Publications by authors named "Marize Pereira Miagostovich"

70 Publications

Nosocomial acute gastroenteritis outbreak caused by an equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like rotavirus and GII.4 Sydney[P16] norovirus at a pediatric hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2019.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Aug 17:1-7. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Worldwide, rotavirus (RVA) and norovirus are considered major etiological agents of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in pediatric population admitted to hospitals. This study describes the investigation of nosocomial infections caused by emergent RVA and norovirus strains reported at a pediatric hospital in southern Brazil in May 2019. This outbreak affected 30 people among children and adults. Nine stool samples (eight children and one nurse) were obtained and analyzed by RT-qPCR to detect and quantify RVA and norovirus. Positive samples were genotyped by sequencing and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. We detected RVA in 44.4% (4/9) and norovirus in 55.5% (5/9) at high viral loads, ranging from 3.5 × 10 to 6.1 × 10 and × 10 to 3.2 × 10 genome copies/g of stool, respectively. Co-infections were not observed. RVA VP4 and VP7 gene sequencing in combination with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis identified the circulation of equine-like G3P[8] DS-1-like, and the partial sequencing of the other nine genes revealed that strains possessed I2-R2-C2-M2-A2-N1-T2-E2-H2 genotype background. The emergent recombinant norovirus variant, GII.4 Sydney[P16], was identified by ORF1-2 sequencing. Active surveillance and effective prevention measures should be constantly reinforced to avoid the spread of nosocomial viral infections into hospitals, which could severely affect pediatric patients admitted with underlying health conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1963169DOI Listing
August 2021

Norovirus Foodborne Outbreak Associated With the Consumption of Ice Pop, Southern Brazil, 2020.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Aug 5. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Norovirus is a major cause of foodborne-associated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreaks worldwide. Usually, food products are contaminated either during harvesting or preparation, and the most common products associated to norovirus outbreaks are raw or undercooked bivalve shellfish, fruits (frozen berries) and ready-to-eat produce. In the present study, we investigated an AGE outbreak caused by norovirus associated with the consumption of ice pops in southern Brazil. Clinical stool samples from patients and ice pops samples were collected and analyzed for viruses' detection. By using RT-qPCR and sequencing, we detected the uncommon genotype GII.12[P16] in clinical samples and GII.12 in samples of ice pop. Strains shared identity of 100% at nucleotide level strongly suggesting the consumption of ice pops as the source of the outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09495-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Assessment of Viral Contamination of Five Brazilian Artisanal Cheese Produced from Raw Milk: a Randomized Survey.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Jul 27. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

Enteric viruses have been described as important contaminants in fresh and ready-to-eat foods such as sandwiches, deli meat and dairy products. This is a cross-sectional randomized survey to estimate the prevalence of norovirus and human adenovirus (HAdV) from 100 Brazilian artisanal raw milk cheese samples (Minas and Coalho) obtained from different agroindustries in four producing regions in the states of Minas Gerais and one in Piauí, respectively. From October 2017 to April 2018, norovirus genogroups I and II and HAdV were investigated in these cheese samples by RT-qPCR and qPCR, respectively. Viruses were detected in 43 samples, being 26 norovirus GI strains, 14 HAdV, and 3 both viruses. Norovirus GII strains were not detected. Viral concentrations ranged from 6.17 × 10 to 1.44 × 10 genome copies/L and murine norovirus 1 used as internal process control showed 100% success rate of recovery with efficiency of 10%. There was a trend towards a higher positivity rate for both viruses in the rainy season, and HAdV were more commonly found among samples with higher fecal coliform counts. This study is a first step in assessing the risk that this contamination may pose to the consumer of raw products as well as emphasizing the need for good manufacturing practices, quality control systems in the dairy industry and markets. As a randomized survey, we established baseline figures for viruses' prevalence in five types of ready-to-eat raw milk artisanal Brazilian cheese, to allow any monitoring trends, setting control targets and future local risk analyses studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09491-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Virological Characterization of Roof-Harvested Rainwater of Densely Urbanized Low-Income Region.

Food Environ Virol 2021 Sep 29;13(3):412-420. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW) is considered relatively clean water, even though the possible presence of pathogens in the water may pose human health risks. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of enteric viruses in the first flush (10 mm) of RHRW from a densely populated and low-income urbanized region of Rio de Janeiro. One hundred samples (5 L) were collected from 10 rainfall events between April 2015 and March 2017. RNA and DNA viruses were concentrated using the skimmed milk flocculation method and analyzed using the TaqMan® quantitative RT-qPCR and qPCR. Human adenoviruses, noroviruses, rotaviruses A, and avian parvoviruses were detected in 54%, 31%, 12%, and 12% of the positive samples. JC polyomavirus, also targeted, was not detected. Virus concentrations ranged from 1.09 × 10 to 2.58 × 10 genome copies/Liter (GC/L). Partial nucleotide sequence confirmed the presence of HAdV type 41, norovirus genotype GII.4, and avian parvovirus 1. The results suggest that the first flush diversion devices may not adequately remove enteric virus from the rainwater. Additional treatment of RHRW is required to mitigate potential health risks from potable use of captured water.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-021-09484-yDOI Listing
September 2021

Epidemiology of enteric virus infections in children living in the Amazon region.

