Publications by authors named "Marjoleine F Broekema"

6 Publications

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PPARgamma in Metabolism, Immunity, and Cancer: Unified and Diverse Mechanisms of Action.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2021 26;12:624112. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

The proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is one of the most extensively studied ligand-inducible transcription factors. Since its identification in the early 1990s, PPARγ is best known for its critical role in adipocyte differentiation, maintenance, and function. Emerging evidence indicates that PPARγ is also important for the maturation and function of various immune system-related cell types, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and lymphocytes. Furthermore, PPARγ controls cell proliferation in various other tissues and organs, including colon, breast, prostate, and bladder, and dysregulation of PPARγ signaling is linked to tumor development in these organs. Recent studies have shed new light on PPARγ (dys)function in these three biological settings, showing unified and diverse mechanisms of action. Classical transactivation-where PPARγ activates genes upon binding to PPAR response elements as a heterodimer with RXRα-is important in all three settings, as underscored by natural loss-of-function mutations in FPLD3 and loss- and gain-of-function mutations in tumors. Transrepression-where PPARγ alters gene expression independent of DNA binding-is particularly relevant in immune cells. Interestingly, gene translocations resulting in fusion of PPARγ with other gene products, which are unique to specific carcinomas, present a third mode of action, as they potentially alter PPARγ's target gene profile. Improved understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying PPARγ activity in the complex regulatory networks in metabolism, cancer, and inflammation may help to define novel potential therapeutic strategies for prevention and treatment of obesity, diabetes, or cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.624112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7953066PMC
February 2021

Natural helix 9 mutants of PPARγ differently affect its transcriptional activity.

Mol Metab 2019 02 16;20:115-127. Epub 2018 Dec 16.

Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands; Department of Molecular Cancer Research, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Objective: The nuclear receptor PPARγ is the master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, distribution, and function. In addition, PPARγ induces terminal differentiation of several epithelial cell lineages, including colon epithelia. Loss-of-function mutations in PPARG result in familial partial lipodystrophy subtype 3 (FPDL3), a rare condition characterized by aberrant adipose tissue distribution and severe metabolic complications, including diabetes. Mutations in PPARG have also been reported in sporadic colorectal cancers, but the significance of these mutations is unclear. Studying these natural PPARG mutations provides valuable insights into structure-function relationships in the PPARγ protein. We functionally characterized a novel FPLD3-associated PPARγ L451P mutation in helix 9 of the ligand binding domain (LBD). Interestingly, substitution of the adjacent amino acid K450 was previously reported in a human colon carcinoma cell line.

Methods: We performed a detailed side-by-side functional comparison of these two PPARγ mutants.

Results: PPARγ L451P shows multiple intermolecular defects, including impaired cofactor binding and reduced RXRα heterodimerisation and subsequent DNA binding, but not in DBD-LBD interdomain communication. The K450Q mutant displays none of these functional defects. Other colon cancer-associated PPARγ mutants displayed diverse phenotypes, ranging from complete loss of activity to wildtype activity.

Conclusions: Amino acid changes in helix 9 can differently affect LBD integrity and function. In addition, FPLD3-associated PPARγ mutations consistently cause intra- and/or intermolecular defects; colon cancer-associated PPARγ mutations on the other hand may play a role in colon cancer onset and progression, but this is not due to their effects on the most well-studied functional characteristics of PPARγ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2018.12.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6358588PMC
February 2019

A Single Complex Allele in a Patient With Partial Lipodystrophy.

Front Physiol 2018 26;9:1363. Epub 2018 Sep 26.

Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.

Genetic lipodystrophies are a group of rare syndromes associated with major metabolic complications - including severe insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypertriglyceridemia - which are classified according to the distribution of adipose tissue. Lipodystrophies can be present at birth or develop during life and can range from local to partial and general. With at least 18 different genes implicated so far, definite diagnosis can be challenging due to clinical and genetic heterogeneity. In an adult female patient with clinical and metabolic features of partial lipodystrophy we identified via whole genome sequencing (WGS) a single complex allele [V67M;V167A], functionally equivalent to heterozygosity. encodes for an acyltransferase implicated in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerol and glycerophospholipids. So far homozygous and compound heterozygous mutations in have only been associated with generalized lipodystrophy. A SNP risk score analysis indicated that the index patient is not predisposed to lipodystrophy based on her genetic background. The partial phenotype in our patient is therefore more likely associated to the genetic variants in To test whether the resulting double-mutant AGPAT2 protein is functional we analyzed its enzymatic activity via mass spectrometry. The resulting AGPAT2 double mutant is enzymatically inactive. Our data support the view that the current classification of lipodystrophies as strictly local, partial or generalized may have to be re-evaluated and viewed more as a continuum, both in terms of clinical presentation and underlying genetic causes. Better molecular understanding of lipodystrophies may lead to new therapies to treat adipose tissue dysfunction in common and rare diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2018.01363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168662PMC
September 2018

Profiling of 3696 Nuclear Receptor-Coregulator Interactions: A Resource for Biological and Clinical Discovery.

