Publications by authors named "Mark A Kimak"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Connexin 47 mutations increase risk for secondary lymphedema following breast cancer treatment.

Clin Cancer Res 2012 Apr 20;18(8):2382-90. Epub 2012 Feb 20.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA.

Purpose: Secondary lymphedema is a frequent complication of breast cancer associated with surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation following breast cancer treatment. The potential contribution of genetic susceptibility to risk of developing secondary lymphedema following surgical trauma, radiation, and other tissue insults has not been studied.

Experimental Design: To determine whether women with breast cancer and secondary lymphedema had mutations in candidate lymphedema genes, we undertook a case-control study of 188 women diagnosed with breast cancer recruited from the University of Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Program (http://www.upmccancercenter.com/breast/index.cfm) between 2000 and 2010. Candidate lymphedema genes, GJC2 (encoding connexin 47 [Cx47]), FOXC2, HGF, MET, and FLT4 (encoding VEGFR3), were sequenced for mutation. Bioinformatics analysis and in vitro functional assays were used to confirm significance of novel mutations.

Results: Cx47 mutations were identified in individuals having secondary lymphedema following breast cancer treatment but not in breast cancer controls or normal women without breast cancer. These novel mutations are dysfunctional as assessed through in vitro assays and bioinformatics analysis and provide evidence that altered gap junction function leads to lymphedema.

Conclusions: Our findings challenge the view that secondary lymphedema is solely due to mechanical trauma and support the hypothesis that genetic susceptibility is an important risk factor for secondary lymphedema. A priori recognition of genetic risk (i) raises the potential for early detection and intervention for a high-risk group and (ii) allows the possibility of altering surgical approach and/or chemo- and radiation therapy, or direct medical treatment of secondary lymphedema with novel connexin-modifying drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-2303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3625665PMC
April 2012

GJC2 missense mutations cause human lymphedema.

Am J Hum Genet 2010 Jun 27;86(6):943-8. Epub 2010 May 27.

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Lymphedema is the clinical manifestation of defects in lymphatic structure or function. Mutations identified in genes regulating lymphatic development result in inherited lymphedema. No mutations have yet been identified in genes mediating lymphatic function that result in inherited lymphedema. Survey microarray studies comparing lymphatic and blood endothelial cells identified expression of several connexins in lymphatic endothelial cells. Additionally, gap junctions are implicated in maintaining lymphatic flow. By sequencing GJA1, GJA4, and GJC2 in a group of families with dominantly inherited lymphedema, we identified six probands with unique missense mutations in GJC2 (encoding connexin [Cx] 47). Two larger families cosegregate lymphedema and GJC2 mutation (LOD score = 6.5). We hypothesize that missense mutations in GJC2 alter gap junction function and disrupt lymphatic flow. Until now, GJC2 mutations were only thought to cause dysmyelination, with primary expression of Cx47 limited to the central nervous system. The identification of GJC2 mutations as a cause of primary lymphedema raises the possibility of novel gap-junction-modifying agents as potential therapy for some forms of lymphedema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3032064PMC
June 2010

Candidate gene analysis in primary lymphedema.

Lymphat Res Biol 2008 ;6(2):69-76

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Background: Primary lymphedema, the accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial space, is the clinical manifestation of mutations involved in lymphatic development and function. Mutations in three genes, VEGFR3, FOXC2, and SOX18, cause primary lymphedema. However, mutations in these three genes only account for a fraction of primary lymphedema. To identify other genes mutated in primary lymphedema, we resequenced twenty-five biologically plausible candidate genes for lymphedema in a large collection of primary lymphedema families.

Methods And Results: Candidate genes were selected on the basis of gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells, differential antigenic expression in lymphatics, and mouse studies of lymphatic development. The gene sequence was downloaded from GenBank and sequence primers designed to amplify 1 Kb of the 5' sequence, exons and flanking intron-exon boundaries, and 500 bp of the UTR of each gene. No common causative mutations were observed among the 25 genes screened. Single mutations were observed in elastin microfibril interfacer (EMILIN1), lymphocyte cytosolic protein 2 (LCP2), fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), protein tyrosine kinase SYK (SYK), neuropilin-2 (NRP2), SpSRY-box 17 (SOX17), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), ROR orphan receptor C (RORC), and vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB). Among these, the mutations in EMILIN1, RORC, LCP2, SYK, and VEGFB failed to segregate with lymphedema. The mutations in FABP4 (2), NRP2, SOX17, and VACM1 are consistent with being causative mutations, but occur in families too small to convincingly confirm cosegregation of mutation and phenotype.

Conclusion: We excluded mutation in 21 biological candidate genes as a common cause of primary lymphedema. Mutations in FABP4, NRP2, SOX17 and VCAM1 are consistent with causality and follow up of these four genes are warranted. The evidence for FABP4 harboring lymphedema mutations is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2007.1022DOI Listing
October 2008

HGF and MET mutations in primary and secondary lymphedema.