Int J Infect Dis 2021 Jul 28;108:494-502. Epub 2021 May 28.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: To verify the frequency of viruses causing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in association with the histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) and Rotarix™ vaccination coverage in children from the Amazon region.

Design: Fecal and saliva samples were collected from children with AGE (n = 485) and acute respiratory infection (ARI) (n = 249) clinical symptoms. Rotavirus A (RVA), norovirus, human adenovirus (HAdV), and sapovirus (SaV) were verified in feces by molecular detection. Saliva samples were used for HBGA phenotyping/FUT3 genotyping. Blood group types, clinical aspects and Rotarix™ RVA vaccination data were recorded.

Results: Norovirus remained the most prevalently detected cause of AGE (38%, 184/485 and ARI 21.3%, 53/249). High HAdV frequencies were observed in AGE children (28.6%, 139/485) and ARI children (37.3%, 93/249). RVA was the third most prevalent virus causing AGE (22.7%, 110/485 and ARI 19.3%, 48/249) and a low RV1 coverage (61%, 448/734) was verified. The SaV frequencies were lower (7.2%, 35/485 for AGE and 6.8%, 17/249 for ARI). Secretor children were HBGA susceptible to HAdV infection (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.3; P = 0.04) but not to RVA, norovirus or SaV infection.

Conclusions: Norovirus could be considered the main etiological agent of AGE. No association was verified for HBGA susceptibility to RVA, norovirus and SaV. Secretor children showed a slight susceptibility to HAdV infection and the Le (a-b-) heterogeneous SNPs on the FUT3 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.05.060DOI Listing
July 2021

Wastewater-based epidemiology as a useful tool to track SARS-CoV-2 and support public health policies at municipal level in Brazil.

Water Res 2021 Mar 5;191:116810. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation. Av. Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 21040-360, Brazil. Electronic address:

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) has been applied as a complementary approach for spatial tracking of coronavirus disease 2019 cases (COVID-19) as well as early warning of the occurrence of infected populations. The present study presents the result of the monitoring of sanitary sewerage in the municipality of Niterói, a metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) and its use as a complementary indicator in the surveillance of COVID-19 cases, thus assisting actions of public health from local authorities. Twelve composite raw sewage samples were weekly collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and alternately from 17 sewer pipes (SP) from surrounding neighbourhoods and slums throughout 20 weeks (April 15th to August 25th, 2020). Two hundred twenty-three samples were concentrated using the ultracentrifugation-based method and SARS-CoV-2 RNA detected and quantified by RT-qPCR using primers and probe targeting the N2 genome. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 84.3% (188/223) of samples with a positive rate ranging from 42% (5/12) in the first week of monitoring to 100% during the peak of epidemic with viral concentration ranging from 3.1 to 7.1 log genome copies 100 mL throughout the studied period. Positive rates were higher in WWTPs when compared to SP, being useful tool for monitoring trends in the evolution of the COVID-19 curve, while SP data were more effective when health public interventions were needed. Whole-genome sequencing using Illumina MiSeq System confirmed the lineage of three genomes as B.1.1.33 (clade G) containing the nucleotide substitutions observed in strains that circulate in the Rio de Janeiro during the period of this study. In addition, geoprocessing tool was used to build heat maps based on SARS-CoV-2 data from sewage samples, which were weekly updated and available online to the general population as an indicator of the ongoing epidemic situation in Niterói city, raising public awareness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.116810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832254PMC
March 2021

Microbiological assessment of an urban lagoon system in the coastal zone of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 24;28(1):1170-1180. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Helio e Peggy Pereira Pavilion, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

This study aims to assess microbiological contamination using a molecular tool for detection of multiple enteropathogens in a coastal ecosystem area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten litres of superficial water samples were obtained during the spring ebb tide from sampling sites along the Jacarepaguá watershed. Samples were concentrated using skimmed milk flocculation method for TaqMan array card (TAC), designed to identify 35 enteric pathogens simultaneously, and single TaqMan qPCR analysis for detecting human adenovirus (HAdV) and JC human polyomavirus (JCPyV) as faecal indicator viruses (FIV). TAC results identified 17 enteric pathogens including 4/5 viral species investigated, 8/15 bacteria, 4/6 protozoa and 1/7 helminths. Escherichia coli concentration was also measured as faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) using Colilert Quanti-Tray System with positivity in all samples studied. HAdV and JCPyV qPCR were detected in 8 and 4 samples, respectively, with concentration ranging from 8 × 10 to 2 × 10 genome copies/L. Partial nucleotide sequencing demonstrated the occurrence of species HAdV A, C, D, and F, present in faeces of individuals with enteric and non-enteric infections, and JCPyV type 3 (Af2), prevalent in a high genetically mixed population like the Brazilian. The diversity of enteropathogens detected by TAC emphasizes the utility of this methodology for quick assessment of microbiological contamination of the aquatic ecosystems, speeding up mitigation actions where the risk of the exposed population is detected, as well as pointing out the infrastructure gaps in areas where accelerated urban growth is observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10479-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Human Bocavirus in Brazil: Molecular Epidemiology, Viral Load and Co-Infections.

