Publications by authors named "Marisol Lila"

51 Publications

Hormonal Differences in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators When They Cope with Acute Stress: A Pilot Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 28;18(11). Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 València, Spain.

Background: Only a few studies have paid attention to the ability of perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPVAW) against women to cope with acute stress, including hormonal parameters. In fact, previous studies assessed how salivary testosterone (Tsal) and cortisol (Csal) changed after coping with an acute emotional stressor (directly related to IPVAW), and they concluded that an imbalance between the two hormones might be characteristic of these men. Nevertheless, they neglected to examine the role of other hormones, such as salivary oxytocin (OXsal), which also seemed to play an important role in behavioral regulation, and whether this response could be generalized to other types of stress not directly related to IPVAW.

Methods: This study aims to assess whether IPVAW perpetrators ( = 19) present differential hormonal (Tsal, Csal, OXsal and their ratios) and psychological state (anxiety, anger, and general affect) responses when coping with an acute cognitive laboratory stressor (a set of neuropsychological tests performed in front of an expert committee) in comparison with non-violent men ( = 16). This quasi-experimental study also assessed whether the psychological state variables drive this different hormonal response.

Results: Our results revealed that IPVAW perpetrators had lower Csal and higher Tsal/Csal ratio levels during the post-task period, as well as higher total levels (average) of OXsal than controls. We also found that, only in IPVAW perpetrators, high levels of baseline anxiety and negative affect were related to high rises in Csal during the stress task.

Conclusions: These data present a background showing that IPVAW perpetrators and non-violent men cope differently with stress. These findings might help to identify idiosyncratic profiles of IPVAW perpetrators that can then be employed to establish their therapeutic needs. Moreover, we reinforced the importance of combining biological markers with self-reports, thus increasing the reliability of these forensic assessments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18115831DOI Listing
May 2021

The Spatial Overlap of Police Calls Reporting Street-Level and Behind-Closed-Doors Crime: A Bayesian Modeling Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 May 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Traditionally, intimate-partner violence has been considered a special type of crime that occurs , with different characteristics from street-level crime. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial overlap of police calls reporting street-level and behind-closed-doors crime. We analyzed geocoded police calls in the 552 census-block groups of the city of Valencia, Spain, related to street-level crime ( = 26,624) and to intimate-partner violence against women ( = 11,673). A Bayesian joint model was run to analyze the spatial overlap. In addition, two Bayesian hierarchical models controlled for different neighborhood characteristics to analyze the relative risks. Results showed that 66.5% of the total between-area variation in risk of reporting street-level crime was captured by a shared spatial component, while for reporting IPVAW the shared component was 91.1%. The log relative risks showed a correlation of 0.53, with 73.6% of the census-block groups having either low or high values in both outcomes, and 26.4% of the areas with mismatched risks. Maps of the shared component and the relative risks are shown to detect spatial differences. These results suggest that although there are some spatial differences between police calls reporting street-level and behind-closed-doors crime, there is also a shared distribution that should be considered to inform better-targeted police interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161302PMC
May 2021

Chronic high risk of intimate partner violence against women in disadvantaged neighborhoods: An eight-year space-time analysis.

Prev Med 2021 Jul 20;148:106550. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

We conducted a small-area ecological longitudinal study to analyze neighborhood contextual influences on the spatio-temporal variations in intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) risk in a southern European city over an eight-year period. We used geocoded data of IPVAW cases with associated protection orders (n = 5867) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2018). The city's 552 census block groups were used as the neighborhood units. Neighborhood-level covariates were: income, education, immigrant concentration, residential instability, alcohol outlet density, and criminality. We used a Bayesian autoregressive approach to spatio-temporal disease mapping. Neighborhoods with low levels of income and education and high levels of residential mobility and criminality had higher relative risk of IPVAW. Spatial patterns of high risk of IPVAW persisted over time during the eight-year period analyzed. Areas of stable low risk and with increasing or decreasing risk were also identified. Our findings link neighborhood disadvantage to the existence and persistence over time of spatial inequalities in IPVAW risk, showing that high risk of IPVAW can become chronic in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Our analytic approach provides specific risk estimates at the small-area level that are informative for intervention purposes, and can be useful to assess the effectiveness of prevention efforts in reducing IPVAW.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2021.106550DOI Listing
July 2021

A Short Measure of Acceptability of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women: Development and Validation of the A-IPVAW-8 Scale.

Assessment 2021 Mar 18:10731911211000110. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Attitudes of acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) are considered one of the main risk factors of this type of violence. The aim of this study is to develop and validate a short version of the acceptability of IPVAW scale, the A-IPVAW-8, for large scale studies where space and time are limited. A panel of experts were asked to assess item content validity. Two samples were recruited to assemble an 8-item short version of the scale using automated test assembly, and to reassess the psychometric properties of the A-IPVAW-8 in an independent sample. Results showed that the A-IPVAW-8 had adequate internal consistency (α = .72-.76, ω = .73-.81), a stable one-factor latent structure (comparative fit index [CFI] = 0.94, Tucker-Lewis index = 0.92, root mean square error of approximation = 0.077), validity evidences based on its relationships to other variables in both samples, and was also invariant across gender (ΔCFI < |0.02|). This study provides a short, easy-to-use tool to evaluate attitudes of acceptability of IPVAW for large scale studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10731911211000110DOI Listing
March 2021

Representation of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in Swedish News Media: A Discourse Analysis.

