach which offers local control of the pH of the detector electrode in a solution, which is far from ideal for optimized detection of the analyte of interest, enhances the capabilities of online electrochemical detection systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac502941hDOI Listing
November 2014

Fabrication route for the production of coplanar, diamond insulated, boron doped diamond macro- and microelectrodes of any geometry.

Anal Chem 2014 Jun 21;86(11):5238-44. Epub 2014 May 21.

Department of Chemistry and ‡Department of Physics, University of Warwick , Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

Highly doped, boron doped diamond (BDD) is an electrode material with great potential, but the fabrication of suitable electrodes in a variety of different geometries both at the macro- and microscale, with an insulating material that does not compromise the material properties of the BDD, presents technical challenges. In this Technical Note, a novel solution to this problem is presented, resulting in the fabrication of coplanar macro- and microscale BDD electrodes, insulated by insulating diamond, at the single and multiple, individually addressable level. Using a laser micromachining approach, the required electrode(s) geometry is machined into an insulating diamond substrate, followed by overgrowth of high quality polycrystalline BDD (pBDD) and polishing to reveal approximately nanometer roughness, coplanar all-diamond structures. Electrical contacting is possible using both top and bottom contacts, where the latter are defined using the laser to produce non-diamond-carbon (NDC) in the vicinity of the back side of the BDD. We present the fabrication of individually addressable ring, band, and disk electrodes with minimum, reproducible controlled dimensions of 50 μm (limited only by the laser system employed). The pBDD grown into the insulating diamond recesses is shown to be free from NDC and possesses excellent electrochemical properties, in terms of extended solvent windows, electrochemical reversibility, and capacitance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac501092yDOI Listing
June 2014

Electrochemical X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for trace heavy metal analysis: enhancing X-ray fluorescence detection capabilities by four orders of magnitude.

Anal Chem 2014 May 24;86(9):4566-72. Epub 2014 Apr 24.

Departments of Chemistry and ‡Physics, University of Warwick , Coventry, CV4 7AL, U.K.

The development of a novel analytical technique, electrochemical X-ray fluorescence (EC-XRF), is described and applied to the quantitative detection of heavy metals in solution, achieving sub-ppb limits of detection (LOD). In EC-XRF, electrochemical preconcentration of a species of interest onto the target electrode is achieved here by cathodic electrodeposition. Unambiguous elemental identification and quantification of metal concentration is then made using XRF. This simple electrochemical preconcentration step improves the LOD of energy dispersive XRF by over 4 orders of magnitude (for similar sample preparation time scales). Large area free-standing boron doped diamond grown using microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition techniques is found to be ideal as the electrode material for both electrodeposition and XRF due to its wide solvent window, transparency to the XRF beam, and ability to be produced in mechanically robust freestanding thin film form. During electrodeposition it is possible to vary both the deposition potential (Edep) and deposition time (tdep). For the metals Cu(2+) and Pb(2+) the highest detection sensitivities were found for Edep = -1.75 V and tdep (=) 4000 s with LODs of 0.05 and 0.04 ppb achieved, respectively. In mixed Cu(2+)/Pb(2+) solutions, EC-XRF shows that Cu(2+) deposition is unimpeded by Pb(2+), across a broad concentration range, but this is only true for Pb(2+) when both metals are present at low concentrations (10 nM), boding well for trace level measurements. In a dual mixed metal solution, EC-XRF can also be employed to either selectively deposit the metal which has the most positive formal reduction potential, E(0), or exhaustively deplete it from solution, enabling uninhibited detection of the metal with the more negative E(0).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac500608dDOI Listing
May 2014

Examination of the factors affecting the electrochemical performance of oxygen-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond electrodes.

Anal Chem 2013 Aug 15;85(15):7230-40. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