Pathogens 2020 Aug 10;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro 21040-360, Brazil.

Human bocavirus (HBoV) is an emerging virus and has been detected worldwide, especially in pediatric patients with respiratory and gastrointestinal infection. In this study, we describe HBoV prevalence, genotypes circulation and DNA shedding, in stool samples from children up to two years of age in Brazil. During 2016 and 2017, 886 acute gastroenteritis (AGE) stool samples from ten Brazilian states were analyzed by TaqMan-based qPCR, to detect and quantify HBoV. Positive samples were genotyped by sequencing the VP1/2 overlap region, followed by phylogenetic analysis and co-infections were accessed by screening other gastroenteric viruses. HBoV was detected in 12.4% (n = 110) of samples, with viral load ranging from 1.6 × 10 to 1.2 × 10 genome copies per gram of stool. From these, co-infections were found in 79.1%, and a statistically lower HBoV viral load was found compared to viral loads of rotavirus, norovirus and adenovirus in double infected patients ( < 0.05). No significant differences were found between HBoV viral load in single or co-infections, age groups or genotypes. Phylogenetic analysis identified the circulation of HBoV-1 in 38%, HBoV-2 in 40% and HBoV-3 in 22%. Continuous HBoV monitoring is needed to clarify its role in diarrhea disease, especially in the absence of classic gastroenteric viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9080645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7459459PMC
August 2020

Preliminary results of SARS-CoV-2 detection in sewerage system in Niterói municipality, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 2020 27;115:e200196. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

This study presents preliminary results from a sewage-based surveillance to monitor the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the municipality of Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. By using ultracentrifugation method associated to quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) we detected SARS-CoV-2 in 41.6% (5/12) of raw sewage samples obtained from sewage treatment plants and sewers network in the city. This pioneer study carried out in Brazil aims to subsidise information for health surveillance concerning the viral circulation in different areas of the city and, revealed the insertion and importance of environmental virology in health public policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0074-02760200196DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7384299PMC
July 2020

Assessment of the microbiological quality of natural mineral waters according to the manufacturing time of 20 L returnable packs in Brazil.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2020 08;367(15)

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, IOC/Fiocruz, Brazil.

This study aimed to assess the microbiological quality of natural mineral waters commercialized in 20 L returnable packs in Brazil by investigating the presence of bacteria and viruses in packs with different manufacturing times (Tm). With this purpose, 99 water samples from 33 lots (n = 3/batch) of 15 brands, obtained from packs with three intervals of Tm, were analyzed. Total coliforms (16.2%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (9.9%), sulphite-reducing Clostridium (5.0%) and Escherichia coli (2.0%) were detected but enterococci and norovirus GII not. Regarding brands, 11 (73.3%) presented unsatisfactory results for at least one of the lots analyzed. Pseudomonas aeruginosa analysis revealed six sequence types and strains were susceptible to all antibiotics tested and were able to produce biofilms. Human adenovirus (4) and norovirus GI (9) were also identified in nine samples randomly selected. Natural mineral waters commercialized in 20 L packs with Tm ≥ 2 years presented more microbiological contamination (P ≤ 0.012) than ones with a Tm of 0-1 year or a Tm of 1-2 years. These results suggest that the validity period of reusable 20 L packs should be reduced or that they can no longer be reused.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa120DOI Listing
August 2020

Human norovirus detection in bivalve shellfish in Brazil and evaluation of viral infectivity using PMA treatment.

Mar Pollut Bull 2020 Aug 1;157:111315. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Laboratório de Virologia Comparada e Ambiental, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ CEP 21045-900, Brazil. Electronic address:

Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in humans and bivalve shellfish consumption is a recognized route of infection. Our aim was to detect and characterize norovirus in bivalves from a coastal city of Brazil. Nucleic acid was extracted from the bivalve's digestive tissue concentrates using magnetic beads. From March 2018 to June 2019, 77 samples were screened using quantitative RT-PCR. Noroviruses were detected in 41.5%, with the GII being the most prevalent (37.7%). The highest viral load was 3.5 × 106 and 2.5 × 105 GC/g in oysters and mussels, respectively. PMA-treatment demonstrated that a large fraction of the detected norovirus corresponded to non-infectious particles. Genetic characterization showed the circulation of the GII.2[P16] and GII.4[P4] genotypes. Norovirus detection in bivalves reflects the anthropogenic impact on marine environment and serves as an early warning for the food-borne disease outbreaks resulting from the consumption of contaminated molluscs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2020.111315DOI Listing
August 2020

Rotavirus A in Brazil: Molecular Epidemiology and Surveillance during 2018-2019.

Pathogens 2020 Jun 27;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Avenida Brasil 4365, Rio de Janeiro 21040-900, Brazil.

