Publications by authors named "Mark A Milad"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Population pharmacodynamic modeling of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone and betamethasone effects on six biomarkers with circadian complexities in Indian women.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2021 Jun 5;48(3):411-438. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis was performed for extensive data for differing dosage forms and routes for dexamethasone (DEX) and betamethasone (BET) in 48 healthy nonpregnant Indian women in a partial and complex cross-over design. Single doses of 6 mg dexamethasone phosphate (DEX-P), betamethasone phosphate (BET-P), or 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and acetate (BET-PA) were administered orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM) where each woman enrolled in a two-period cross-over study. Plasma concentrations collected over 96 h were described with a two-compartment model with differing PO and IM first-order absorption inputs. Overall, BET exhibited slower clearance, similar volume of distribution, faster absorption, and longer persistence than DEX with BET acetate producing extremely slow absorption but full bioavailability of BET. Six biomarkers were assessed over a 24-h baseline period with four showing circadian rhythms with complex baselines. These baselines and the strong responses seen after drug dosing were fitted with various indirect response models using the Laplace estimation methods in NONMEM 7.4. Both the PK and six biomarker responses were well-described with modest variability likely due to the homogeneous ages, weights, and ethnicities of the women. The drugs either inhibited or stimulated the influx processes with some models requiring joint inclusion of drug effects on circadian cortisol suppression. The biomarkers and order of sensitivity (lowest IC/SC to highest) were: cortisol, T-helper cells, basophils, glucose, neutrophils, and T-cytotoxic cells. DEX sensitivities were generally greater than BET with corresponding mean ratios for these biomarkers of 2.86, 1.27, 1.72, 1.27, 2.69, and 1.06. Overall, the longer PK (e.g. half-life) of BET, but lesser PD activity (e.g. higher IC), produces single-dose response profiles that appear quite similar, except for the extended effects from BET-PA. This comprehensive population modeling effort provides the first detailed comparison of the PK profiles and six biomarker responses of five commonly used dosage forms of DEX and BET in healthy women.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10928-021-09755-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099395PMC
June 2021

Population pharmacokinetic modeling of intramuscular and oral dexamethasone and betamethasone in Indian women.

J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn 2021 Apr 3;48(2):261-272. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, State University of New York, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, USA.

Population analysis of pharmacokinetic data for five differing dosage forms and routes for dexamethasone and betamethasone in 48 healthy nonpregnant Indian women was performed that accounted for a partial and complex cross-over design. Single doses of 6 mg dexamethasone phosphate (DEX-P), betamethasone phosphate (BET-P), or 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and acetate (BET-PA) were administered orally (PO) or intramuscularly (IM). Plasma concentrations collected for two periods over 96 h were described with a two-compartment model with differing PO and IM first-order absorption inputs. Clearances and volumes were divided by the IM bioavailability [Formula: see text]. The homogeneous ages, body weights, and ethnicity of the women obviated covariate analysis. Parameter estimates were obtained by the Laplace estimation method implemented in NONMEM 7.4. Typical values for dexamethasone were clearance ([Formula: see text] of 9.29 L/h, steady-state volume ([Formula: see text] of 56.4 L, IM absorption constant [Formula: see text] of 0.460 1/h and oral absorption constant ([Formula: see text] of 0.936 1/h. Betamethasone parameters were CL/F of 5.95 L/h, [Formula: see text] of 72.4 L, [Formula: see text] of 0.971 1/h, and [Formula: see text] of 1.21 1/h. The PO to IM F values were close to 1.0 for both drugs. The terminal half-lives averaged about 7.5 h for DEX, 17 h for BET, and 78 h for BET from BET-PA with the latter reflecting very slow release of BET from the acetate ester. Overall, BET exhibited slower clearance, larger volume of distribution, faster absorption, and longer persistence than DEX. These data may be useful in considering exposures when substituting one form of corticosteroid for another.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10928-020-09730-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7778726PMC
April 2021

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Intramuscular and Oral Betamethasone and Dexamethasone in Reproductive Age Women in India.

Clin Transl Sci 2020 03 13;13(2):391-399. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

State University of New York, School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York, USA.