Violence Against Women 2020 Jul 27:1077801220940403. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Despite being rated as some of the world's most gender equal countries, Sweden and neighboring Nordic nations show high rates of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). As the news media contribute to the shaping of public attitudes, this article pursues a two-step discourse analysis of how IPVAW was represented in seven Swedish newspapers during 2018. Although an individualistic discourse on IPVAW was found to be most prevalent, articles where perpetrators were presented as non-Swedish more frequently contained a structural framing of IPVAW. This confirms previously noted tendencies toward individualization and othering of IPVAW in Sweden.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077801220940403DOI Listing
July 2020

Alexithymia as a Predictor of Arousal and Affect Dysregulations when Batterers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Cope with Acute Stress.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2020 Apr 1;10(4). Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibañez, 21-46010 Valencia, Spain.

Empirical research has stated that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) might underlie intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) perpetration. Even though there is a clear relationship between these two variables, it is still unknown how ADHD facilitates violence proneness. In this regard, psychophysiological variables such as skin conductance levels (SCL) might offer information about emotional regulation when individuals cope with stress. Furthermore, alexithymia traits might be a strong candidate in explaining the above-mentioned emotional dysregulations. Hence, we compared the SCL response to acute cognitive stress in IPVAW perpetrators with and without ADHD symptoms to that of controls (non-violent and unaffected), and we also assessed the presence of alexithymia traits and their role in emotional regulation. Our data point out that ADHD IPVAW perpetrators presented higher SCL and negative affect than controls, particularly during the recovery period. Moreover, ADHD IPVAW perpetrators showed higher self-reported alexithymia, and this variable was a good predictor of autonomic and psychological state dysregulations, even after controlling for the effects of alcohol and drug misuse. Therefore, our study reinforces the need to consider psychophysiological measurements when screening the therapeutic needs of IPVAW perpetrators, due to their relatively low cost and the significant contents of their results. Finally, we also highlight the key role of alexithymia in this violent population, which should be considered when designing cognitive intervention training coadjutant to current psychotherapies for IPVAW perpetrators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs10040070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226516PMC
April 2020

Ensuring the comparability of cross-national survey data on intimate partner violence against women: a cross-sectional, population-based study in the European Union.

BMJ Open 2020 03 4;10(3):e032231. Epub 2020 Mar 4.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Objectives: To ensure the cross-national comparability of the set of questions addressing physical and sexual intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) included in the European Union (EU) Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) survey. Once the measurement invariance of these measures is established, we aim to make appropriate and valid comparisons of the levels of physical and sexual IPVAW across the EU countries.

Design: Cross-sectional, population-based study.

Participants: Data were drawn from the survey conducted by the FRA on violence against women, including the responses of 42 002 adult women from the 28 countries of the EU.

Main Outcome Measures: The set of questions addressing lifetime prevalence of physical and sexual IPVAW used in the FRA survey. The psychometric properties (ie, reliability and validity) of these measures were examined, as well as their latent structure and their measurement invariance across the 28 EU countries.

Results: The physical and sexual IPVAW measures presented adequate internal consistency and validity evidence based on their relations to other variables in all countries. A latent two-factor structure was supported and scalar invariance was established across countries. Our results showed that the average levels of physical and sexual IPVAW were highest in Denmark, Finland, Sweden and UK compared with the rest of the EU countries. In many of the other countries the levels of these types of violence overlapped, especially in the case of sexual IPVAW.

Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that the set of questions addressing physical and sexual IPVAW included in the FRA survey can be compared across all EU countries, highlighting the importance of testing the measurement equivalence of the instruments used in large sociodemographic surveys in order to make valid cross-national comparisons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-032231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059519PMC
March 2020

Psychological intimate partner violence against women in the European Union: a cross-national invariance study.

BMC Public Health 2019 Dec 27;19(1):1739. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Avda. Blasco Ibañez 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Background: Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a worldwide public health problem. One of the most frequent forms of this type of violence in western societies is psychological IPVAW. According to the European Union (EU) Fundamental Rights Association (FRA) the prevalence of psychological IPVAW in the EU is 43%. However, the measurement invariance of the measure addressing psychological IPVAW in this survey has not yet been assessed.

Methods: The aim of this study is to ensure the cross-national comparability of this measure, by evaluating its measurement invariance across the 28 EU countries in a sample of 37,724 women, and to examine how the levels of this type of violence are distributed across the EU.

Results: Our results showed that the psychological IPVAW measure presented adequate psychometric properties (reliability and validity) in all countries. A latent structure of one factor was supported and scalar invariance was established in all countries. The average levels of psychological IPVAW were higher in countries like Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Sweden compared to the rest of the EU countries. In many of the other countries the levels of this type of violence overlapped.

Conclusion: Our findings underlined the importance of using appropriate statistical methods to make valid cross-national comparisons in large population surveys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-019-7998-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6935167PMC
December 2019