Rotavirus A (RVA) vaccines succeeded in lowering the burden of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide, especially preventing severe disease and mortality. In 2019, Brazil completed 13 years of RVA vaccine implementation (Rotarix™) within the National Immunization Program (NIP), and as reported elsewhere, the use of Rotarix™ in the country has reduced childhood mortality and morbidity due to AGE. Even though both marketed vaccines are widely distributed, the surveillance of RVA causing AGE and the monitoring of circulating genotypes are important tools to keep tracking the epidemiological scenario and vaccines impact. Thus, our study investigated RVA epidemiological features, viral load and G and P genotypes circulation in children and adults presenting AGE symptoms in eleven states from three out of five regions in Brazil. By using TaqMan-based one-step RT-qPCR, we investigated a total of 1536 stool samples collected from symptomatic inpatients, emergency department visits and outpatients from January 2018 to December 2019. G and P genotypes of RVA-positive samples were genetically characterized by multiplex RT-PCR or by nearly complete fragment sequencing. We detected RVA in 12% of samples, 10.5% in 2018 and 13.7% in 2019. A marked winter/spring seasonality was observed, especially in Southern Brazil. The most affected age group was children aged >24-60 months, with a positivity rate of 18.8% ( < 0.05). Evaluating shedding, we found a statistically lower RVA viral load in stool samples collected from children aged up to six months compared to the other age groups ( < 0.05). The genotype G3P[8] was the most prevalent during the two years (83.7% in 2018 and 65.5% in 2019), and nucleotide sequencing of some strains demonstrated that they belonged to the emergent equine-like G3P[8] genotype. The dominance of an emergent genotype causing AGE reinforces the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance to assess the impact of mass RVA immunization as well as to monitor the emergence of novel genotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9070515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7400326PMC
June 2020

Evaluation of Viral Recovery Methodologies from Solid Waste Landfill Leachate.

Food Environ Virol 2020 09 23;12(3):209-217. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-900, Brazil.

Leachate from solid waste landfill is a dark liquid of variable composition and possible source of contamination of groundwater and surface waters. This study aims to assess skimmed milk flocculation and ultracentrifugation as viral concentration methods associated to different nucleic acid extraction protocols in order to establish a methodology for virus recovery from sanitary landfill leachate. Spiking experiments using human adenovirus (HAdV) and bacteriophage PP7 revealed the association of QIAamp Fast DNA Stool mini kit® nucleic acid extraction and ultracentrifugation as an effective method for recovering HAdV (346.18%) and PP7 (523.97%) when compared to organic flocculation method (162.64% for HAdV and 0.61% for PP7) that presented PCR inhibition in all undiluted samples. Ultracentrifugation applied in three landfill samples confirm efficiency of the methodology detecting HAdV in all samples with a mean of 3.44E + 06 ± 1.56E + 06 genomic copies/mL. Nucleotide sequencing characterized HAdV as belonging to group B and F. JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) was also investigated in those samples; however, detection was not observed. Methodologies for detection of viruses in leachate can be useful to generate data for future health risk analysis of workers who have contact with solid urban waste, as well as populations exposed to different environmental matrices contaminated by these effluents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09431-3DOI Listing
September 2020

Rotavirus A shedding and HBGA host genetic susceptibility in a birth community-cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2018.

Sci Rep 2020 04 24;10(1):6965. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Recent studies have investigated whether the human histo-blood group antigen (HBGAs) could affect the effectiveness of the oral rotavirus vaccines, suggesting secretor positive individuals develop a more robust response. We investigated the Rotavirus A (RVA) shedding in association with the host susceptibility profile in children from a birth community-cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 2014 to 2018. A total of 132 children were followed-up between 0 to 11-month-old, stool samples were collected before/after the 1/2 RV1 vaccination doses and saliva samples were collected during the study. RVA shedding was screened by RT-qPCR and G/P genotypes determined by multiplex RT-PCR and/or Sanger nucleotide sequencing. The sequencing indicated an F167L amino acid change in the RV1 VP8* P[8] in 20.5% of shedding follow-ups and these mutant subpopulations were quantified by pyrosequencing. The HBGA/secretor status was determined and 80.3% of the children were secretors. Twenty-one FUT2 gene SNPs were identified and two new mutations were observed. The mutant F167L RV1 VP8* P[8] was detected significantly more in Le (a+b+) secretors (90.5%) compared to non-secretors and even to secretors Le (a-b+) (9.5%). The study highlights the probable association between RV1 shedding and HBGAs as a marker for evaluating vaccine strain host susceptibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-64025-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181595PMC
April 2020

Human Bocavirus genotypes 1 and 2 detected in younger Amazonian children with acute gastroenteritis or respiratory infections, respectively.

Int J Infect Dis 2020 Jun 3;95:32-37. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil, 4365 Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study aimed to verify the frequency, genotypes, and etiological role of Human Bocavirus (HBoV) in younger Amazonian children with either acute gastroenteritis (AGE) or respiratory infections (ARI). The influence of Rotarix™ vaccination and co-infection status was also investigated.

Design: HBoV quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) testing was done on both fecal and saliva (1468 samples) from 734 children < 5 months old living in the Amazon (Brazil, Guyana, and Venezuela). High and median HBoV viral load samples were used for extraction, nested PCR amplification, and sequencing for genotyping. HBoV mRNA detection was done by reverse transcription following DNA amplification.

Results: The overall HBoV frequencies were 14.2% (69/485; AGE) and 14.1% (35/249; ARI) (p = 0.83). HBoV exclusively infected 4.5% (22/485; AGE) and 4% (10/249) of the Amazonian children (Odds ratios 1.13, 95% confidence interval= 2.42-0.52). HBoV 1 was mainly detected in feces and saliva from AGE children; and HBoV2, from ARI children. HBoV mRNA was detected only in feces. The Rotarix™ vaccination status did not affect the HBoV frequencies.