High-dose betamethasone and dexamethasone are standard of care treatments for women at risk of preterm delivery to improve neonatal respiratory and mortality outcomes. The dose in current use has never been evaluated to minimize exposures while assuring efficacy. We report the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (PDs) of oral and intramuscular treatments with single 6 mg doses of dexamethasone phosphate, betamethasone phosphate, or a 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate in reproductive age South Asian women. Intramuscular or oral betamethasone has a terminal half-life of 11 hours, about twice as long as the 5.5 hours for oral and intramuscular dexamethasone. The 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate shows an immediate release of betamethasone followed by a slow release where plasma betamethasone can be measured out to 14 days after the single dose administration, likely from a depo formed at the injection site by the acetate. PD responses were: increased glucose, suppressed cortisol, increased neutrophils, and suppressed basophils, CD3CD4 and CD3CD8 lymphocytes. PD responses were comparable for betamethasone and dexamethasone, but with longer times to return to baseline for betamethasone. The 1:1 mixture of betamethasone phosphate and betamethasone acetate caused much longer adrenal suppression because of the slow release. These results will guide the development of better treatment strategies to minimize fetal and maternal drug exposures for women at risk of preterm delivery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cts.12724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070803PMC
March 2020

Evaluation of Maternal Drug Exposure Following the Administration of Antenatal Corticosteroids During Late Pregnancy Using Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2019 07 6;106(1):164-173. Epub 2019 May 6.

Milad Pharmaceutical Consulting LLC, Plymouth, Michigan, USA.

Betamethasone and dexamethasone are the most widely studied antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) administered to pregnant women, just prior to the birth of a preterm neonate, to accelerate fetal lung maturation. Although betamethasone, predominantly used in developed countries, has been shown to be an effective and safe intervention for reducing neonatal mortality, the choice of ACS and optimal dosing in low and middle income countries (LMICs) remains unclear. This is primarily because the exposure-response relationships have not been established for ACS despite the long history of use. As the first step toward the optimal use of ACS in LMICs, we developed physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models to describe the kinetics of ACS following i.v., p.o., or i.m. dosing. In vitro data describing the cytochrome P450 3A4 enzyme contribution were incorporated and this was refined using clinical data. The models can be applied prospectively to predict kinetics of ACS in pregnant women receiving various dosing regimens.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1438DOI Listing
July 2019

Efficacy and safety of ETC-1002, a novel investigational low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapy for the treatment of patients with hypercholesterolemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014 Mar 2;34(3):676-83. Epub 2014 Jan 2.

From Comprehensive Clinical Development, Miramar, FL (M.J.G.); Esperion Therapeutics Inc, Plymouth, MI (N.L.R., D.E.M., J.C.H., J.R.M., R.S.N.); Integrated Medical Development LLC, Princeton Junction, NJ (P.S.); Milad Consulting, Plymouth, MI (M.A.M.); and United BioSource Corporation, Ann Arbor, MI (S.J.M.).

Objective: 8-Hydroxy-2,2,14,14-tetramethylpentadecanedioic acid (ETC-1002) is a small molecule with a unique mechanism of action shown in nonclinical studies to modulate pathways of cholesterol, fatty acid, and carbohydrate metabolism. In previous phase 2 clinical trials, once daily oral treatment with ETC-1002 significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in patients with hypercholesterolemia. In this trial, the lipid-lowering efficacy of ETC-1002 was evaluated in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. Additional cardiometabolic biomarkers, including glycemic measures, were also assessed.

Approach And Results: A single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and elevated low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Patients discontinued all diabetes mellitus and lipid-regulating drugs and were randomized to receive ETC-1002 80 mg QD for 2 weeks followed by 120 mg QD for 2 weeks or placebo for 4 weeks. ETC-1002 lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels by 43±2.6% (least squares mean±SE), compared with a reduction of 4±2.5% by placebo at day 29 (P<0.0001; primary end point). Non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total cholesterol were also significantly lowered by ETC-1002 compared with placebo (P<0.0001). High-sensitivity C-reactive protein was reduced by 41% (median) compared with a placebo reduction of 11% (P=0.0011). No clinically meaningful safety findings were observed.

Conclusions: ETC-1002 lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and other lipids and demonstrated improvement in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia without worsening glycemic control. ETC-1002 was well tolerated in this population.

Clinical Trial Registration Url: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT# 01607294.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.302677DOI Listing
March 2014

Effects of avasimibe on cytochrome P450 2C9 expression in vitro and in vivo.

Drug Metab Dispos 2004 Dec 27;32(12):1370-6. Epub 2004 Aug 27.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics and Metabolism, Pfizer Global Research and Development, 2800 Plymouth Road, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48105, USA.