Long-Term Drug Misuse Increases the Risk of Cognitive Dysfunctions in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators: Key Intervention Targets for Reducing Dropout and Reoffending.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 10 9;16(20). Epub 2019 Oct 9.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco, Ibañez, 21 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is a major public health problem, with an important mortality rate in women across the world. In this regard, it has been well-established that drug misuse explains (at least in part) an increased risk of IPVAW perpetration. Even though alcohol is the most widely studied drug underlying IPVAW, other drugs, such as cannabis and cocaine also seem to be significant indicators of this type of violence. Nonetheless, little is known about mediators, such as cognitive domains that facilitate proneness to violence after drug consumption. Therefore, the primary objective of the present study was to compare drug misuse patterns and cognitive performance in a carefully selected sample of IPVAW perpetrators ( = 63) and a group of non-violent men (control group; = 39). Second, we also aimed to study the association between different patterns of drug misuse and cognitive performance and several facets of IPVAW perpetration (i.e., severity of injuries and type of aggression). Our results revealed that IPVAW perpetrators showed considerably higher levels of sustained drug misuse (alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, and heroin) for years and worse cognitive performance than controls. Moreover, the highest drug misuse sustained over time was related to the worst cognitive performance and the highest IPVAW severity. Finally, alcohol and cocaine seemed to be related to IPVAW and risk of reoffending. Whereas, cannabis, heroin, and MDMA were related to the existence of a previous criminal record (delinquency without violence). Hence, research in this field would help to develop coadjutant treatments and intervention packages to reduce drug misuse in the initial stages, which in turn would reduce cognitive impairments in IPVAW perpetrators. These expected improvements might produce an increase in treatment adherence and a decrease in the risk of future IPVAW reoffending.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203792DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6843147PMC
October 2019

The Importance of Considering Alexithymia during Initial Stages of Intimate Partner Violence Interventions to Design Adjuvant Treatments.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 10 1;16(19). Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Empirical evidence supports that individuals with alexithymia might be prone to certain types of violence, such as intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW). Moreover, considering that alexithymia is directly involved in behavior regulation, problems due to identifying and regulating emotional states might be postulated as responsible, at least in part, for the success of psychotherapeutic treatments designed for decreasing the future risk of reoffending. Therefore, we assessed whether alexithymia was a good predictor of the discontinuation of treatment (dropout) and the risk of recidivism during the initial stages of intervention in a sample of men convicted of IPVAW perpetration ( = 118), while controlling for potential confounding variables (i.e., socio-demographic characteristics, impulsivity, and drug misuse). Our data demonstrate that high alexithymic traits lead to dropout and a high risk of recidivism during the initial stages of treatment, remaining significant even after including potential confounding variables. Even though impulsivity and drug misuse increase the amount of explained variance, none of them moderates the association of alexithymia with dropout and/or reoffending. It should be noted that this study identified alexithymia as a direct modulator of violence due to its effects on discontinuing IPVAW treatment during initial stages. Therefore, as we gain knowledge analyzing the relationships between previously mentioned factors, it could be applied to develop valid screening methods along with strengthening current rehabilitation programs and designing adjuvant treatments to increase their effectiveness.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16193695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801596PMC
October 2019

Does country-level gender equality explain individual risk of intimate partner violence against women? A multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy (MAIHDA) in the European Union.

Eur J Public Health 2020 04;30(2):293-299

Research Unit of Social Epidemiology, CRC, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.

Background: Gender equality is widely accepted as an important explanatory factor for the occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) against women. However, the relationship is not straightforward, as high country-level gender equality is not always associated with lower IPV prevalence. We apply 'multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy' (MAIHDA) to (i) quantify the extent to which the country of residence determines individual risk of IPV and (ii) investigate the association between country-level gender equality and individual experience of IPV, and to which extent this association explains the observed between-country differences.

Methods: Using data from the 2012 European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights survey on violence against women we applied MAIHDA to analyse experiences of physical and sexual IPV among 42 000 women living in the EU. We fitted three consecutive models, and calculated specific individual contextual effects (measures of association) as well as the general contextual effects (measures of variance) and the discriminatory accuracy (DA).

Results: Our findings show that the relationship between experiences of IPV and country-level gender equality is weak and heterogeneous. The general contextual effect is small and the DA is low, indicating that country boundaries are rather irrelevant for understanding the individual risk of IPV.

Conclusions: Findings from the present study do not imply that that gender equality is unimportant in relation to IPV, but rather that information on country of residence or country-level gender equality does not discriminate very well with regards to individual experiences of IPV in cross-national comparisons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckz162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183361PMC
April 2020

Dropout from Court-Mandated Intervention Programs for Intimate Partner Violence Offenders: The Relevance of Alcohol Misuse and Cognitive Impairments.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 07 6;16(13). Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

There is considerable interest in offering insight into the mechanisms that might explain why certain perpetrators of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) drop out of interventions. Although several socio-demographic variables and attitudes towards IPVAW have been proposed as risk factors for IPVAW perpetrators' dropout, less attention has been paid to alcohol misuse, and its interactions with empathic and cognitive deficits, in the discontinuation of the treatment. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to compare the profile of a carefully selected sample of IPVAW perpetrators, divided into four groups: those who completed the intervention with low ( = 267) and high alcohol consumption ( = 67); and those who dropped out before the intervention ended with low ( = 62).and high alcohol consumption ( = 27). Furthermore, we also studied the initial risk before the intervention started and the official IPVAW recidivism during the first year after the intervention ended. Our results revealed that IPVAW perpetrators, especially those who did not complete the intervention and had high alcohol consumption/alcohol misuse, were less accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and presented more errors and perseverative errors than those who completed the intervention. These differences were particularly marked in comparison with those who showed less alcohol consumption. Furthermore, the first group also presented the highest risk (assessed by therapists) and official recidivism rate (official records). Conversely, the lowest rate of IPVAW reoffending was presented by IPVAW treatment completers with low alcohol consumption. Hence, our study identifies different targets that should be addressed during the initial stages of interventions in order to prevent or reduce IPVAW dropout, which in turn might reduce violence recidivism in the long term through their effects on emotional information processing and behavioural regulation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16132402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6651492PMC
July 2019

Prevalence of intimate partner violence against women in Sweden and Spain: A psychometric study of the 'Nordic paradox'.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0217015. Epub 2019 May 16.