Conclusions: We suggest that, after entry into the air/oral pathways, HBoV1 continues infecting toward the intestinal tract causing AGE. HBoV2 can be a causative agent of AGE and ARI in younger Amazonian children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.03.046DOI Listing
June 2020

Norovirus infection and HBGA host genetic susceptibility in a birth community-cohort, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Infect Genet Evol 2020 08 9;82:104280. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Norovirus has emerged as an important viral agent of acute pediatric gastroenteritis, with a growing genetic diversity reported in the last decades. Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) present on the surface of enterocytes are susceptibility factors for norovirus infection and differ between populations which could affects the epidemiology and evolution of these viruses. This study investigated the frequency, incidence and genetic diversity of noroviruses in a cohort of rotavirus A vaccinated children in association to the host HBGA (Secretor/Lewis) genetic susceptibility profile. Norovirus genogroups I and II (GI/GII) were screened by RT-qPCR in 569 stool samples from 132 children followed-up from birth to 11 months of age during 2014--2018. Noroviruses were identified in 21.2% of children enrolled in this study, with a norovirus detection rate of 5.6% (32/569), in 17.1% and 4.7% of acute diarrheic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE, respectively. The norovirus incidence was 5.8 infections per 100 child-months. Partial nucleotide sequencing characterized six different norovirus genotypes, with GII.4 Sydney 2012 being detected in 50% associated with three different polymerase genotypes (GII·P31, GII·P16 and GII·P4 New Orleans 2009). FUT3 genotyping was yielded seven new mutations in this population. A significant association between symptomatic norovirus infection and secretor profile could be inferred.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104280DOI Listing
August 2020

Gastroenteric Viruses Detection in a Drinking Water Distribution-to-Consumption System in a Low-Income Community in Rio de Janeiro.

Food Environ Virol 2020 06 9;12(2):130-136. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Departamento de Saneamento e Saúde Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21045-900, Brazil.

The availability of drinking water is one of the main determinants of quality of life, disease prevention and the promotion of health. Viruses are important agents of waterborne diseases and have been described as important markers of human faecal contamination. This study aimed to investigate viruses' presence as an indicator of drinking water quality in low-income communities in the Manguinhos area, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Three hundred and four drinking water samples (2L/each) were collected along the drinking water distribution-to-consumption pathway in households, as well as healthcare and school units. Water samples were collected both directly from the water supply prior to distribution and after storage in tanks and filtration units. Using qPCR, viruses were detected 50 times in 45 water samples (15%), 19 of these being human adenovirus, 17 rotavirus A and 14 norovirus GII. Viral loads recovered ranged from 5E+10 to 8.7E+10 genome copies/Liter. Co-detection was observed in five household water samples and there was no difference regarding virus detection across sampling sites. Precarious and inadequate environmental conditions characterized by the lack of local infrastructure regarding basic sanitation and waste collection in the territory, as well as negligent hygiene habits, could explain viral detection in drinking water in regions with a water supply system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-020-09423-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Surveillance of Enteric Viruses and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Surface Water and Bivalves from a Mangrove Estuary in Southeastern Brazil.

Food Environ Virol 2019 09 1;11(3):288-296. Epub 2019 Jun 1.

Laboratório de Saneamento, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, ES, Brazil.

This study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological quality of a mangrove estuary in the Vitória Bay region, Espírito Santo, Brazil. We analyzed the presence and concentration of enteric viruses and thermotolerant coliforms in water, mussels (Mytella charruana and Mytella guyanensis), and oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae), collected over a 13-month period. Human adenovirus, rotavirus A (RVA), and norovirus genogroup II were analyzed by quantitative PCR. The highest viral load was found in RVA-positive samples with a concentration of 3.0 × 10 genome copies (GC) L in water samples and 1.3 × 10 GC g in bivalves. RVA was the most prevalent virus in all matrices. Thermotolerant coliforms were quantified as colony-forming units (CFU) by the membrane filtration method. The concentration of these bacteria in water was in accordance with the Brazilian standard for recreational waters (< 250 CFU 100 mL) during most of the monitoring period (12 out of 13 months). However, thermotolerant coliform concentrations of 3.0, 3.1, and 2.6 log CFU 100 g were detected in M. charruana, M. guyanensis, and C. rhizophorae, respectively. The presence of human-specific viruses in water and bivalves reflects the strong anthropogenic impact on the mangrove and serves as an early warning of waterborne and foodborne disease outbreaks resulting from the consumption of shellfish and the practice of water recreational activities in the region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-019-09391-3DOI Listing
September 2019

High genetic diversity of noroviruses in children from a community-based study in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2014-2018.

Arch Virol 2019 May;164(5):1427-1432

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Pav. Hélio & Peggy Pereira, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil.

