Publications by authors named "Marit Nielsen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Exploring the sortilin related receptor, SorLA, in depression.

J Affect Disord 2018 05 21;232:260-267. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 8000 Aarhus C, Denmark; The Lundbeck Foundation Research Center, MIND, Aarhus University, Denmark.

Background: Studies of individual biomarkers for depression have shown insufficient sensitivity and specificity for clinical use, and most likely combinations of biomarkers may provide a better signature. The sorting-related receptor with A-type repeats (SorLA) is a well-studied pathogenic factor for Alzheimer's. SorLA belongs to the Vps10p domain receptor family, which also encompasses sortilin and SorCS1-3. All family members have been implicated in neurological and mental disorders. Notably, the SORCS3 gene is genome-wide significantly associated with depression and serum protein levels of sortilin are reduced in depressed individuals. SorLA regulates the activity of neurotrophic factors and cytokines and we hence speculated that SorLA might be implicated in depression.

Methods: Serum SorLA levels were measured in two well-defined clinical samples using ELISA. Generalized linear models were used in the statistical analyses.

Results: We identified a multivariate model to discriminate depressed individuals from healthy controls. Interestingly, the model consisted of serum SorLA levels and additional four predictors: previous depressive episode, stressful life events, serum levels of sortilin and VEGF. However, as an isolated factor, we observed no significant difference in SorLA levels between 140 depressed individuals and 140 healthy controls. Nevertheless, we observed a significant increase in SorLA levels following 12 weeks of treatment with nortriptyline, but not escitalopram.

Limitations: The number of biomarkers included in the multivariate model for depression and lack of replication limit our study.

Conclusions: Our results suggest SorLA as one of five factors that in combination may support the depression diagnosis, but not as an individual biomarker for depression or treatment response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.050DOI Listing
May 2018

Investigation of serum levels of sortilin in response to antidepressant treatment.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2018 Apr 8;30(2):111-116. Epub 2017 May 8.

2The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH),Aarhus,Denmark.

Background: The identification of biomarkers for depression is of great clinical relevance as the diagnosis is currently subjective. Recent research points towards sortilin as a potential biomarker for depression, and the aim of the current study was to investigate the serum sortilin level in response to antidepressant treatment.

Methods: The study included 56 depressed individuals of which 41 responded to treatment. Depression scores and serum levels of sortilin were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Statistical analyses were performed using Stata 13.

Results: The depression score and response to treatment were not predicted by the sortilin level. Likewise, we observed no significant change in serum sortilin levels following 12 weeks of antidepressant treatment. Furthermore, no association between the serum sortilin level and depression score was observed.

Conclusion: The results do not point towards sortilin as a state-dependent biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/neu.2017.13DOI Listing
April 2018

Progranulin gene variation affects serum progranulin levels differently in Danish bipolar individuals compared with healthy controls.

Psychiatr Genet 2017 06;27(3):89-95

aTranslational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine bDepartment of Biomedicine, The Lundbeck Foundation Research Center, MIND cDepartment of Biomedicine, Danish Research Institute of Translational Neuroscience (DANDRITE), Nordic EMBL Partnership for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University dDepartment of Psychosis, Psychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov eThe Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research, iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark fDepartment of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Objectives: The identification of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder is of great importance and has the potential to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Recent studies have reported lower plasma progranulin levels in bipolar individuals compared with controls and association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the progranulin gene (GRN). In the present study, we investigated the effect of GRN and sortilin (SORT1) gene variation on serum progranulin levels in bipolar individuals and controls.

Materials And Methods: In a Danish cohort of individuals with bipolar disorder and controls, we analysed the serum progranulin level (nbipolar=80, ncontrols=76) and five SNPs located within GRN and two SNPs near the SORT1 gene encoding sortilin, a progranulin scavenger receptor known to affect circulating progranulin levels (nbipolar=166, ncontrols=186).

Results: We observed no significant difference in the serum progranulin level between cases and controls and none of the analysed SNPs located within GRN or close to SORT1 were associated with bipolar disorder. Crude and adjusted (adjusted for case-control status, sex and age) linear regression analyses showed no effect of any SNPs on the serum progranulin level. However, we observed that the mean serum progranulin level in cases and controls is affected differently depending on the genotypes of two SNPs within GRN (rs2879096 and rs4792938).

Limitation: The sample size is relatively small and detailed information on medication and polarity of the disorder is not available. No correction for multiple testing was performed.