Avasimibe, an acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor, has been previously shown to be a potent inducer of CYP3A4 and multiple drug resistance protein 1. We have further characterized the drug interaction potential of avasimibe by studying the inductive and inhibitory effect of this compound on major drug-metabolizing enzymes. Enzymes known to be involved in the metabolism of drugs likely to be coadministered with avasimibe, such as CYP1A1/2, CYP2C, and CYP2B6, were evaluated further by microarray analysis, Western immunoblotting, and activity assays, using rifampicin and beta-naphthoflavone as positive controls. No change was observed in CYP1A1/2 mRNA or activity levels after avasimibe treatment. Differential induction of CYP2C9- and CYP2B6-immunoreactive protein and activity was observed depending on drug concentration and donor. Microarray analysis showed a similar increase in CYP2C and CYP2B6 mRNA levels. The inhibition potential of avasimibe on the major drug-metabolizing enzymes was assessed using pooled human liver microsomes. Avasimibe inhibited CYP2C9 (IC50 2.9 microM), CYP1A2 (IC50 13.9 microM), and CYP2C19 (IC50 26.5 microM). A clinical drug interaction study was conducted to determine whether avasimibe might interact with the CYP2C9 substrate warfarin. Volunteers received 750 mg of avasimibe and showed a 54.2% reduction in trough concentrations of S-warfarin and decreased prothrombin times by 12, 15, 19, and 21% on days 6 through 9, respectively. These results demonstrate that avasimibe's inductive spectrum resembles that of rifampin.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.104.000208DOI Listing
December 2004

Avasimibe induces CYP3A4 and multiple drug resistance protein 1 gene expression through activation of the pregnane X receptor.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2003 Sep 23;306(3):1027-34. Epub 2003 May 23.

Department of Pharmacokinetics, Pfizer Global Research and Development, Ann Arbor MI 48105, USA.

In vitro and clinical studies were conducted to characterize the potential of avasimibe, an acyl-CoA/cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor to cause drug-drug interactions. Clinically, 3- and 6-fold increases in midazolam (CYP3A4 substrate) oral clearance were observed after 50 and 750 mg of avasimibe daily for 7 days, respectively. A 40% decrease in digoxin (P-glycoprotein substrate) area under the curve was observed with 750 mg of avasimibe daily for 10 days. In vitro studies were conducted to define the mechanisms of these interactions. Induction was observed in CYP3A4 activity and immunoreactive protein (EC50 of 200-400 nM) in primary human hepatocytes treated with avasimibe. Rifampin treatment yielded similar results. Microarray analysis revealed avasimibe (1 microM) increased CYP3A4 mRNA 20-fold, compared with a 23-fold increase with 50 microM rifampin. Avasimibe induced P-glycoprotein mRNA by about 2-fold and immunoreactive protein in a dose-dependent manner. Transient transfection assays showed that avasimibe is a potent activator of the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR) and more active than rifampin on an equimolar basis. Drug-drug interaction studies for CYP3A4 using pooled human hepatic microsomes and avasimibe at various concentrations, revealed IC50 values of 20.7, 1.6, and 3.1 microM using testosterone, midazolam, and felodipine as probe substrates, respectively. Our results indicate that avasimibe causes clinically significant drug-drug interactions through direct activation of hPXR and the subsequent induction of its target genes CYP3A4 and multiple drug resistance protein 1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.103.050526DOI Listing
September 2003

The Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Methylprednisolone in Chronic Renal Failure.

Am J Ther 1994 Jun;1(1):49-57

Department of Pharmaceutics, Pharmacy and Medicine, Schools of Pharmacy and Medicine, The State University of New York at Buffalo and Department of Pharmacy and Medicine, Buffalo General Hospital, Buffalo, USA.

Methylprednisolone (MP) pharmacokinetics and its directly suppressive effects on cortisol secretion, circulating T-cells, and basophils in blood were compared in six chronic renal failure (CRF) subjects and six healthy controls after an IV administration of MP 0.6 mg kg(minus sign1) as the sodium succinate ester. The CRF subjects were studied between hemodialysis treatments. The total clearance of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (the prodrug) was reduced by 40% in CRF; however, the pharmacokinetics of methylprednisolone remained unchanged. Methylprednisolone clearance was approximately 280 ml h(minus sign1) kg(minus sign1) and volume of distribution was about 1.1 L kg(minus sign1). Physiological pharmacodynamic models were applied for the immediate effects of MP, based on the premise that receptor binding is followed by rapid suppression of the secretion of cortisol and recirculation of basophils, T-helper cells, and T-suppressor cells, which persist until inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of methylprednisolone disappear. The difference in IC(50) for each pharmacodynamic parameter was not statistically significant, suggesting no difference in the responsiveness of these factors to methylprednisolone in CRF. As the pharmacokinetics of other corticosteroids are altered in CRF, the lack of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes of methylprednisolone may engender a therapeutic advantage for this corticosteroid in CRF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00045391-199406000-00009DOI Listing
June 1994