We report on the occurrence and diversity of noroviruses in children (younger than 5 years old of age) from a low-income urban area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sixty-one stool specimens collected from children between 1 and 4 years old with acute diarrhoeic episodes (ADE) and non-ADE were investigated. RT-qPCR and sequencing of PCR products after conventional RT-PCR analysis were performed. Noroviruses were detected in 29 (47.5%) samples: 21 (46.7%) from cases with ADE and 8 (50%) from non-ADE cases. Molecular characterization showed 10 different genotypes circulating in this community between November 2014 and April 2018.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04195-zDOI Listing
May 2019

Phenotyping of Lewis and secretor HBGA from saliva and detection of new FUT2 gene SNPs from young children from the Amazon presenting acute gastroenteritis and respiratory infection.

Infect Genet Evol 2019 06 18;70:61-66. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Avenida Brasil, 4365-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

The Histo-blood group antigens (HBGA) are host genetic factors associated with susceptibility to rotavirus (RV) and human norovirus (HuNoV), the major etiological agents of viral acute gastroenteritis (AGE) worldwide. The FUT2 gene expressing the alpha-1, 2-L- fucosyltransferase enzyme is important for gut HBGA expression, and also provides a composition of the phenotypic profile achieved through mutations occurring in populations with different evolutionary histories; as such, it can be considered a genetic population marker. In this study, Lewis and secretor HBGA phenotyping was performed using 352 saliva samples collected from children between three months and five years old born in the Amazon (Brazil, Venezuela and English Guyana) presenting AGE or acute respiratory infection (ARI), the latter considered as control samples. The total of children phenotyped as secretors was 323, corresponding to 91.80%. From these, 207 (58.80%) had a Le (a + b+) profile. The HBGA profiles were equally found in children with AGE as well as with ARI. The rs1047781 of the FUT2 gene was not detected in DNA from saliva cells with a Le (a+b+) profile. However, mutations not yet described in the FUT2 gene were observed: missense 325A>T, 501C>T, 585C>T, 855A>T and missense substitutions 327C>T [S (Ser) > C (Cys)], 446 T>C [L(Leu) > P(Pro)], 723C>A [N(Asn) > K(Lys)], 724A>T [I(Ile) > F(Phe)], 736C>A [H(His) > N(Asn)]. The SNP distribution in the FUT2 gene of the analyzed samples was very similar to that described in Asian populations, including indigenous tribes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2019.02.011DOI Listing
June 2019

Nearly Complete Genome Sequence of a Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 Strain Isolated from Brazil in 2015.

Microbiol Resour Announc 2019 Jan 31;8(5). Epub 2019 Jan 31.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Human noroviruses are the most common cause of nonbacterial acute gastroenteritis worldwide. We report here the nearly complete genome sequence (7,551 nucleotides) of a human norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 strain detected in July 2015 in the stool sample from an adult with acute gastroenteritis in Brazil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.01376-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6357637PMC
January 2019

High prevalence of enteric viruses associated with acute gastroenteritis in pediatric patients in a low-income area in Vitória, Southeastern Brazil.

J Med Virol 2019 05 12;91(5):744-750. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Laboratório de Saneamento, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória, Espírito Santo, Brazil.

Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a significant cause of child mortality worldwide. In Brazil, despite the reduction in infant mortality achieved in recent years, many children still die because of undiagnosed AGE. The prevalence, viral load, and circulating genotypes of rotavirus A (RVA), human adenovirus (HAdV), and norovirus GII (NoV GII) were investigated in children with AGE during 12 months in Vitoria, Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. Enteric viruses were detected in stool samples, quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and compared phylogenetically. The overall prevalence was 93.3% (125/134). Cases of single infection (41.8%) and mixed infection (51.5%) were observed; in 21.6% of cases, all the three viruses were detected. RVA had the highest number of copies in all infections. Phylogenetic analysis revealed predominantly the presence of RVA genotype G3, followed by G2 and G9. HAdV clustered within subgroup C, but some samples harbored subgroups A, D, or F. All sequenced NoV-positive samples clustered within the prevalent genotype GII.4. The high prevalence of RVA, HAdV, and NoV in diarrheal feces clarifies the etiology of AGE in this population, and the presence of RVA in vaccinated children reinforces the importance of monitoring programs to identify the causes of gastroenteritis and contribute to the reliability of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.25392DOI Listing
May 2019

Evaluation of skimmed milk flocculation method for virus recovery from tomatoes.

Braz J Microbiol 2018 Nov 16;49 Suppl 1:34-39. Epub 2018 Aug 16.

Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Fiocruz, Laboratório de Virologia Comparativa e Ambiental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

This study aimed to evaluate the elution-concentration methodology based on skimmed milk flocculation from three varieties of tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L. [globe], Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme [cherry] and hybrid cocktail [grape tomato]) for further monitoring of field samples. Spiking experiments were performed to determine the success rate and efficiency recovery of human norovirus (NoV) genogroup II, norovirus murine-1 (MNV-1) used as sample process control virus and human adenovirus (HAdV). Mean values of 18.8%, 2.8% and 44.0% were observed for NoV GII, MNV-1 and HAdV, respectively with differences according to the types of tomatoes, with lower efficiency for cherry tomatoes. Analysis of 90 samples, obtained at commercial establishments in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro State, revealed 4.5% positivity for HAdV. Bacterial analysis was also performed with no detection of Salmonella spp., L. monocytogenes and fecal coliforms. Data demonstrated that the skimmed milk flocculation method is suitable for recovering HAdV from tomatoes and highlights the need for considering investigation in order to improve food safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjm.2018.04.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328929PMC
November 2018

Comparison of viral elution-concentration methods for recovering noroviruses from deli meats.