Lymphat Res Biol 2008 ;6(2):65-8

Department of Human Genetics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, 130 Desoto Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Background: Lymphedema is the abnormal accumulation of protein-rich fluid in the interstitial space. Primary lymphedema is a rare genetic condition with both autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive modes of inheritance. Three genes, FLT4 (VEGFR3), FOXC2, and SOX18 cause varying forms of primary lymphedema. In industrialized countries, secondary lymphedema is usually associated with cancer therapy and/or trauma. Recent observations suggested that hepatocyte growth factor/high affinity hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGF/MET) were new candidate lymphedema genes.

Methods And Results: The coding exons and flanking regions of HGF and MET were directly sequenced in 145 lymphedema probands, 59 unrelated women with secondary lymphedema following treatment for breast cancer, 21 individual patients with lymphedema and intestinal lymphangiectasia, and at least 159 unrelated ethnic matched control individuals. Mutations leading to truncation or missense changes in evolutionarily conserved residues of HGF and MET were identified. These mutations were not polymorphic in control individuals.

Conclusions: The identification of HGF/MET mutations in primary lymphedema, lymphedema/lymphangiectasia, and breast cancer-associated secondary lymphedema suggests that the HGF/MET pathway is causal or alters susceptibility for a broad range of lymphedema phenotypes. The HGF/MET pathway provides a new target for the prevention and/or treatment of lymphedema.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/lrb.2008.1524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4298750PMC
October 2008

Paroxetine: population pharmacokinetic analysis in late-life depression using sparse concentration sampling.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2006 May;61(5):558-69

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA, and Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada.

Aim: To develop a population pharmacokinetic (PK) model using sparse sampling of long-term treatment with paroxetine in elderly depressed subjects, incorporating CYP2D6 genotype as well as other covariates.

Methods: Elderly subjects (age>or=70 years) with nonpsychotic, nonbipolar major depressive disorder from the inpatient and outpatient clinic were treated with paroxetine in a 5-year clinical trial investigating 'Maintenance Therapies in Late-Life Depression' (MTLD-2). Plasma concentrations were collected during regular visits. CYP2D6 genotype was determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for each individual. A nonlinear mixed-effects model was developed with NONMEM for these subjects who received 10-40 mg day-1 of paroxetine during treatment. One- and two-compartment models with linear and nonlinear elimination (Michaelis-Menten) were evaluated. PK parameters as well as interindividual and residual variability were estimated. The effects of age, weight, sex, race and CYP2D6 genotypes on the pharmacokinetics of paroxetine were evaluated.

Results: One hundred and seventy-one subjects with a mean age of 77 years (range 69-95) and a mean weight of 72.0 kg (range 32.9-137.0) were enrolled in the MTLD-2 clinical trial. A total of 1970 paroxetine concentrations were available for population PK analyses. Approximately 10 samples were taken per subject. A two-compartment nonlinear PK model with additive and proportional error provided the best base model for description of the data. Weight and CYP2D6 polymorphisms were found to have a significant effect on maximal velocity (Vm), whereas sex had an effect on volume of distribution of the central compartment. The Vm estimates in each of the CYP2D6 phenotypic groups were: 125 microg h-1 in poor metabolizer (n=1), 182 microg h-1 in intermediate metabolizers (n=28), 454 microg h-1 in extensive metabolizers (n=36) and 3670 microg h-1 in ultra-rapid metabolizers (n=5).

Conclusions: The population PK model adequately described paroxetine data in this elderly depressed population. The data indicate that female and male subjects with different CYP2D6 polymorphisms have different elimination rates and therefore may need to be dosed differently based on metabolizer genotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2006.02629.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1885048PMC
May 2006

Lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome and FOXC2 gene mutation.

Am J Ophthalmol 2002 Oct;134(4):592-6

Center for Genetic Eye Diseases, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Ohio 44195, USA.

Purpose: To describe the clinical characteristics of a family with autosomal dominant lymphedema-distichiasis syndrome and to report the results of analysis of the FOXC2 gene

Design: Observational and experimental study.

Methods: The setting was a clinical practice. The study population was 17 members of a family with lymphedema-distichiasis. Observation procedures were complete ophthalmologic examinations and collection of blood samples. DNA was extracted. Mutation analysis of the coding region of the FOXC2 gene was performed using direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product and a restriction enzyme assay. The main outcome measure was inheritance of mutation in FOXC2 gene.

Results: Nine patients had distichiasis or lymphedema or both and eight did not. Sequencing of the coding region of the only translated exon of the FOXC2 gene revealed a C to A transversion at position 939 resulting in a Tyr313Stop codon with premature termination of translation and a truncated protein product. The mutation was present in all nine affected individuals and in an asymptomatic 9-year-old boy.

Conclusions: Distichiasis-lymphedema syndrome results from mutations in FOXC2, a member of the forkhead/winged family of transcription factors. There is intrafamilial variation in the clinical expression of the mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0002-9394(02)01642-2DOI Listing
October 2002