Unit for Social Epidemiology, University of Lund, Malmö, Sweden.

The high prevalence of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) in countries with high levels of gender equality has been defined as the "Nordic paradox". In this study we compared physical and sexual IPVAW prevalence data in two countries exemplifying the Nordic paradox: Sweden (N = 1483) and Spain (N = 1447). Data was drawn from the European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights Survey on violence against women. To ascertain whether differences between these two countries reflect true differences in IPVAW prevalence, and to rule out the possibility of measurement bias, we conducted a set of analyses to ensure measurement equivalence, a precondition for appropriate and valid cross-cultural comparisons. Results showed that in both countries items were measuring two separate constructs, physical and sexual IPVAW, and that these factors had high internal consistency and adequate validity. Measurement equivalence analyses (i.e., differential item functioning, and multigroup confirmatory factor analysis) supported the comparability of data across countries. Latent means comparisons between the Spanish and the Swedish samples showed that scores on both the physical and sexual IPVAW factors were significantly higher in Sweden than in Spain. The effect sizes of these differences were large: 89.1% of the Swedish sample had higher values in the physical IPVAW factor than the Spanish average, and this percentage was 99.4% for the sexual IPVAW factor as compared to the Spanish average. In terms of probability of superiority, there was an 80.7% and 96.1% probability that a Swedish woman would score higher than a Spanish woman in the physical and the sexual IPVAW factors, respectively. Our results showed that the higher prevalence of physical and sexual IPVAW in Sweden than in Spain reflects actual differences and are not the result of measurement bias, supporting the idea of the Nordic paradox.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0217015PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522122PMC
February 2020

Acceptability of Intimate Partner Violence among Male Offenders: The Role of Set-Shifting and Emotion Decoding Dysfunctions as Cognitive Risk Factors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 04 30;16(9). Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Valencia 46010, Spain.

Attitudes towards the acceptability of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) contribute to an increased risk of IPVAW perpetration, and these attitudes are common among IPVAW offenders. Research suggests that IPVAW offenders present cognitive deficits related to information processing. Little is known, however, about how these deficits are related to the acceptability of IPVAW. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between specific cognitive deficits (i.e., deficits in attention switching, set-shifting, and emotion decoding abilities) and the acceptability of IPVAW in a sample of 84 IPVAW offenders. Results revealed that IPVAW offenders with deficits in attention switching, set-shifting, and emotion decoding abilities demonstrated greater acceptability of IPVAW, and these relationships remained significant after controlling for socio-demographic variables (i.e., age and educational level) and drug consumption. These results highlight the role of cognitive processes in maintaining attitudes of acceptability of IPVAW. Thus, the findings may guide professionals in developing specific intervention programs focused on improving cognitive abilities, in order to reduce the acceptability of IPVAW.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16091537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6539109PMC
April 2019

The Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Underlying Violence Proneness: Is It a Reliable Marker for Neurocriminology? A Systematic Review.

Behav Sci (Basel) 2019 Jan 15;9(1). Epub 2019 Jan 15.

Psychobiology Department, University of València, 46010 València, Spain.

There is growing scientific interest in understanding the biological mechanisms affecting and/or underlying violent behaviors in order to develop effective treatment and prevention programs. In recent years, neuroscientific research has tried to demonstrate whether the intrinsic activity within the brain at rest in the absence of any external stimulation (resting-state functional connectivity; RSFC) could be employed as a reliable marker for several cognitive abilities and personality traits that are important in behavior regulation, particularly, proneness to violence. This review aims to highlight the association between the RSFC among specific brain structures and the predisposition to experiencing anger and/or responding to stressful and distressing situations with anger in several populations. The scientific literature was reviewed following the PRISMA quality criteria for reviews, using the following digital databases: PubMed, PsycINFO, Psicodoc, and Dialnet. The identification of 181 abstracts and retrieval of 34 full texts led to the inclusion of 17 papers. The results described in our study offer a better understanding of the brain networks that might explain the tendency to experience anger. The majority of the studies highlighted that diminished RSFC between the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala might make people prone to reactive violence, but that it is also necessary to contemplate additional cortical (i.e. insula, gyrus [angular, supramarginal, temporal, fusiform, superior, and middle frontal], anterior and posterior cingulated cortex) and subcortical brain structures (i.e. hippocampus, cerebellum, ventral striatum, and nucleus centralis superior) in order to explain a phenomenon as complex as violence. Moreover, we also described the neural pathways that might underlie proactive violence and feelings of revenge, highlighting the RSFC between the OFC, ventral striatal, angular gyrus, mid-occipital cortex, and cerebellum. The results from this synthesis and critical analysis of RSFC findings in several populations offer guidelines for future research and for developing a more accurate model of proneness to violence, in order to create effective treatment and prevention programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/bs9010011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6359496PMC
January 2019

Could Alcohol Abuse Drive Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators' Psychophysiological Response to Acute Stress?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2018 12 3;15(12). Epub 2018 Dec 3.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, 46010 Valencia, Spain.