Conclusion: Our study suggests that the potential of progranulin as a biomarker for bipolar disorder is genotype dependent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YPG.0000000000000168DOI Listing
June 2017

Association between genes on chromosome 19p13.2 and panic disorder.

Psychiatr Genet 2016 12;26(6):287-292

aTranslational Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Clinical Medicine bDepartment of Biomedicine, Centre for Integrative Sequencing (iSEQ), Aarhus University cThe Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH), Aarhus dAmplexa Genetics A/S eDepartment of Clinical Genetics, University of Southern Denmark, Odense fPsychosis Research Unit, Aarhus University Hospital, Risskov gLaboratory of Neural Plasticity, Department of Neuroscience and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen hCentre of Psychiatry Amager, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark iDepartment of Psychiatry, The National Hospital, The Faroe Islands jDepartment of Translational Research in Psychiatry, Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry, Munich, Germany.

Panic disorder (PD) is a severe and disabling mental disorder, which is moderately heritable. In a previous study, we carried out a genome-wide association study using patients with PD and control individuals from the isolated population of the Faroe Islands and identified chromosome 19p13.2 as a candidate region. To further investigate this chromosomal region for association with PD, we analysed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in three candidate genes - small-nuclear RNA activating complex, polypeptide 2 (SNAPC2), mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MAP2K7) and leucine-rich repeat containing 8 family, member E (LRRC8E) - these genes have previously been directly or indirectly implicated in other mental disorders. A total of 511 patients with PD and 1029 healthy control individuals from the Faroe Islands, Denmark and Germany were included in the current study. SNPs covering the gene region of SNAPC2, MAP2K7 and LRRC8E were genotyped and tested for association with PD. In the Faroese cohort, rs7788 within SNAPC2 was significantly associated with PD, whereas rs3745383 within LRRC8E was nominally associated. No association was observed between the analysed SNPs and PD in the Danish cohorts. In the German women, we observed a nominal association between rs4804833 within MAP2K7 and PD. We present further evidence that chromosome 19p13.2 may harbour candidate genes that contribute towards the risk of developing PD. Moreover, the implication of the associated genes in other mental disorders may indicate shared genetic susceptibility between mental disorders. We show that associated variants may be sex specific, indicating the importance of carrying out a sex-specific association analysis of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/YPG.0000000000000147DOI Listing
December 2016

Association analyses of depression and genes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis.

Acta Neuropsychiatr 2017 Feb 6;29(1):59-64. Epub 2016 Jun 6.

2The Lundbeck Foundation Initiative for Integrative Psychiatric Research (iPSYCH),Aarhus,Denmark.

Objective: Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis has been reported in depression. The aim was to investigate the potential association between depression and seven genes regulating or interfering with the HPA axis, including the gene encoding angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).

Methods: In total, 78 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one insertion/deletion polymorphism were genotyped. The study included 408 individuals with depression and 289 controls. In a subset of cases, the interaction between genetic variants and stressful life events (SLEs) was investigated.

Results: After quality control, 68 genetic variants were left for analyses. Four of nine variants within ACE were nominally associated with depression and a gene-wise association was likewise observed. However, none of the SNPs located within AVP, CRH, CRHR1, CRHR2, FKBP5 or NC3C1 were associated with depression. One nominally significant interaction, most likely due to chance, was identified.

Conclusion: The results indicate that ACE could be a potential candidate gene for depression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/neu.2016.26DOI Listing
February 2017

Heterozygosity for an in-frame deletion causes glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in a patient detected by newborn screening: investigation of the effect of the mutant allele.

J Inherit Metab Dis 2012 Sep 10;35(5):787-96. Epub 2012 Jan 10.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital and Aarhus University, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark.

A patient with suspected glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA-1) was detected by newborn screening. GA-1 is known as an autosomal recessively inherited disease due to defects in the gene coding for glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH), a mitochondrial enzyme involved in the catabolism of the amino acids hydroxylysine, lysine and tryptophan. DNA and cDNA sequencing revealed a 18 bp deletion (c.553_570del18) resulting in deletion of six amino acids (p.Gly185_Ser190del) in one allele and no sequence changes in the other allele. Confirmatory biochemical analysis of blood, urine and cultured fibroblasts from the proband were consistent with a mild biochemical GA-1 phenotype. Recombinant expression of the mutant variant in E. coli showed that the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein displayed severely decreased assembly into tetramers and enzyme activity. To discover a potential dominant negative effect of the mutant protein, we engineered a prokaryotic expression system in which expression of a wild type and a mutant GCDH allele is controlled by separately inducible promoters. These cells displayed decreased levels of GCDH tetramer and enzyme activity when expressing both the wild type and the mutant GCDH variant protein compared to the situation when only the wild type allele was expressed. Further experiments suggest that the major impact of the GCDH-(p.Gly185_Ser190del) protein in heterozygous cells consists of hampering the assembly of wild type GCDH into tetramers. Our experimental data are consistent with the hypothesis that heterozygosity for this mutation confers a dominant negative effect resulting in a GCDH enzyme activity that is significantly lower than the expected 50%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10545-011-9437-yDOI Listing
September 2012