In order to produce polycrystalline oxygen-terminated boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes suitable for electroanalysis (i.e., widest solvent window, lowest capacitive currents, stable and reproducible current responses, and capable of demonstrating fast electron transfer) for outer sphere redox couples, the following factors must be considered. The material must contain enough boron that the electrode shows metal-like conductivity; electrical measurements demonstrate that this is achieved at [B] > 10(20) B atoms cm(-3). Even though BDD contains a lower density of states than a metal, it is not necessary to use extreme doping levels to achieve fast heterogeneous electron transfer (HET). An average [B] ~ 3 × 10(20) B atoms cm(-3) was found to be optimal; increasing [B] results in higher capacitive values and increases the likelihood of nondiamond carbon (NDC) incorporation. Hydrogen-termination causes a semiconducting BDD electrode to behave metal-like due to the additional surface conductivity hydrogen termination brings. Thus, unless [B] of the material is known, the electrical properties of the electrode may be incorrectly interpreted. Note, this layer (formed on a lapped electrode) is electrochemically unstable, an effect which is exacerbated at increased potentials. It is essential during growth that NDC is minimized as it acts to increase capacitive currents and decrease the solvent window. We found complete removal of NDC after growth using aggressive acid cleans, acid cycling, and diamond polishing impossible. Although hydrogen termination can mask the NDC signature in the solvent window and lower capacitive currents, this is not a practical procedure for improving sensitivity in electroanalysis. Finally, alumina polishing of lapped, NDC free, freestanding, BDD electrodes was found to be an effective way to produce well-defined, stable, and reproducible surfaces, which support fast (reversible) HET for Fe(CN)6(4-) electrolysis, the first time this has been reported at an oxygen-terminated surface.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac401042tDOI Listing
August 2013

Reduction of quinones by NADH catalyzed by organoiridium complexes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2013 Apr 7;52(15):4194-7. Epub 2013 Mar 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201300747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3660790PMC
April 2013

Tryptophan switch for a photoactivated platinum anticancer complex.

J Am Chem Soc 2012 Oct 25;134(40):16508-11. Epub 2012 Sep 25.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

The octahedral Pt(IV) complex trans,trans,trans-[Pt(N(3))(2)(OH)(2)(py)(2)] (1) is potently cytotoxic to cancer cells when irradiated with visible (blue) light. We show that the acute photocytotoxicity can be switched off by low doses (500 μM) of the amino acid l-tryptophan. EPR and NMR spectroscopic experiments using spin traps show that l-Trp quenches the formation of azidyl radicals, probably by acting as an electron donor. l-Trp is well-known as a mediator of electron transfer between distant electron acceptor/donor centers in proteins, and such properties may make the free amino acid clinically useful for controlling the activity of photochemotherapeutic azido Pt(IV) drugs. Since previous work has demonstrated the ability of photoactivated 1 to platinate DNA, this suggests that the high potency of such photoactive platinum complexes is related to their dual attack on cancer cells by radicals and Pt(II) photoproducts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja3074159DOI Listing
October 2012

Electrochemical mapping reveals direct correlation between heterogeneous electron-transfer kinetics and local density of states in diamond electrodes.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2012 Jul 13;51(28):7002-6. Epub 2012 Jun 13.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

Conducting carbon materials: a multi-microscopy approach shows that local heterogeneous electron-transfer rates at conducting diamond electrodes correlate with the local density of electronic states. This model of electroactivity is of considerable value for the rational design of conducting diamond electrochemical technologies, and also provides key general insights on electrode structure controls in electrochemical kinetics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201203057DOI Listing
July 2012

A spectrometer designed for 6.7 and 14.1 T DNP-enhanced solid-state MAS NMR using quasi-optical microwave transmission.

J Magn Reson 2012 Feb 11;215:1-9. Epub 2011 Dec 11.

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

A Dynamic Nuclear Polarisation (DNP) enhanced solid-state Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) NMR spectrometer operating at 6.7 T is described and demonstrated. The 187 GHz TE(13) fundamental mode of the FU CW VII gyrotron is used as the microwave source for this magnetic field strength and 284 MHz (1)H DNP-NMR. The spectrometer is designed for use with microwave frequencies up to 395 GHz (the TE(16) second-harmonic mode of the gyrotron) for DNP at 14.1T (600 MHz (1)H NMR). The pulsed microwave output from the gyrotron is converted to a quasi-optical Gaussian beam using a Vlasov antenna and transmitted to the NMR probe via an optical bench, with beam splitters for monitoring and adjusting the microwave power, a ferrite rotator to isolate the gyrotron from the reflected power and a Martin-Puplett interferometer for adjusting the polarisation. The Gaussian beam is reflected by curved mirrors inside the DNP-MAS-NMR probe to be incident at the sample along the MAS rotation axis. The beam is focussed to a ~1 mm waist at the top of the rotor and then gradually diverges to give much more efficient coupling throughout the sample than designs using direct waveguide irradiation. The probe can be used in triple channel HXY mode for 600 MHz (1)H and double channel HX mode for 284 MHz (1)H, with MAS sample temperatures ≥85 K. Initial data at 6.7 T and ~1 W pulsed microwave power are presented with (13)C enhancements of 60 for a frozen urea solution ((1)H-(13)C CP), 16 for bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane ((1)H-(13)C CP) and 22 for (15)N in a frozen glycine solution ((1)H-(15)N CP) being obtained. In comparison with designs which irradiate perpendicular to the rotation axis the approach used here provides a highly efficient use of the incident microwave beam and an NMR-optimised coil design.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmr.2011.12.006DOI Listing
February 2012