Proactively aggressive individuals have been shown to present a different pattern of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysregulation from that of individuals characterized by reactive violence. Although attempts have been made to classify intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators based on ANS reactivity to acute stress, subsequent studies have failed to replicate this classification. Notably, the proposed classification neglected the role of chronic alcohol abuse in ANS dysregulation and the fact that this dysregulation entails an abnormal stress response. The aim of the present study was to analyze the response profile (psychological state and ANS response) of groups of IPV perpetrators with high ( = 27) and low ( = 33)-risk alcohol use to an acute stressor, compared to controls ( = 35). All IPV perpetrators scored higher on executive dysfunctions and impulsivity and showed larger decreases in positive affect, less satisfaction, and a higher external locus of control after the stressor than controls. IPV perpetrators with low-risk alcohol use had higher skin conductance levels and breathing reactivity than controls, especially during preparatory, task, and recovery periods. This information could help to develop methods for increasing batterers' behavioral self-regulation, thus decreasing IPV recidivism risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6313658PMC
December 2018

Validation of the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Short Version with male intimate partner violence offenders.

Int J Clin Health Psychol 2018 May-Aug;18(2):152-161. Epub 2018 Mar 27.

University of Valencia, Spain.

The working alliance is a key element to increase intimate partner violence (IPV) offenders' motivation, adherence to treatment, and active participation in batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The objective of the present study is to assess the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Working Alliance Inventory-Observer Short Version (WAI-O-S) with a sample of IPV offenders. The sample was 140 men convicted for IPV and court-mandated to a community-based BIP. Inter-rater agreement and reliability were evaluated by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient. To test the latent structure a Bayesian confirmatory factor analysis approach was used. To test criterion-related validity, the WAI-O-S factorial scores were correlated to protherapeutic behavior, stage of change and motivation to change. The WAI-O-S showed an adequate reliability. Results from Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses showed two first-order factors ( and ), and a second-order factor () explaining the relationship between the first-order factors. Results also support the validity of this instrument. The availability of reliable and valid observational measure of the working alliance provides a useful tool to overcome self-report measurement limitations such as social desirability, deception, and denial among IPV offenders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2018.02.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225049PMC
March 2018

The importance of impulsivity and attention switching deficits in perpetrators convicted for intimate partner violence.

Aggress Behav 2019 03 25;45(2):129-138. Epub 2018 Nov 25.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

It has been stated that Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the likelihood of risky behavior such as intimate partner violence (IPV), but the cognitive mechanisms that facilitate or underlie these types of behavior remain unexplained. In this regard, several authors have established that impulsivity and inattentive symptoms might affect basic processes such as emotional decoding and set-shifting abilities, which are important processes for emotional and behavioral regulation. Hence, these symptoms entail a reduction in sensitivity to key contextual stimuli. Accordingly, the main aim of this study was to examine the involvement of impulsivity (assessed by self-reports) and attention switching impairments (assessed with the Attention Switching Task; AST), as well as the associations between these cognitive processes in facial emotion decoding (assessed by the eyes test) and cognitive flexibility impairments (measured by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, WCST) in a sample of IPV perpetrators (n = 89; mean age = 40) and a control group matched on socio-demographic characteristics (n = 39; mean age = 41). IPV perpetrators had higher trait impulsivity and greater attention switching costs than controls. Moreover, differences were also found between groups in facial expression decoding and WCST performance, with IPV perpetrators showing lower Eyes Test and WCST scores. Mainly, we observed that the ability to recognize facial expressions was poorer when individuals showed high impulsivity in both groups, but this association was only explained by deficits in attention switching in IPV perpetrators. Our research reinforces the importance of impulsivity and inattentive symptoms as targets for specific cognitive rehabilitation interventions designed to prevent the long-term IPV risk of recidivism.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21802DOI Listing
March 2019

Improving empathy with motivational strategies in batterer intervention programmes: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

Br J Clin Psychol 2019 Jun 21;58(2):125-139. Epub 2018 Oct 21.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Spain.

Objectives: Empathy (i.e., the ability to decode emotions, as well as cognitive and emotional empathy) is involved in moral reasoning, prosocial behaviour, social and emotional adequacy, mood and behaviour regulation. Hence, alterations in these functions could reduce behaviour control and the adoption of specific types of violence such as intimate partner violence (IPV). Although interventions for IPV perpetrators focus on reducing IPV risk factors and increasing protective factors to prevent this kind of violence, the study of the effectiveness of these programmes in promoting changes in empathy (cognitive and emotional) has been neglected.

Design: Hence, the main aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different modalities of IPV intervention programmes (Standard Batterer Intervention Programs [SBIP] vs. SBIP + Individualized Motivational Plan [IMP]) in promoting empathic improvements after both interventions.

Method: Participants were randomly assigned to receive SBIP (n = 40) or SBIP + IMP (n = 53). The effectiveness of the intervention in the total sample and the group effects were evaluated with general linear model repeated-measures ANOVA.

Results: Results revealed that only the IPV perpetrators who received the SBIP + IMP were more accurate in decoding emotional facial signals and presented better cognitive empathy (perspective taking) after the intervention programme.

Conclusions: Our study reinforces the view that different modalities of IPV intervention might lead to different cognitive outcomes after the intervention. Thus, these results may help professionals to develop specific intervention programmes focused on improving cognitive abilities in order to reduce IPV recidivism.

Practitioner Points: Interventions for batterers' neglected empathic changes after these programmes. Not enough randomized controlled trials for these kinds of interventions. An improvement in the ability to decode emotions after the intervention programme. An improvement in cognitive empathy (perspective taking) after the intervention programme. Different modalities of IPV intervention might lead to different cognitive outcomes after the intervention.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjc.12204DOI Listing
June 2019

The Willingness to Intervene in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women (WI-IPVAW) Scale: Development and Validation of the Long and Short Versions.