J Virol Methods 2018 10 4;260:49-55. Epub 2018 Jul 4.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, Brazil.

This study aimed to assess viral elution-concentration methods for recovering noroviruses from deli meats. Spiking experiments were conducted to evaluate the recovery success rates and recovery efficiencies of human norovirus (NoV) GI and GII and murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) using polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) precipitation, skimmed milk flocculation (SMF), TRIzol reagent, and a combination of PEG/TRIzol and SMF/TRIzol methods. Molecular analysis using reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed TRIzol as the best method to be used for viral recovery from ham with medium recovery rates of 37.6% for NoV GI and 50.1% for NoV GII. Viral recovery from turkey meat showed medium recovery rates of 14.4% for NoV GI and 8.9% for NoV GII. For MNV-1, the rates varied from 0.5% to 80.8% not only according to the matrix but also with the associated virus and its inoculum (NoV GI or GII). The monitoring of commercial samples obtained in the Great Metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro in order to demonstrate the occurrence of NoV GI and GII contamination in both matrices was also performed in 60 samples. NoV GI or GII were not detected in any samples, while MNV-1 used as the sample process control viruswas successfully recovered in 100% of samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2018.07.001DOI Listing
October 2018

Adenovirus and rotavirus recovery from a treated effluent through an optimized skimmed-milk flocculation method.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2018 Jun 9;25(17):17025-17032. Epub 2018 Apr 9.

Laboratory of Virology, Department of Parasitology, Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Biological Science, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Sewage treatment may be insufficient for the complete removal of enteric viruses, such as human adenoviruses (HAdV) and group A rotavirus (RVA). The differences in the efficiency of the treatment methodologies used may interfere with the detection of these viruses. The objective of this study was to optimize a skimmed-milk flocculation technique for the recovery of HAdV and RVA in the samples of treated effluent. The treated effluent collected at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was processed via four protocols including modifications in the initial centrifugation step and the final concentration of skimmed-milk. The viral load and recovery rate were determined by quantitative PCR TaqMan® System. The highest recovery rates of HAdV, RVA, and bacteriophage PP7 (internal control process) were obtained when the concentration of skimmed-milk was doubled and no centrifugation step was used for the sample clarification. The optimized protocol was assessed in a field study conducted with 24 treated effluent samples collected bi-monthly during 2015. HAdV and RVA were detected in 50.0% (12/24) and 33.3% (08/24) of the samples tested, respectively, throughout the year, without seasonal variation (p > 0.05). This study corroborates the use of the organic flocculation method for virus recovery in environmental samples with the adaptation of the protocols to different aquatic matrices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-1873-xDOI Listing
June 2018

Detection and molecular characterization of the novel recombinant norovirus GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney in southeastern Brazil in 2016.

PLoS One 2017 13;12(12):e0189504. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Laboratory of Virology and Infectious Gastroenteritis, Pathology Department, Health Science Center, Federal University of Espírito Santo, Av. Marechal Campos 1468, Maruípe, Vitória, ES, Brazil.

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in all age groups worldwide. Despite the high genetic diversity of noroviruses, most AGE outbreaks are caused by a single norovirus genotype: GII.4. Since 1995, several different variants of norovirus GII.4 have been associated with pandemics, with each variant circulating for 3 to 8 years. The Sydney_2012 variant was first reported in Australia and then in other countries. A new variant, GII.P16-GII.4, was recently described in Japan and South Korea and then in the USA, France, Germany and England. In our study, 190 faecal specimens were collected from children admitted to a paediatric hospital and a public health facility during a surveillance study of sporadic cases of AGE conducted between January 2015 and July 2016. The norovirus was detected by RT-qPCR in 51 samples (26.8%), and in 37 of them (72.5%), the ORF1-2 junction was successfully sequenced. The new recombinant GII.P16-GII.4 Sydney was revealed for the first time in Brazil in 2016 and predominated among other strains (9 GII.Pe-GII.4, 3 GII.P17-GII.17, 1 GII.Pg-GII.1, 1 GII.P16-GII.3 and 1 GII.PNA-GII.4). The epidemiological significance of this new recombinant is still unknown, but continuous surveillance studies may evaluate its impact on the population, its potential to replace the first recombinant GII.Pe-GII.4 Sydney 2012 variant, and the emergence of new recombinant forms of GII.P16.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0189504PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5728567PMC
January 2018

Norovirus GII.17 Associated with a Foodborne Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak in Brazil, 2016.

Food Environ Virol 2018 06 17;10(2):212-216. Epub 2017 Nov 17.

Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Fiocruz. Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, 21040-900, Rio De Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

Foodborne transmission gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak occurred during a celebration lunch in July, 2016, Brazil. All stool samples tested were positive for noroviruses (NoV) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains were genetically close to GII.17 Kawasaki_2014. These findings indicated circulation of NoV GII.17 Kawasaki_2014 in the Brazilian population, associated with AGE outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9326-0DOI Listing
June 2018

Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil.