A variable temperature solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and Raman scattering study of molecular dynamics in ferroelectric fluorides.

J Phys Condens Matter 2011 Aug 21;23(31):315402. Epub 2011 Jul 21.

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

The local nuclear and electronic structures and molecular dynamics of the ferroelectric lattice in selected geometric fluorides (BaMgF(4), BaZnF(4), BaMg(1 - x)Mn(x)F(4) and BaMg(1 - x)Ni(x)F(4); x = 0.001 and 0.005) have been investigated. The (19)F and (25)Mg isotropic chemical shift δ(iso), (25)Mg quadrupolar coupling constants (C(q)) and asymmetry parameters (η) reflect the geometry of the coordination spheres. The zero-field splitting parameters |D| and |E| are consistent with distorted axial symmetry (low temperatures) and nearly rhombic symmetry (high temperatures) of octahedral Mn(2+) coordination. The high resolution of the nuclear magnetic resonance, electron paramagnetic resonance and phonon spectra are consistent with the highly ordered crystallographic structure. Combined multi-technique data evidence the subtle discontinuous changes in the temperature dependences of |D| and |E|, isotropic chemical shifts δ(iso) and signature parameters of Raman bands and suggest a discontinuous structural distortion of the fluoride octahedra. The temperature at which this change occurs depends on the ionic radius of the central ion of the octahedral site and is estimated to be ∼ 300 K for Zn(2+) fluorides and ∼ 240 K for Mg(2+) fluorides. This geometrical distortion modifies the lattice dynamics and originates from the rotation of the fluoride octahedra around a new direction approximately perpendicular to that related to the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0953-8984/23/31/315402DOI Listing
August 2011

Fabrication and characterization of an all-diamond tubular flow microelectrode for electroanalysis.

Anal Chem 2011 Jul 17;83(14):5804-8. Epub 2011 Jun 17.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK.

The development of the first all-diamond hydrodynamic flow device for electroanalytical applications is described. Here alternate layers of intrinsic (insulating), conducting (heavily boron doped), and intrinsic polycrystalline diamond are grown to create a sandwich structure. By laser cutting a hole through the material, it is possible to produce a tubular flow ring electrode of a characteristic length defined by the thickness of the conducting layer (for these studies ∼90 μm). The inside of the tube can be polished to 17 ± 10 nm surface roughness using a diamond impregnanted wire resulting in a coplanar, smooth, all-diamond surface. The steady-state limiting current versus volume flow rate characteristics for the one electron oxidation of FcTMA(+) are in agreement with those expected for laminar flow in a tubular electrode geometry. For dopamine detection, it is shown that the combination of the reduced fouling properties of boron doped diamond, coupled with the flow geometry design where the products of electrolysis are washed away downstream of the electrode, completely eradicates fouling during electrolysis. This paves the way for incorporation of this flow design into online electroanalytical detection systems. Finally, the all diamond tubular flow electrode system described here provides a platform for future developments including the development of ultrathin ring electrodes, multiple apertures for increased current response, and multiple, individually addressable ring electrodes incorporated into the same flow tube.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac2010247DOI Listing
July 2011

Determination of the temperature dependence of the dynamic nuclear polarisation enhancement of water protons at 3.4 Tesla.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011 Mar 24;13(10):4372-80. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