Front Psychol 2018 17;9:1146. Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Willingness to intervene when one becomes aware of a case of intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) reflects the level of tolerance and acceptance of this type of violence in society. Increasing the likelihood of intervention to help victims of IPVAW is also a target for prevention strategies aiming to increase informal social control of IPVAW. In this study, we present the development and validation of the Willingness to Intervene in Cases of Intimate Partner Violence (WI-IPVAW) scale. We report data for both the long and short versions of the scale. We analyzed the latent structure, the reliability and validity of the WI-IPVAW across four samples ( = 1648). Factor analyses supported a bifactor model with a general non-specific factor expressing willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW, and three specific factors reflecting different intervention preferences: a preference for setting the law enforcement process in motion ("calling the cops" factor), a preference for personal intervention ("personal involvement" factor), and a preference for non-intervention ("not my business" factor). Configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance across genders were supported. Two short versions of the scale, with nine and six items, respectively, were constructed on the base of quantitative and qualitative criteria. The long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW demonstrated both high reliability and construct validity, as they were strongly related to the acceptability of IPVAW, victim-blaming attitudes, perceived severity of IPVAW, and hostile sexism. These results confirm that both the long and short versions of the WI-IPVAW scale are psychometrically sound instruments to analyze willingness to intervene in cases of IPVAW in different settings and with different research needs (e.g., long versions for clinical and research settings, and short versions for large population surveys). The WI-IPVAW is also useful for assessing prevention policies and public education campaigns design to promote a more responsive social environment in cases of IPVAW, thus contributing to deter and reduce this major social and public health problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01146DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6056762PMC
July 2018

Neighborhood characteristics and violence behind closed doors: The spatial overlap of child maltreatment and intimate partner violence.

PLoS One 2018 7;13(6):e0198684. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

In this study, we analyze first whether there is a common spatial distribution of child maltreatment (CM) and intimate partner violence (IPV), and second, whether the risks of CM and IPV are influenced by the same neighborhood characteristics, and if these risks spatially overlap. To this end we used geocoded data of CM referrals (N = 588) and IPV incidents (N = 1450) in the city of Valencia (Spain). As neighborhood proxies, we used 552 census block groups. Neighborhood characteristics analyzed at the aggregated level (census block groups) were: Neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (neighborhood economic status, neighborhood education level, and policing activity), immigrant concentration, and residential instability. A Bayesian joint modeling approach was used to examine the spatial distribution of CM and IPV, and a Bayesian random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze the influence of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations of CM and IPV risks. For CM, 98% of the total between-area variation in risk was captured by a shared spatial component, while for IPV the shared component was 77%. The risks of CM and IPV were higher in neighborhoods characterized by lower levels of economic status and education, and higher levels of policing activity, immigrant concentration, and residential instability. The correlation between the log relative risk of CM and IPV was .85. Most census block groups had either low or high risks in both outcomes (with only 10.5% of the areas with mismatched risks). These results show that certain neighborhood characteristics are associated with an increase in the risk of family violence, regardless of whether this violence is against children or against intimate partners. Identifying these high-risk areas can inform a more integrated community-level response to both types of family violence. Future research should consider a community-level approach to address both types of family violence, as opposed to individual-level intervention addressing each type of violence separately.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198684PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5991672PMC
January 2019

Differential cognitive profiles of intimate partner violence perpetrators based on alcohol consumption.

Alcohol 2018 08 31;70:61-71. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Psychobiology Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Despite extensive evidence of heterogeneity in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator profiles, there has been little research into neuropsychological deficits that might help us understand differences within this violent population. Moreover, studies on this topic have not paid much attention to the role of alcohol abuse in neuropsychological domains of IPV perpetrators. Hence, the current study was designed to examine neuropsychological differences among individuals who have committed domestic violence with high (n = 28, HA) and low (n = 35, LA) levels of alcohol consumption, and non-violent individuals (n = 37) to establish differential neuropsychological profiles. An exhaustive neuropsychological assessment battery was employed which combined the computer-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery with pencil-and-paper measures. Compared to controls, HA IPV perpetrators had slower processing speed and significantly more impairments in attentional set-shifting or switch attention, working and long-term memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, decision-making, emotion decoding skills, and perspective taking. Furthermore, there were differences between IPV perpetrator subgroups in attentional set-shifting or switch attention and cognitive empathy, with HA IPV perpetrators displaying more severe impairments in both cognitive domains than LA IPV perpetrators. Finally, the LA IPV perpetrators had significantly more impairments in working and long-term memory, executive functioning, and emotion decoding skills than controls, but they did not differ in processing speed, attentional set-shifting or switch attention, decision making, or perspective taking. Thus, the current findings suggest that IPV perpetrators with neuropsychological difficulties, especially those who are heavy drinkers, may have the greatest need for cognitive interventions. These cognitive deficits could be employed as targets for developing specific cognitive rehabilitation programs adjuvant to psychotherapeutic intervention for IPV perpetrators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.01.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Differential cognitive profiles of intimate partner violence perpetrators based on alcohol consumption.

