Publications by authors named "Marisa Flavin"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Weekend Admission to Inpatient Rehabilitation Facilities Is Associated With Transfer to Acute Care in a Nationwide Sample of Patients With Stroke.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2020 01;99(1):1-6

From the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (SLS, RG, CS, JF, RZ, JCS); Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (SLS, CS, JF, RZ, JCS); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Colorado Children's Hospital, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (MF); Sumner Redstone Burn Center, Surgical Services, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (CMR); Shriners Hospitals for Children-Boston, Boston, Massachusetts (CMR); and Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (AS).

Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weekend versus weekday admission to an inpatient rehabilitation facility on the risk of acute care transfer in patients with stroke.

Design: This was a retrospective analysis using the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation, a national database comprising data from 70% of US inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A total of 1,051,436 adult (age ≥18 yrs) stroke cases were identified between 2002 and 2014 that met inclusion criteria. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between weekend (Friday-Sunday) versus weekday (Monday-Thursday) inpatient rehabilitation facility admission and transfer to acute care (primary outcome) and inpatient rehabilitation facility length of stay (secondary outcome), adjusting for relevant patient, medical, and facility variables. A secondary analysis examined acute care transfer from 2002 to 2009 before passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA), 2010 to 2012 post-Affordable Care Act, and 2013 to 2014 after implementation of the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

Results: Weekend inpatient rehabilitation facility admission was associated with increased odds of acute care transfer (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% confidence interval = 1.04-1.08) and slightly shorter inpatient rehabilitation facility length of stay (P < 0.001). Overall, the risk of acute care transfer decreased after the ACA and Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program.

Conclusions: Weekend admission to inpatient rehabilitation facility may pose a modest increase in the risk of transfer to acute care in patients with stroke.

To Claim Cme Credits: Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) Understand disparities in obesity rates among adolescents with mobility disabilities; (2) Describe limitations of current clinical screening methods of obesity in children with mobility disabilities; and (3) Identify potential alternatives for obesity screening in children with mobility disabilities.

Level: Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.The Association of Academic Physiatrists designates this Journal-based CME activity for a maximum of 1.0 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit(s)™. Physicians should only claim credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.
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January 2020

Hormonal Contraceptive Prescription in Young Women With Cerebral Palsy.

J Adolesc Health 2019 09 24;65(3):405-409. Epub 2019 Jun 24.

Division of Adolescent/Young Adult Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: The purpose of the study was to describe the prevalence and patterns of prescription of hormonal contraceptive medications to young women with cerebral palsy (CP) and determine if CP topography or ambulatory status was associated with the type of contraceptive prescribed.

Methods: Data were extracted by manual chart review for women with CP between the ages of 15 and 25 years who were seen at a tertiary pediatric hospital and a rehabilitation hospital between the years of 2011 and 2013. CP topography was defined as the number and pattern of limbs affected (hemiplegia, diplegia, triplegia, or quadriplegia), and ambulatory status was defined as whether a wheelchair was used for community mobility. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between patient age, CP topography, ambulatory status, and contraceptive prescription.

Results: Data were collected for 483 women with CP with an average age of 19 years (standard deviation: 3 years). One hundred thirty-one patients (27%) were prescribed hormonal contraceptives. Estrogen-progestin combined oral contraceptives were most frequently prescribed (73%). Prescription of hormonal contraceptives was not associated with CP topography (p = .95) or ambulatory status (p = .44); however, older subjects were more likely to be prescribed hormonal contraceptives (p = .01). There was no association detected between CP topography and contraceptive composition (p = .09) or between ambulatory status and contraceptive composition (p = .06). There was also no association detected between CP topography (p = .18) or ambulatory status (p = .09) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate prescription.

Conclusion: Ambulatory status and CP topography were not associated with the types of hormonal contraceptives prescribed in this cohort.
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September 2019

Predictors of Postoperative Rehabilitation Therapy Following Congenital Heart Surgery.

J Am Heart Assoc 2018 05 12;7(10). Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Background: Patients with congenital heart disease are at risk of motor, cognitive, speech, and feeding difficulties after cardiac surgery. Rehabilitation therapy could improve functional outcomes in this population if applied in the acute postcardiac surgical in-hospital stay. However, information on the types of acute postcardiac surgery therapy needs in children is scarce. Our goal was to describe rehabilitation therapy following congenital heart surgery and pre/intraoperative factors associated with need for therapy.

Methods And Results: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients <18 years undergoing heart surgery at our center from January 1, 2013 to January 31, 2015. Demographic, and pre-, intra-, and postoperative clinical and rehabilitation therapy (physical, occupational, speech, feeding therapy, and neurodevelopment intervention) data were collected. Need for rehabilitation therapy in the acute postoperative period, particularly following palliative repair, was the outcome variable in a multivariable logistic regression model to identify independent pre- and intraoperative factors associated with therapy. A total of 586 out of 1415 (41%) subjects received rehabilitation therapy postsurgery. Certain subgroups had increased rehabilitation therapy use such as neonates (80%). On multivariable analysis, palliative repair, prematurity, genetic syndrome, presurgical hospital stay of more than 1 day, and prolonged cardiopulmonary bypass time were independently associated with rehabilitation therapy.