It is shown that the temperature dependence of the DNP enhancement of the NMR signal from water protons at 3.4 T using TEMPOL as a polarising agent can be obtained provided that the nuclear relaxation, T(1I), is sufficiently fast and the resolution sufficient to measure the (1)H NMR shift. For high radical concentrations (∼100 mM) the leakage factor is approximately 1 and, provided sufficient microwave power is available, the saturation factor is also approximately 1. In this situation the DNP enhancement is solely a product of the ratio of the electron and nuclear gyromagnetic ratios and the coupling factor enabling the latter to be directly determined. Although the use of high microwave power levels needed to ensure saturation causes rapid heating of the sample, this does not prevent maximum DNP enhancements, ε(0), being obtained since T(1I) is very much less than the characteristic heating time at these concentrations. It is necessary, however, to know the temperature variation of T(1I) to allow accurate modelling of the behaviour. The DNP enhancement is found to vary linearly with temperature with ε(0)(T) = -2 ± 2 - (1.35 ± 0.02)T for 6 °C ≤ T ≤ 100 °C. The value determined for the coupling factor, 0.055 ± 0.003 at 25 °C, agrees very well with the molecular dynamics simulations of Sezer et al. (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2009, 11, 6626) who calculated 0.0534, however the experimental values increase much more rapidly with increasing temperature than predicted by these simulations. Large DNP enhancements (|ε(0)| > 100) are reported at high temperatures but it is also shown that significant enhancements (e.g.∼40) can be achieved whilst maintaining the sample temperature at 40 °C by adjusting the microwave power and irradiation time. In addition, short polarisation times enable rapid data acquisition which permits further enhancement of the signal, such that useful liquid state DNP-NMR experiments could be carried out on very small samples.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0cp02188aDOI Listing
March 2011

Factors controlling stripping voltammetry of lead at polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrodes: new insights from high-resolution microscopy.

Anal Chem 2011 Feb 7;83(3):735-45. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, United Kingdom.

We report wide-ranging studies to elucidate the factors and issues controlling stripping voltammetry of metal ions on solid electrodes using the well-known Pb/Pb(2+) couple on polycrystalline boron doped diamond (pBDD) as an exemplar system. Notably, high-resolution microscopy techniques have revealed new insights into the features observed in differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPV-ASV) which provide a deeper understanding of how best to utilize this technique. DPV-ASV was employed in an impinging wall-jet configuration to detect Pb(2+) in the nanomolar to micromolar concentration range at a pBDD macrodisk electrode. The deposition process was driven to produce a grain-independent homogeneous distribution of Pb nanoparticles (NPs) on the electrode surface; this resulted in the observation of narrow stripping peaks. Lower calibration gradients of current or charge versus concentration were found for the low concentrations, correlating with a lower than expected (from consideration of the simple convective-diffusive nature of the deposition process) amount of Pb deposited on the surface. This was attributed to the complex nature of nucleation and growth at solid surfaces in this concentration regime, complicating mass transport. Furthermore, a clear shift negative in the stripping peak potential with decreasing concentration was seen correlating with a change in the size of the deposited NP, suggesting an NP size-dependent redox potential for the Pb/Pb(2+) couple. At high concentrations a nonlinear response was observed, with less Pb detected than expected, in addition to the observation of a second stripping peak. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed the second peak to be due to a change in deposition morphology from isolated NPs to grain-independent heterogeneous structures comprising both thin films and NPs; the second peak is associated with stripping from the thin-film structures. AFM also revealed a substantial amount of Pb remaining on the surface after stripping at high concentration, explaining the nonlinear relationship between stripping peak current (or charge) and concentration. Finally, the use of an in situ cleaning procedure between each measurement was advocated to ensure a clean Pb-free surface (verified by AFM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis) between each run. The studies herein highlight important and complex physicochemical processes involved in the electroanalysis of heavy metals at solid electrodes, such as pBDD, that need to be accounted for when using stripping voltammetry methods.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac101626sDOI Listing
February 2011

DNP enhanced NMR using a high-power 94 GHz microwave source: a study of the TEMPOL radical in toluene.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2010 Jun 5;12(22):5757-65. Epub 2010 May 5.

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, United Kingdom.

DNP enhanced (1)H NMR at 143 MHz in toluene is investigated using an NMR spectrometer coupled with a modified EPR spectrometer operating at 94 GHz and TEMPOL as the polarisation agent. A 100 W microwave amplifier was incorporated into the output stage of the EPR instrument so that high microwave powers could be delivered to the probe in either CW or pulsed mode. The maximum enhancement for the ring protons increases from approximately -16 for a 5 mM TEMPOL solution to approximately -50 for a 20 mM solution at a microwave power of approximately 480 mW. The temperature dependence of the enhancement, the NMR relaxation rates and the ESR spectrum of TEMPOL were also studied in an effort to obtain information on the dynamics of the system.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c003189eDOI Listing
June 2010

Amperometric oxygen sensor based on a platinum nanoparticle-modified polycrystalline boron doped diamond disk electrode.