Alcohol 2018 08 31;70:61-71. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Psychobiology Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Despite extensive evidence of heterogeneity in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrator profiles, there has been little research into neuropsychological deficits that might help us understand differences within this violent population. Moreover, studies on this topic have not paid much attention to the role of alcohol abuse in neuropsychological domains of IPV perpetrators. Hence, the current study was designed to examine neuropsychological differences among individuals who have committed domestic violence with high (n = 28, HA) and low (n = 35, LA) levels of alcohol consumption, and non-violent individuals (n = 37) to establish differential neuropsychological profiles. An exhaustive neuropsychological assessment battery was employed which combined the computer-based Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery with pencil-and-paper measures. Compared to controls, HA IPV perpetrators had slower processing speed and significantly more impairments in attentional set-shifting or switch attention, working and long-term memory, cognitive flexibility, planning, decision-making, emotion decoding skills, and perspective taking. Furthermore, there were differences between IPV perpetrator subgroups in attentional set-shifting or switch attention and cognitive empathy, with HA IPV perpetrators displaying more severe impairments in both cognitive domains than LA IPV perpetrators. Finally, the LA IPV perpetrators had significantly more impairments in working and long-term memory, executive functioning, and emotion decoding skills than controls, but they did not differ in processing speed, attentional set-shifting or switch attention, decision making, or perspective taking. Thus, the current findings suggest that IPV perpetrators with neuropsychological difficulties, especially those who are heavy drinkers, may have the greatest need for cognitive interventions. These cognitive deficits could be employed as targets for developing specific cognitive rehabilitation programs adjuvant to psychotherapeutic intervention for IPV perpetrators.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.alcohol.2018.01.006DOI Listing
August 2018

Individualized motivational plans in batterer intervention programs: A randomized clinical trial.

J Consult Clin Psychol 2018 04;86(4):309-320

Department of Social Psychology.

Objective: Treatment compliance and motivation to change are among the main challenges to improving batterer intervention program (BIP) effectiveness. This study examined whether adding an individualized motivational plan (IMP) to a standard BIP (SBIP) increased intervention effectiveness relative to BIP alone.

Method: One hundred sixty males convicted of intimate partner violence were randomly assigned to receive 70 hr of either SBIP or SBIP plus IMP. The IMP is based on motivational interviewing, stages of change, and strength-based theory principles. We collected the data at baseline, at the end of the 9-month program and at 6-month follow-up. Final outcome was recidivism (recidivism data obtained from official databases, self-reported recidivism, and therapists' assessment of recidivism risk), and proximal outcomes included treatment compliance (dropout and intervention dose), and stage of change. We analyzed the results using both intent-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) approaches.

Results: Findings indicated that the SBIP plus IMP participants received significantly more intervention dose (R² = .08), finished the intervention in a more advanced stage of change (ITT, R² = .17; PP, R² = .22), reported less physical violence after treatment (ITT, odds ratio = .63; PP, odds ratio = .34), and had a higher reduction in recidivism risk (ITT, R² = .64; PP, R² = .56) than SBIP participants.

Conclusions: These results highlight the relevance of alternative approaches, including strategies to increase treatment compliance and motivation for change, in BIPs. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/ccp0000291DOI Listing
April 2018

Acceptability of Family Violence: Underlying Ties Between Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse.

J Interpers Violence 2020 09 12;35(17-18):3217-3236. Epub 2017 May 12.

University of Valencia, Spain.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse (CA) are two forms of family violence with shared qualities and risk factors, and are forms of violence that tend to overlap. Acceptability of violence in partner relationships is a known risk factor in IPV just as acceptability of parent-child aggression is a risk factor in CA. We hypothesized that these acceptability attitudes may be linked and represent the expression of a general, underlying nonspecific acceptance of violence in close family relationships. The sample involved 164 male IPV offenders participating in a batterer intervention program. Implicit measures, which assess constructs covertly to minimize response distortions, were administered to assess acceptability of partner violence against women and acceptability of parent-child aggression. To determine whether acceptability attitudes regarding both forms of violence were related to a higher order construct tapping general acceptance of family violence, Bayesian confirmatory factor analyses were conducted. Findings supported a hierarchical (bifactor) model with a general factor expressing a nonspecific acceptance of family violence, and two specific factors reflecting acceptability of violence in intimate partner and parent-child relationships, respectively. This hierarchical model supporting a general acceptance of violence in close family relationships can inform future research aiming to better understand the connections between IPV and CA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517707310DOI Listing
September 2020

More Likely to Dropout, but What if They Don't? Partner Violence Offenders With Alcohol Abuse Problems Completing Batterer Intervention Programs.

J Interpers Violence 2020 05 3;35(9-10):1958-1981. Epub 2017 Apr 3.

University of Valencia, Spain.

There is general consensus that alcohol abuse is a risk factor to be considered in batterer intervention programs. Intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems are more likely to dropout of batterer intervention programs. However, there is little research on intimate partner violence perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing batterer intervention programs. In this study, we analyze drop-out rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems and explore whether perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing a batterer intervention program differ from those who do not have alcohol abuse problems in a number of outcomes. The sample was 286 males convicted for intimate partner violence against women, attending a community-based batterer intervention program. Final (i.e., recidivism) and proximal (i.e., risk of recidivism, responsibility attributions, attitudes toward violence, sexism, psychological adjustment, and social integration) intervention outcomes were analyzed. Chi-square test, binary logistic regression, and one-way ANOVA were conducted. Results confirmed higher dropout rates among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems. Results also showed a reduction in alcohol abuse among perpetrators with alcohol abuse problems completing the batterer intervention program. Finally, results showed that, regardless of alcohol abuse problems, perpetrators who completed the batterer intervention program showed improvements in all intervention outcomes analyzed. Perpetrators both with and without alcohol abuse problems can show positive changes after completing an intervention program and, in this regard, the present study highlights the need to design more effective adherence strategies for intimate partner violence perpetrators, especially for those with alcohol abuse problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260517699952DOI Listing
May 2020

Mapping child maltreatment risk: a 12-year spatio-temporal analysis of neighborhood influences.