Conclusions: Nearly half of patients who underwent post-congenital heart surgery received rehabilitation therapy. Frequency of use and types of therapy vary according to patient characteristics; however, certain pre- and intraoperative factors are associated with need for rehabilitation therapy, and may aid decision-making for appropriate resource allocation.
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May 2018

Patient perspectives on ipilimumab across the melanoma treatment trajectory.

Support Care Cancer 2017 07 1;25(7):2155-2167. Epub 2017 Mar 1.

Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 641 Lexington Ave., 7th floor, New York, NY, 10022, USA.

Purpose: Ipilimumab was the first FDA-approved agent for advanced melanoma to improve survival and represents a paradigm shift in melanoma and cancer treatment. Its unique toxicity profile and kinetics of treatment response raise novel patient education challenges. We assessed patient perceptions of ipilimumab therapy across the treatment trajectory.

Methods: Four patient cohorts were assessed at different time points relative to treatment initiation: (1) prior to initiation of ipilimumab (n = 10), (2) at weeks 10-12 before restaging studies (n = 11), (3) at week 12 following restaging studies indicating progression of disease (n = 10), and (4) at week 12 following restaging studies indicating either a radiographic response or disease stability (n = 10). Patients participated in a semistructured qualitative interview to assess their experiences with ipilimumab. Quality of life was assessed via the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General and its Melanoma-specific module.

Results: Perceived quality of life was comparable across cohorts, and a majority of the sample understood side effects from ipilimumab and the potential for a delayed treatment response. Patients without progression of disease following restaging studies at week 12 held more positive views regarding ipilimumab compared to patients who had progressed.

Conclusion: Patients generally regarded ipilimumab positively despite the risk of unique toxicities and potential for delayed therapeutic responses; however, those with progression expressed uncertainty regarding whether taking ipilimumab was worthwhile. Physician communication practices and patient education regarding realistic expectations for therapeutic benefit as well as unique toxicities associated with ipilimumab should be developed so that patients can better understand the possible outcomes from treatment.
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July 2017

Impact of NRAS mutations for patients with advanced melanoma treated with immune therapies.

Cancer Immunol Res 2015 Mar;3(3):288-295

Vanderbilt University Medical Center and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN.

Activating NRAS mutations are found in 15% to 20% of melanomas. Immune therapies have become a mainstay in advanced melanoma treatment. We sought to evaluate whether tumor genotype (e.g., NRAS mutations) correlates with benefit from immune therapy in melanoma. We identified 229 patients with melanoma treated with immune therapies [IL2, ipilimumab, or anti-programmed cell death-1/ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1)] at three centers and compared clinical outcomes following immune therapy for patients with or without NRAS mutations. Of the 229 patients with melanoma, 60 had NRAS mutation, 53 had BRAF mutation, and 116 had NRAS/BRAF wild type. The NRAS-mutant cohort had superior or a trend to superior outcomes compared with the other cohorts in terms of response to first-line immune therapy (28% vs. 16%, P = 0.04), response to any line of immune therapy (32% vs. 20%, P = 0.07), clinical benefit (response + stable disease lasting ≥ 24 weeks; 50% vs. 31%, P < 0.01), and progression-free survival (median, 4.1 vs. 2.9 months, P = 0.09). Benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 was particularly marked in the NRAS cohort (clinical benefit rate 73% vs. 35%). In an independent group of patient samples, NRAS-mutant melanoma had higher PD-L1 expression (although not statistically significant) compared with other genotypes (8/12 vs. 9/20 samples with ≥ 1% expression; 6/12 vs. 6/20 samples with ≥ 5% expression), suggesting a potential mechanism for the clinical results. This retrospective study suggests that NRAS mutations in advanced melanoma correlate with increased benefit from immune-based therapies compared with other genetic subtypes. If confirmed by prospective studies, this may be explained in part by high rates of PD-L1 expression.
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March 2015

Establishment of antitumor memory in humans using in vitro-educated CD8+ T cells.

Sci Transl Med 2011 Apr;3(80):80ra34

Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

Although advanced-stage melanoma patients have a median survival of less than a year, adoptive T cell therapy can induce durable clinical responses in some patients. Successful adoptive T cell therapy to treat cancer requires engraftment of antitumor T lymphocytes that not only retain specificity and function in vivo but also display an intrinsic capacity to survive. To date, adoptively transferred antitumor CD8(+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) have had limited life spans unless the host has been manipulated. To generate CTLs that have an intrinsic capacity to persist in vivo, we developed a human artificial antigen-presenting cell system that can educate antitumor CTLs to acquire both a central memory and an effector memory phenotype as well as the capacity to survive in culture for prolonged periods of time. We examined whether antitumor CTLs generated using this system could function and persist in patients. We showed that MART1-specific CTLs, educated and expanded using our artificial antigen-presenting cell system, could survive for prolonged periods in advanced-stage melanoma patients without previous conditioning or cytokine treatment. Moreover, these CTLs trafficked to the tumor, mediated biological and clinical responses, and established antitumor immunologic memory. Therefore, this approach may broaden the availability of adoptive cell therapy to patients both alone and in combination with other therapeutic modalities.
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April 2011