Anal Chem 2009 Feb;81(3):1023-32

Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.

Pt nanoparticle (NP)-modified polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (pBDD) disk electrodes have been fabricated and employed as amperometric sensors for the determination of dissolved oxygen concentration in aqueous solution. pBDD columns were cut using laser micromachining techniques and sealed in glass, in order to make disk electrodes which were then characterized electrochemically. Electrodeposition of Pt onto the diamond electrodes was optimized so as to give the maximum oxygen reduction peak current with the lowest background signal. Pt NPs, >0-10 nm diameter, were found to deposit randomly across the pBDD electrode, with no preference for grain boundaries. The more conductive grains were found to promote the formation of smaller nanoparticles at higher density. With the use of potential step chronoamperometry, in which the potential was stepped to a diffusion-limited value, a four electron oxygen reduction process was found to occur at the Pt NP-modified pBDD electrode. Furthermore the chronoamperometric response scaled linearly with dissolved oxygen concentration, varied by changing the oxygen/nitrogen ratio of gas flowed into solution. The sensor was used to detect dissolved oxygen concentrations with high precision over the pH range 4-10.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac8020906DOI Listing
February 2009

Examination of the spatially heterogeneous electroactivity of boron-doped diamond microarray electrodes.

Anal Chem 2006 Apr;78(8):2539-48

Department of Chemistry and Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL UK.

Spatial variations in the electrical and electrochemical activity of microarray electrodes, fabricated entirely from diamond, have been investigated. The arrays contain approximately 50-mum-diameter boron-doped diamond (BDD) disks spaced 250 mum apart (center to center) in insulating intrinsic diamond supports, such that the BDD regions are coplanar with the intrinsic diamond. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging of the surface reveals a roughness of no more than +/-10 nm over the array. Each BDD microdisk within the array contains polycrystalline BDD with a variety of different grains exposed. Using conducting-AFM, the conductivity of the different grains was found to vary within a BDD microdisk. Electrochemical imaging of the electroactivity of the microdisk electrodes using scanning electrochemical microscopy operating in substrate generation-tip collection mode revealed that, under apparently diffusion-limited steady-state conditions, there was a small variation in the response between electrodes. However, the majority of electrodes in the array appeared to show predominantly metallic behavior. For the electrodes that showed a lower activity, all grains within the microdisk supported electron transfer, albeit at different rates, as evidenced by studies on the electrodeposition of metallic silver, at potentials far negative of the flat band potential of oxygen-terminated polycrystalline diamond. The possibility of using these array electrodes for steady-state diffusion-limited measurements in electroanalytical applications is far-reaching. However, caution should be exercised in the kinetic analysis of voltammetric measurements, since wide variations in the electroactivity of individual grains are apparent when the potential is below the diffusion-limited value.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac0520994DOI Listing
April 2006

Impact of grain-dependent boron uptake on the electrochemical and electrical properties of polycrystalline boron doped diamond electrodes.

J Phys Chem B 2006 Mar;110(11):5639-46

Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK.

A combination of high-resolution electrical and electrochemical imaging techniques, in conjunction with cathodoluminescence (CL), is used to investigate the electrochemical behavior of oxygen-terminated highly doped polycrystalline boron doped diamond (BDD). The BDD has a dopant density approximately 5 x 10(20) atoms cm(-3), grain size ca. 5-40 microm, and thickness 500 microm. CL imaging demonstrates that boron uptake is nonuniform across the surface of BDD, and conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) highlights how this impacts on the local conductivity. While C-AFM shows no evidence for enhanced grain boundary conductivity, two characteristic conductivity domains are found with resistances of ca. 100 kOmega and ca. 50 MOmega. With the use of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), local heterogeneities are also observed in the electroactivity of the BDD surface, consistent with the two different types of conducting regions. Local currents of the magnitude expected for metal-like behavior are observed in some regions, suggesting degenerative doping of the grains (supported by CL studies). In other regions, slower electron transfer is apparent. However, even for the reduction of Ru(NH(3))(6)(3+), which occurs at potentials far negative of the flat-band potential for oxygen-terminated BDD, all areas of the surface show some electroactivity. This study highlights that the spatially heterogeneous conductivity and corresponding electroactivity of BDD are readily resolved using a combination of C-AFM, SECM, and CL.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp0547616DOI Listing
March 2006
-->