PLoS One 2017 30;12(8):e0183196. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Diarrheal diseases (DD) have distinct etiological profiles in immune-deficient and immune-competent patients. This study compares detection rates, genotype distribution and viral loads of different enteric viral agents in HIV-1 seropositive (n = 200) and HIV-1 seronegative (n = 125) children hospitalized with DD in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Except for group A rotavirus (RVA), which were detected through enzyme immunoassay, the other enteric viruses (norovirus [NoV], astrovirus [HAstV], adenovirus [HAdV] and bocavirus [HBoV]) were detected through PCR or RT-PCR. A quantitative PCR was performed for RVA, NoV, HAstV, HAdV and HBoV. Infections with NoV (19% vs. 9.6%; p<0.001), HBoV (14% vs. 7.2%; p = 0.042) and HAdV (30.5% vs. 14.4%; p<0.001) were significantly more frequent among HIV-1 seropositive children. RVA was significantly less frequent among HIV-1 seropositive patients (6.5% vs. 20%; p<0.001). Similarly, frequency of infection with HAstV was lower among HIV-1 seropositive children (5.5% vs. 12.8%; p = 0.018). Among HIV-1 seropositive children 33 (16.5%) had co-infections, including three enteric viruses, such as NoV, HBoV and HAdV (n = 2) and NoV, HAstV and HAdV (n = 2). The frequency of infection with more than one virus was 17 (13.6%) in the HIV-1 negative group, triple infection (NoV + HAstV + HBoV) being observed in only one patient. The median viral load of HAstV in feces was significantly higher among HIV-1 positive children compared to HIV-1 negative children. Concerning children infected with RVA, NoV, HBoV and HAdV, no statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of viral loads in feces, comparing HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children. Similar detection rates were observed for RVA, HAstV and HAdV, whilst NoV and HBoV were significantly more prevalent among children with CD4+ T lymphocyte count below 200 cells/mm3. Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with pathogens more classically associated with intestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0183196PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576665PMC
October 2017

Surveillance of Noroviruses in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil: Occurrence of New GIV Genotype in Clinical and Wastewater Samples.

Food Environ Virol 2018 03 21;10(1):1-6. Epub 2017 Jun 21.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Rio de Janeiro, 21040-360, Brazil.

Genogroup (G) IV norovirus (NoV) has been described in the literature as infectious agents in humans, although there are few reports regarding the frequency and spread of this virus, resulting in insufficient epidemiological data. The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of GIV norovirus in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in order to evaluate frequency, concentration, and genetic diversity using clinical and environmental approaches. For this purpose, 316 stool samples were collected from acute gastroenteritis cases reported over a period of three years. Wastewater samples were also obtained from the main wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) located in Rio de Janeiro throughout one year, totalizing 156 samples. All samples were submitted to quantitative analysis by TaqMan™ real-time PCR for GIV norovirus. Three out of 316 clinical samples were positive (0.9%) for GIV, with viral load ranging from 10 to 10 genome copies (CG) per gram. Regarding wastewater samples, GIV were detected in 52% of raw sewage, with viral load ranging from 10 to 10 CG per liter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the circulation of a new GIV genotype in both clinical and environmental samples. To our knowledge, this is the first description of GIV norovirus in clinical samples in Brazil. These results demonstrate the importance of performing laboratory surveillance of clinical and environmental samples, assisting the comprehension of the epidemiology pattern of viruses with neglected diagnosis and indefinite impact in the population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9308-2DOI Listing
March 2018

The Impact of the Extreme Amazonian Flood Season on the Incidence of Viral Gastroenteritis Cases.

Food Environ Virol 2017 06 3;9(2):195-207. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Laboratory of Comparative and Environmental Virology, Oswaldo Cruz Institute (IOC), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (FIOCRUZ), Pavilhão Helio e Peggy Pereira, Avenida Brasil, 4365, Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, 21040-360, Brazil.

During the Amazonian flood season in 2012, the Negro River reached its highest level in 110 years, submerging residential and commercial areas which appeared associated with an elevation in the observed gastroenteritis cases in the city of Manaus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological water quality of the Negro River basin during this extreme flood to investigate this apparent association between the illness cases and the population exposed to the contaminated waters. Forty water samples were collected and analysed for classic and emerging enteric viruses. Human adenoviruses, group A rotaviruses and genogroup II noroviruses were detected in 100, 77.5 and 27.5% of the samples, respectively, in concentrations of 10-10 GC/L. All samples were compliant with local bacteriological standards. HAdV2 and 41 and RVA G2, P[6], and P[8] were characterised. Astroviruses, sapoviruses, genogroup IV noroviruses, klasseviruses, bocaviruses and aichiviruses were not detected. Statistical analyses showed correlations between river stage level and reported gastroenteritis cases and, also, significant differences between virus concentrations during this extreme event when compared with normal dry seasons and previous flood seasons of the Negro River. These findings suggest an association between the extreme flood experienced and gastrointestinal cases in the affected areas providing circumstantial evidence of causality between the elevations in enteric viruses in surface waters and reported illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12560-017-9280-xDOI Listing
June 2017
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