Periostin is a collagen associated bone matrix protein regulated by parathyroid hormone.

Matrix Biol 2010 Sep 21;29(7):594-601. Epub 2010 Jul 21.

Department of Biochemistry, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, PO Box 1112 Blindern, University of Oslo, N-0317 Oslo, Norway.

Periostin is a 90 kDa secreted protein, originally identified in murine osteoblast-like cells, with a distribution restricted to collagen-rich tissues and certain tumors. In this paper, we first analyzed the expression of periostin mRNA and protein in human fetal osteoblasts (hFOB) and human osteosarcoma (hOS) cell lines by RT real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The hFOB 1.19 and three hOS (MHM, KPDXM and Eggen) showed highly variable periostin mRNA levels and protein. Second, we showed that the expression of periostin mRNA was inversely related to the cells' abilities to differentiate and mineralize. Then, we investigated the regulation of periostin mRNA in hFOB after siRNA treatment and in mouse primary osteoblasts (mOB) treated with PTH. Knock-down of periostin mRNA, down-regulated PTHrP, but did not affect the expression of other important markers of differentiation such as RUNX2. In addition, periostin mRNA was transiently up-regulated in osteoblasts by PTH. Finally, the localization of periostin and its partially co-localization with collagen 1a1 mRNA and protein was studied in mouse embryos and postnatal pups using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. In conclusion, the present study provides novel observations related to the expression, distribution and regulation of periostin in bone cells and extracellular matrix.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matbio.2010.07.001DOI Listing
September 2010

Inactivation of the hereditary spastic paraplegia-associated Hspd1 gene encoding the Hsp60 chaperone results in early embryonic lethality in mice.

Cell Stress Chaperones 2010 Nov;15(6):851-63

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.

The mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonin plays an important role in sustaining cellular viability. Its dysfunction is related to inherited forms of the human diseases spastic paraplegia and hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. However, it is unknown whether the requirement for Hsp60 is neuron specific or whether a complete loss of the protein will impair mammalian development and postnatal survival. In this study, we describe the generation and characterization of a mutant mouse line bearing an inactivating gene-trap insertion in the Hspd1 gene encoding Hsp60. We found that heterozygous mice were born at the expected ratio compared to wild-type mice and displayed no obvious phenotype deficits. Using quantitative reverse transcription PCR, we found significantly decreased levels of the Hspd1 transcript in all of the tissues examined, demonstrating that the inactivation of the Hspd1 gene is efficient. By Western blot analysis, we found that the amount of Hsp60 protein, compared to either cytosolic tubulin or mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1/porin, was decreased as well. The expression of the nearby Hspe1 gene, which encodes the Hsp10 co-chaperonin, was concomitantly down regulated in the liver, and the protein levels in all tissues except the brain were reduced. Homozygous Hspd1 mutant embryos, however, died shortly after implantation (day 6.5 to 7.5 of gestation, Theiler stages 9–10). Our results demonstrate that Hspd1 is an essential gene for early embryonic development in mice, while reducing the amount of Hsp60 by inactivation of one allele of the gene is compatible with survival to term as well as postnatal life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12192-010-0194-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3024079PMC
November 2010

Calmodulin-dependent kinase 1beta is expressed in the epiphyseal growth plate and regulates proliferation of mouse calvarial osteoblasts in vitro.

Bone 2008 Oct 20;43(4):700-7. Epub 2008 Jun 20.

Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The Ca(2+)/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) family is activated in response to elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and includes CaMK1 (as well as CaMK2 and CaMK4), which exists as different isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma and delta). CaMK1 is present in several cell types and may be involved in various cellular processes, but its role in bone is unknown. In situ hybridization was used to determine the spatial and temporal expression of CaMK1beta during endochondral bone development in mouse embryos and newborn pups. The cellular and subcellular distribution of CaMK1 was assessed by quantitative immunogold electron microscopy (EM). The role of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts was investigated by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to silence its expression, while in parallel monitoring cell proliferation and levels of skeletogenic transcripts. cRNA in situ hybridization and EM studies show that CaMK1beta is mainly located in developing long bones and vertebrae (from ED14.5 until day 10 after birth), with highest expression in epiphyseal growth plate hypertrophic chondrocytes. By RT-PCR, we show that CaMK1beta2 (but not beta1) is expressed in mouse hind limbs (in vivo) and mouse calvarial osteoblasts (in vitro), and also in primary human articular chondrocyte cultures. Silencing of CaMK1beta in mouse calvarial osteoblasts by siRNA significantly decreases osteoblast proliferation and c-Fos gene expression (approx. 50%), without affecting skeletogenic markers for more differentiated osteoblasts (i.e. Cbfa1/Runx2, Osterix (Osx), Osteocalcin (Oc), Alkaline phosphatase (Alp) and Osteopontin (Opn)). These results identify CaMK1beta as a novel regulator of osteoblast proliferation, via mechanisms that may at least in part involve c-Fos, thus implicating CaMK1beta in the regulation of bone and cartilage development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2008.06.006DOI Listing
October 2008

The Hsp60-(p.V98I) mutation associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG13 compromises chaperonin function both in vitro and in vivo.

J Biol Chem 2008 Jun 8;283(23):15694-700. Epub 2008 Apr 8.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, Arhus 8200, Denmark.

We have previously reported the association of a mutation (c.292G > A/p.V98I) in the human HSPD1 gene that encodes the mitochondrial Hsp60 chaperonin with a dominantly inherited form of hereditary spastic paraplegia. Here, we show that the purified Hsp60-(p.V98I) chaperonin displays decreased ATPase activity and exhibits a strongly reduced capacity to promote folding of denatured malate dehydrogenase in vitro. To test its in vivo functions, we engineered a bacterial model system that lacks the endogenous chaperonin genes and harbors two plasmids carrying differentially inducible operons with human Hsp10 and wild-type Hsp60 or Hsp10 and Hsp60-(p.V98I), respectively. Ten hours after shutdown of the wild-type chaperonin operon and induction of the Hsp60-(p.V98I)/Hsp10 mutant operon, bacterial cell growth was strongly inhibited. No globally increased protein aggregation was observed, and microarray analyses showed that a number of genes involved in metabolic pathways, some of which are essential for robust aerobic growth, were strongly up-regulated in Hsp60-(p.V98I)-expressing bacteria, suggesting that the growth arrest was caused by defective folding of some essential proteins. Co-expression of Hsp60-(p.V98I) and wild-type Hsp60 exerted a dominant negative effect only when the chaperonin genes were expressed at relatively low levels. Based on our in vivo and in vitro data, we propose that the major effect of heterozygosity for the Hsp60-(p.V98I) mutation is a moderately decreased activity of chaperonin complexes composed of mixed wild-type and Hsp60-(p.V98I) mutant subunits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M800548200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3259655PMC
June 2008

A novel mutation in the HSPD1 gene in a patient with hereditary spastic paraplegia.

J Neurol 2007 Jul 10;254(7):897-900. Epub 2007 Apr 10.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences Aarhus University Hospital , Skejby Sygehus, Brendstrupgaardsvej, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark,

A mutation in the HSPD1 gene has previously been associated with an autosomal dominant form of spastic paraplegia in a French family. HSPD1 encodes heat shock protein 60, a molecular chaperone involved in folding and quality control of mitochondrial proteins. In the present work we have investigated 23 Danish index patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) for mutations in the HSPD1 gene. One patient was found to be heterozygous for a c.1381C > G missense mutation encoding the mutant heat shock protein 60 p.Gln461Glu. The mutation was also present in two unaffected brothers, but absent in 400 unrelated Danish individuals. We found that the function of the p.Gln461Glu heat shock protein 60 was mildly compromised. The c.1381C > G mutation likely represents a novel low-penetrance HSP allele.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-006-0470-yDOI Listing
July 2007

Single-nucleotide variations in the genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone system and their disease-causing potential.

J Hum Genet 2007 27;52(1):56-65. Epub 2006 Oct 27.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Skejby Sygehus, Aarhus University Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Brendstrupgaardsvej 100, 8200, Århus N, Denmark.