Endocrinology 2018 06;159(6):2397-2407

Molecular Cancer Research and Center for Molecular Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, CG Utrecht, Netherlands.

Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-inducible transcription factors that play critical roles in metazoan development, reproduction, and physiology and therefore are implicated in a broad range of pathologies. The transcriptional activity of NRs critically depends on their interaction(s) with transcriptional coregulator proteins, including coactivators and corepressors. Short leucine-rich peptide motifs in these proteins (LxxLL in coactivators and LxxxIxxxL in corepressors) are essential and sufficient for NR binding. With 350 different coregulator proteins identified to date and with many coregulators containing multiple interaction motifs, an enormous combinatorial potential is present for selective NR-mediated gene regulation. However, NR-coregulator interactions have often been determined experimentally on a one-to-one basis across diverse experimental conditions. In addition, NR-coregulator interactions are difficult to predict because the molecular determinants that govern specificity are not well established. Therefore, many biologically and clinically relevant NR-coregulator interactions may remain to be discovered. Here, we present a comprehensive overview of 3696 NR-coregulator interactions by systematically characterizing the binding of 24 nuclear receptors with 154 coregulator peptides. We identified unique ligand-dependent NR-coregulator interaction profiles for each NR, confirming many well-established NR-coregulator interactions. Hierarchical clustering based on the NR-coregulator interaction profiles largely recapitulates the classification of NR subfamilies based on the primary amino acid sequences of the ligand-binding domains, indicating that amino acid sequence is an important, although not the only, molecular determinant in directing and fine-tuning NR-coregulator interactions. This NR-coregulator peptide interactome provides an open data resource for future biological and clinical discovery as well as NR-based drug design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2018-00149DOI Listing
June 2018

Prospective functional classification of all possible missense variants in PPARG.

Nat Genet 2016 12 17;48(12):1570-1575. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Program in Medical & Population Genetics, Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Clinical exome sequencing routinely identifies missense variants in disease-related genes, but functional characterization is rarely undertaken, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. For example, mutations in PPARG cause Mendelian lipodystrophy and increase risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although approximately 1 in 500 people harbor missense variants in PPARG, most are of unknown consequence. To prospectively characterize PPARγ variants, we used highly parallel oligonucleotide synthesis to construct a library encoding all 9,595 possible single-amino acid substitutions. We developed a pooled functional assay in human macrophages, experimentally evaluated all protein variants, and used the experimental data to train a variant classifier by supervised machine learning. When applied to 55 new missense variants identified in population-based and clinical sequencing, the classifier annotated 6 variants as pathogenic; these were subsequently validated by single-variant assays. Saturation mutagenesis and prospective experimental characterization can support immediate diagnostic interpretation of newly discovered missense variants in disease-related genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5131844PMC
December 2016

CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein.

J Biol Chem 2014 Aug 25;289(32):22128-39. Epub 2014 Jun 25.

From the Molecular Cancer Research, Center for Molecular Medicine and

Obesity-induced adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction results in a chronic low-grade inflammation that predisposes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. During the development of obesity, the AT-resident immune cell profile alters to create a pro-inflammatory state. Very recently, CD1d-restricted invariant (i) natural killer T (NKT) cells, a unique subset of lymphocytes that are reactive to so called lipid antigens, were implicated in AT homeostasis. Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. Here we show that CD1d, as well as the lipid antigen loading machinery genes pro-saposin (Psap), Niemann Pick type C2 (Npc2), α-galactosidase (Gla), are up-regulated in early adipogenesis, and are transcriptionally controlled by CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-β and -δ. Moreover, adipocyte-induced Th1 and Th2 cytokine release by iNKT cells also occurred in the absence of exogenous ligands, suggesting the display of endogenous lipid antigen-D1d complexes by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and -δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M114.551242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139226PMC
August 2014