Int J Health Geogr 2017 10 18;16(1):38. Epub 2017 Oct 18.

Department of Social Psychology, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibáñez, 21, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Background: 'Place' matters in understanding prevalence variations and inequalities in child maltreatment risk. However, most studies examining ecological variations in child maltreatment risk fail to take into account the implications of the spatial and temporal dimensions of neighborhoods. In this study, we conduct a high-resolution small-area study to analyze the influence of neighborhood characteristics on the spatio-temporal epidemiology of child maltreatment risk.

Methods: We conducted a 12-year (2004-2015) small-area Bayesian spatio-temporal epidemiological study with all families with child maltreatment protection measures in the city of Valencia, Spain. As neighborhood units, we used 552 census block groups. Cases were geocoded using the family address. Neighborhood-level characteristics analyzed included three indicators of neighborhood disadvantage-neighborhood economic status, neighborhood education level, and levels of policing activity-, immigrant concentration, and residential instability. Bayesian spatio-temporal modelling and disease mapping methods were used to provide area-specific risk estimations.

Results: Results from a spatio-temporal autoregressive model showed that neighborhoods with low levels of economic and educational status, with high levels of policing activity, and high immigrant concentration had higher levels of substantiated child maltreatment risk. Disease mapping methods were used to analyze areas of excess risk. Results showed chronic spatial patterns of high child maltreatment risk during the years analyzed, as well as stability over time in areas of low risk. Areas with increased or decreased child maltreatment risk over the years were also observed.

Conclusions: A spatio-temporal epidemiological approach to study the geographical patterns, trends over time, and the contextual determinants of child maltreatment risk can provide a useful method to inform policy and action. This method can offer a more accurate description of the problem, and help to inform more localized prevention and intervention strategies. This new approach can also contribute to an improved epidemiological surveillance system to detect ecological variations in risk, and to assess the effectiveness of the initiatives to reduce this risk.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12942-017-0111-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5648468PMC
October 2017

Responsive versus Treatment-Resistant Perpetrators in Batterer Intervention Programs: Personal Characteristics and Stages of Change.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2017 2;24(6):936-950. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology and Sociology, University of Zaragoza, Spain.

This article aims to identify different personal characteristics in treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant perpetrators of intimate partner violence who completed a batterer intervention program (BIP). The sample consists of 105 perpetrators of intimate partner violence who were court-mandated to a community-based cognitive behavioral program. Perpetrators were classified by professionals as resistant or responsive to treatment based on the stage of change they reached upon completion of the program. The results show that before starting the intervention program, treatment-resistant perpetrators scored higher than treatment-responsive perpetrators in external responsibility attributions and attitudes toward violence in intimate relationships. No differences were found in personality disorders or psychological symptoms between the groups. However, longer program participation correlates with increasing differences between the two groups. The results suggest that targeting the personal characteristics which differentiate treatment-responsive perpetrators from treatment-resistant ones may help to increase the efficacy of BIPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2017.1347933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818265PMC
August 2017

Responsive versus Treatment-Resistant Perpetrators in Batterer Intervention Programs: Personal Characteristics and Stages of Change.

Psychiatr Psychol Law 2017 2;24(6):936-950. Epub 2017 Aug 2.

Department of Psychology and Sociology, University of Zaragoza, Spain.

This article aims to identify different personal characteristics in treatment-responsive and treatment-resistant perpetrators of intimate partner violence who completed a batterer intervention program (BIP). The sample consists of 105 perpetrators of intimate partner violence who were court-mandated to a community-based cognitive behavioral program. Perpetrators were classified by professionals as resistant or responsive to treatment based on the stage of change they reached upon completion of the program. The results show that before starting the intervention program, treatment-resistant perpetrators scored higher than treatment-responsive perpetrators in external responsibility attributions and attitudes toward violence in intimate relationships. No differences were found in personality disorders or psychological symptoms between the groups. However, longer program participation correlates with increasing differences between the two groups. The results suggest that targeting the personal characteristics which differentiate treatment-responsive perpetrators from treatment-resistant ones may help to increase the efficacy of BIPs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13218719.2017.1347933DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6818265PMC
August 2017

The 2D:4D Ratio as a Predictor of the Risk of Recidivism after Court-mandated Intervention Program for Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators.

J Forensic Sci 2017 May 1;62(3):705-709. Epub 2016 Dec 1.

Department of Psychobiology, University of Valencia, Avenida Blasco Ibáñez, 21, Valencia, 46010, Spain.

Differences in aggressive behavior could be partially explained by differential prenatal exposure to testosterone (T). A peripheral marker of prenatal T exposure is the 2D:4D ratio, which has shown a negative correlation with self-reported aggression in violent men. This study tested the direct association of the 2D:4D ratio with anger expression and the risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators after psychotherapeutic intervention program. The sample consisted of IPV perpetrators, whose 2D:4D ratio was measured before the intervention. Moreover, after the intervention, anger expression and risk of recidivism in IPV were assessed. Smaller 2D:4D ratio, especially of the right hand, was related to higher anger expression and risk of recidivism in IPV perpetrators. The contribution of this prenatal marker together with other psychobiological variables could play a key role in the propensity to react aggressively when coping with environmental demands.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13315DOI Listing
May 2017