Molecular chaperones assist protein folding, and variations in their encoding genes may be disease-causing in themselves or influence the phenotypic expression of disease-associated or susceptibility-conferring variations in many different genes. We have screened three candidate patient groups for variations in the HSPD1 and HSPE1 genes encoding the mitochondrial Hsp60/Hsp10 chaperone complex: two patients with multiple mitochondrial enzyme deficiency, 61 sudden infant death syndrome cases (MIM: #272120), and 60 patients presenting with ethylmalonic aciduria carrying non-synonymous susceptibility variations in the ACADS gene (MIM: *606885 and #201470). Besides previously reported variations we detected six novel variations: two in the bidirectional promoter region, and one synonymous and three non-synonymous variations in the HSPD1 coding region. One of the non-synonymous variations was polymorphic in patient and control samples, and the rare variations were each only found in single patients and absent in 100 control chromosomes. Functional investigation of the effects of the variations in the promoter region and the non-synonymous variations in the coding region indicated that none of them had a significant impact. Taken together, our data argue against the notion that the chaperonin genes play a major role in the investigated diseases. However, the described variations may represent genetic modifiers with subtle effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10038-006-0080-7DOI Listing
March 2007

Genomic structure of the human mitochondrial chaperonin genes: HSP60 and HSP10 are localised head to head on chromosome 2 separated by a bidirectional promoter.

Hum Genet 2003 Jan 16;112(1):71-7. Epub 2002 Oct 16.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences and Arhus University Hospital, Arhus, Denmark.

Although the mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60 and its co-chaperonin Hsp10 have received great attention in the last decade, and it has been proposed that mutations and variations in these genes may be implicated in genetic diseases, the genome structure of the human HSP60 and HSP10 genes (also known as HSPD1 and HSPE1, respectively) has not been firmly established. The picture has been confused by the presence of many pseudogenes of both HSP60 and HSP10 and the long surviving assumption that the HSP60 gene is intron-less. An earlier report on the partial sequence of the human HSP60 gene and the presence of introns has largely been overlooked. We present the full sequence of the human HSP60 and HSP10 genes. The two genes are linked head to head comprising approximately 17 kb and consist of 12 and 4 exons, respectively. The first exon of the human HSP60 gene is non-coding and the first exon of the human HSP10 gene ends with the start codon. Analysis of human and mouse expressed sequence tag sequences in GenBank indicates that alternative splicing occurs resulting in HSP60 gene transcripts with different exon-1 sequences. By sequencing of the exons, the exon/intron boundaries and the region between the two genes in 10 Danish individuals (five couples), nine nucleotide variations and one intronic deletion have been detected that, by subsequent typing of one child from each couple, have been assigned to five haplotypes. The human HSP60 gene has been localised, by radiation hybrid mapping, between markers AFMA121YH1 and WI-10756 on chromosome 2. This location and the position of two homologous fragments in the Human Genome Assembly are consistent with cytogenetic position 2q33.1. Using a luciferase-reporter assay, we demonstrate that the region between the two genes functions as a bi-directional promoter. The transcriptional activity of the promoter fragment in the HSP60 direction is approximately twice that in the HSP10 direction under normal growth conditions and, upon heat-shock, promoter activity in either direction increased by a factor of approximately 12. One of the nucleotide variations detected is localised in a putative SP1-transcription-factor-binding site in the bidirectional promoter region and analysis of the transcriptional activity of the promoter fragment with this variation has shown that it does not affect transcription levels both with and without heat-shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00439-002-0837-9DOI Listing
January 2003

Hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG13 is associated with a mutation in the gene encoding the mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60.

Am J Hum Genet 2002 May 15;70(5):1328-32. Epub 2002 Mar 15.

Research Unit for Molecular Medicine, Arhus University Hospital and Faculty of Health Sciences, Arhus, Denmark.

SPG13, an autosomal dominant form of pure hereditary spastic paraplegia, was recently mapped to chromosome 2q24-34 in a French family. Here we present genetic data indicating that SPG13 is associated with a mutation, in the gene encoding the human mitochondrial chaperonin Hsp60, that results in the V72I substitution. A complementation assay showed that wild-type HSP60 (also known as "HSPD1"), but not HSP60 (V72I), together with the co-chaperonin HSP10 (also known as "HSPE1"), can support growth of Escherichia coli cells in which the homologous chromosomal groESgroEL chaperonin genes have been deleted. Taken together, our data strongly indicate that the V72I variation is the first disease-causing mutation that has been identified in HSP60.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/339935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC447607PMC
May 2002